PRIMARY 5 THIRD TERM LESSON NOTE PLAN SOCIAL STUDIES

WKS TOPICS

1.Housing

2.Features of adequate housing

3.Population and housing

4. Personal hygiene and physical development

5. Physical fitness and population

6. Drug abuse

7. Prevention of drug abuse and life coping skills

8 Pollution

9. Natural Disaster.

10. Mechanized agriculture

11. Difference between man and woman

Week 1&2

Topic: HOUSING

Subtitle: TYPES OF HOUSING

Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to:

1 name five different types of houses.

2 explain how houses in some parts of Nigeria are different from those in other parts.

3 list some factors that affect types of houses.

4 explain the need for houses.

5 mention three agencies that help people to own houses.

 

6 list five reasons why everybody does not own a house

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of: charts and pictures showing the different types of house.

Resources and Materials: Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

.Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Content

TYPES OF HOUSE

People live in different types of houses. The following are some of them.

1, the mud house:

This has mud walls and a mud roof. The roof is usually flat. The entrance to the house is usually small. It is the traditional type of house in the northern part of Nigeria, where rainfall is not much.

 

2 The thatched house:

This is usually round and built in groups in a compound. The walls are built with grass. The roof is also made of grass. This is the traditional type of house of the Fulani people

3 The pointed-top house:

This is common in the eastern part of Nigeria. The roof is made of raffia palms or grass, and the walls are built with mud and sticks.

4.The storey building:

A storey building is a house with more than one floor. It usually contains more than one flat. The first floor in a storey building is called the ground floor, and the second becomes the first floor. Some buildings have about twenty-seven floors. A very tall storey building with many floors, is called a skyscraper or high-rise building.

5 The duplex:

A duplex is a storey building for use by a family. The ground floor usually contains the sitting room, the kitchen, one bedroom, a toilet and a bathroom. There is a staircase inside the house, which leads up from the ground floor to the top floor. The first floor usually contains only bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms. Some duplexes have another sitting room on the first floor, and this is used by the family.

6 The oblong house:

This is narrow and long, and is divided into several rooms. Almost all the rooms lead outside.

7.. The bungalow:

A bungalow does not have another building on top of it. Only one family usually lives in a bungalow. It has several rooms, and the toilet and bathroom are either inside or outside.

8 The brick house:

Brick houses are built with burnt bricks. They are not like the traditional mud houses. They are very modern. Sometimes, they are actually built with cement blocks, but the bricks are used to make them fanciful.

9 Glass and steel houses:

These are found mostly in large cities like Ibadan and Lagos. In many cases, they are used as offices by banks and other private organizations.

Housing agencies

Some people own houses and live in them. Some people own houses, but because they work in other places, they live in other people’s houses. People who do not yet have money to build their own houses rent houses built by either the government or other people.

Our government knows that people need to live in houses, yet many do not own any. This is why state governments and the federal government have agencies which help to provide houses for people. These agencies build houses in certain towns. People rent or buy these houses, and pay a little amount of money at a time. These government agencies are called housing corporations in some states, property development corporations in other states, and the

development and planning authority in other states.

The federal government has a bank called the Federal Mortgage Bank

. This bank gives loan to people who want to build houses. The loan is paid back

gradually, with a little interest. Interest is a small amount of money, which is added

to the actual amount borrowed. Loan enables people who have no money to build

their own houses.

Some large banks lend money to their customers and workers to build houses.

The United Bank for Africa and the Union Bank of Nigeria are examples of such

banks.

Some other finance houses also lend money to their customers to build houses.

Such finance houses are usually owned by individuals.

 

Solving the problems of housing

Government cannot provide houses for everybody. However, government can help more people to build their own houses. Government can also help to improve the quality of houses. There are several ways of doing these two things. They include the following:

1 Duties on building materials should be reduced, to make them cheaper.

2 People should be encouraged to use local materials, which may not cost as much as imported materials.

3 Government should provide land for people where there are already roads, gutters, water and electricity. This also lowers the cost of building houses by individuals.

4 The Town Planning Authority should draw good plans and enforce them. This way, people will build good houses set out in good order, with playing and recreation areas.

5People can form building groups to help one another to own houses. For example, cooperative societies can give loans to their members for building purposes.

6 Some of the existing houses are not fit for people to live in. Some have no good windows, while others are built along rivers. Also, some other houses have weak foundations. Such houses should be pulled down and rebuilt with adequate facilities to fortify their foundations.

Strategies& Activities:

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step 3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 name five different types of houses.

2 explain how houses in some parts of Nigeria are different from those in other parts.

3 list some factors that affect types of houses.

4 explain the need for houses.

5 mention three agencies that help people to own houses

[mediator_tech]

1. The traditional type of house in the northern part of Nigeria, where rainfall is not much, is called a __________ house.
a) mud
b) thatched
c) pointed-top
d) storey

2. The Fulani people traditionally live in a __________ house.
a) mud
b) thatched
c) pointed-top
d) storey

3. The common type of house in the eastern part of Nigeria, with a roof made of raffia palms or grass, is called a __________ house.
a) mud
b) thatched
c) pointed-top
d) storey

4. A house with more than one floor is called a __________ building.
a) mud
b) thatched
c) pointed-top
d) storey

5. The ground floor of a storey building is called the __________ floor.
a) first
b) second
c) third
d) ground

6. A very tall storey building with many floors is called a __________.
a) mud house
b) duplex
c) skyscraper
d) bungalow

7. A duplex is a storey building used by a __________.
a) family
b) bank
c) corporation
d) government

8. The oblong house is narrow and long, and is divided into several __________.
a) floors
b) rooms
c) buildings
d) compounds

9. A bungalow is a type of house where __________.
a) only one family usually lives
b) multiple families live together
c) offices are located
d) traditional materials are used

10. Brick houses are built with __________.
a) cement blocks
b) burnt bricks
c) raffia palms
d) mud walls

11. Glass and steel houses are commonly found in __________.
a) rural areas
b) large cities
c) coastal regions
d) mountainous regions

12. Housing corporations, property development corporations, and development and planning authorities are government agencies that provide __________.
a) loans
b) land
c) houses
d) materials

13. The Federal Mortgage Bank provides __________ to people who want to build houses.
a) land
b) materials
c) loans
d) financial advice

14. Cooperative societies can give __________ to their members for building purposes.
a) loans
b) land
c) materials
d) houses

15. Houses with weak foundations and inadequate facilities should be __________ and rebuilt.
a) renovated
b) expanded
c) demolished
d) rented

[mediator_tech]

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

Choose the best answers for the following questions

1.Early men and women lived in _____________.

A palaces B caves C kingdoms D skyscrapers

2 The differences houses they live in.

A Climate B Food C Water D Plantation

4 In areas where earthquakes are common, people build houses with

_____________.

A climate B hot materials C light materials D clayey materials

5

All of these are types of houses except

_____________.

A mud house B thatched house C oblong house D rubber house

6 A _____________ is a house with more than one floor.

A storey building B terrace house C pointed-top house D bungalow

7_____________ houses are common in the eastern part of Nigeria.

A Bungalow B Oblong C Skyscraper D Water

8 Government agencies who build houses for people to rent or buy are

called _____________.

A housing corporation B property development corporation C development and planning authority D all of the above

WEEK3

Topic: HOUSING

Subtitle: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULATION AND AVAILABLE NUMBER OF HOUSES

 

Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to:

1. List reasons why everybody does not own a house

2. Define population

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of: charts and pictures showing the different types of house.

Resources and Materials: Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

.Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Content

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULATION AND AVAILABLE NUMBER OF HOUSES

 

Relationship between population and available number of houses

Population is the number of people who live in a particular area. When the population of a particular area increases from what it used to be, then there will be the need to provide more amenities, such as electricity, water, schools, wide roads, and houses.

Definitely, if the number of people residing in a particular area increases, there will be the need to provide more houses, because the ones available will not be adequate.

Why everybody does not own a house

There are several reasons why people do not have houses of their own. Some of those reasons are as follows:

1 The cost of building materials is too high.

2 The cost of land is very high in the towns. More houses are needed in towns than in villages, but the price of land is too high for most people. In parts of Lagos and Abuja, for example, a piece of land sells for a very large amount of

money.

3 It is difficult to get loans from banks and other finance houses.

4 The cost of labour for building a house is very high. Labourers and other workers demand a lot of money per day.

5 It takes too long and costs too much to get a Certificate of Occupancy (C of O), or right to occupy the land from the government. The certificate makes the land on which the house is built a legal property.

Strategies& Activities:

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.

Assessment & Evaluation:

1. List reasons why everybody does not own a house

2. Define population

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

1._____________ is a major factor which makes people decide on how to

build the in the kinds of houses in Nigeria is as a result of differences

in _____________.

A food B environment C water D none of the above

 

2. The bank that gives loans to people to build their houses is called

_____________.

A federal mortgage bank B central bank C state-owned bank D commercial bank

3. _____________ is an amount of money paid on the actual amount of money borrowed from a bank.

A Loan B Interest C Dividend D Warrant

4. One reason why many people do not have their own houses is because _____________.

A the cost of building materials is too high B the cost of land is too high C it is hard to get loans D of all of the above

5._____________ is the total number of people who live in a particular area.

A Amount B Population C Total D Number

6. Another word for skyscraper is _____________.

A low building B high-rise building C middle building D none of the above

7.Population increase can lead to______

A low cost of living B high social wellbeing C high cost of living D good standard of living

 

8. Population refers to the number of __________ who live in a particular area.
a) houses
b) buildings
c) amenities
d) people

9. When the population of an area increases, there is a need to provide more __________.
a) electricity
b) water
c) schools
d) houses

10. If the population increases, the available number of houses may become __________.
a) adequate
b) insufficient
c) affordable
d) spacious

11. One reason why not everyone owns a house is the high cost of __________ materials.
a) building
b) land
c) labour
d) amenities

12. The cost of land is often high in __________ compared to villages.
a) cities
b) towns
c) rural areas
d) suburbs

13. Difficulty in obtaining loans from banks and finance houses is a reason why some people do not have their own __________.
a) houses
b) land
c) amenities
d) properties

14. The cost of labour for building a house is often __________.

a) low
b) reasonable
c) high
d) subsidized

15. Obtaining a Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) from the government can be __________ and expensive.
a) quick
b) easy
c) time-consuming
d) affordable

16. A Certificate of Occupancy makes the land on which a house is built a __________ property.
a) legal
b) temporary
c) disputed
d) vacant

17. The high cost of building materials, land, labour, and delays in obtaining necessary documents contribute to the challenge of __________ a house.
a) building
b) selling
c) renting
d) owning

WEEK 4&5

Topic: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PERSONAL HYGIENE

Subtitle: STAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT

 

Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to:

1.mention four stages of child development.

2 list three changes that take place in the body after ten years of age.

3 state three things that badly affect a child’s development.

4 explain what puberty means.

5 list three things which we can do to keep the body physically fit.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of: charts and pictures showing the different types of house.

Resources and Materials: Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

.Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Content

Stages of child development

Child development refers to the changes that take place in human beings between

Birth and the end of adolescence.

The major stages of child development are:

1 Infancy

The child is between one month and about two years.

2 Early childhoods:

The child is between two and six years.

3 Childhood proper:

The child has started school. This stage lasts till the child is about ten years old.

4 Adolescence

: The child is becoming an adult. This stage begins at about eleven years and ends at twenty years

Characteristics of children of ten years and above

At about ten years old, a child starts developing a new way of life, and he starts behaving more like an adult. The child’s body grows in special ways:

1 .Height

: Growth rate increases in children as from ten years of age. At this stage, boys and girls grow almost at the same rate. In some cases, girls grow faster than boys, but girls stop growing earlier than boys.

2. Weight

: Weight increases in boys and girls almost at the same rate. Boys, however, have more weight than girls up to the age of ten years. Between ten and fifteen years, girls have more weight than boys; but from the age of fifteen years, boys

have more weight than girls.

.

3.Physical maturity:

Up to the age of ten years, boys and girls are in childhood. From the age of ten years, a few girls develop faster than boys into a stage called puberty

. However, most boys still remain in childhood. By the age of thirteen and a half years, most girls have reached the stage of puberty and are almost physically mature. At this age of thirteen and a half years, only a few boys have reached

puberty. However, boys do not show signs of physical maturity yet. At the age of eighteen years, most girls are fully mature, but most boys are not.

Factors that hinder physical growth

Every human being should grow normally. However, some children do not grow or develop normally like other children. Here are some reasons for this:

1. Lack of ventilation:

The ability of air to enter and move around a room is known as ventilation. Some rooms do not have windows. Some have either small windows or very few windows, and as a result, the air in the room is hot. A child needs plenty of

fresh air to grow well. If a child often stays in a room where the air is hot, the child cannot grow normally.

2. Dirty environment:

A child that lives in a dirty place may not grow very well because There are usually many diseases in dirty places that may enter the child’s body, and prevent the child from growing normally like other children.

3 .Malnutrition:

For children to grow normally, they must eat good and balanced food. Children should eat different types of food. They should also eat three times a day. But there are some children who eat only once, or do not eat enough, or eat only one type of food. Such children suffer from a poor state of health, called malnutrition

.

Malnutrition is bad nutrition, and prevents the normal growth of children and adults. Malnutrition leads to an illness called

Kwashiorkor

. Children who do not eat food with enough protein suffer from kwashiorkor, which prevents normal growth.

4. Poor body sanitation:

People who do not take proper care of their body often contract diseases. We are to take our bath and brush our teeth regularly to avoid diseases. Decay of the teeth occurs when the teeth are not properly brushed, and this prevents normal growth of the teeth. It is good to be hygienic. Unhygienic conditions prevent the proper growth of people

How to keep the body physically fit

In order to keep the body physically fit:

1 We must eat well. We must eat different kinds of food, like meat, fish, rice,

beans, maize, bananas, oranges, groundnuts, watermelon and carrots.

2 We must rest well. After work or play, we should rest well. We may sometimes

sleep during the day, so that we can get enough rest. This is known as taking a

nap

.

3 We must exercise all parts of our body regularly.

4 We must be clean and neat always. We must take good care of our teeth, our hair, our fingernails and other parts of our body.

5

We must avoid accidents. For example, we should avoid dangerous games.

We should wear shoes, and avoid having serious falls.

Characteristics of household population and its effects on personal hygiene

Most times, the size of the family and the level of education of members of the family can determine the level of personal hygiene of such a family or household. People in large families, with little or no education, often tend to have or adopt

bad health attitudes. Such families often live in small rooms that are not well ventilated, and often fail to keep their environments clean and tidy. Also, people in large families with little income find it difficult to maintain good personal hygiene. Most times, such families find it difficult to feed well or eat a balanced diet, in order to keep fit and stay healthy. This is because such families cannot afford to buy such food items

Strategies& Activities:

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step 3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.

Assessment & Evaluation:

1. 1.mention four stages of child development.

2 list three changes that take place in the body after ten years of age.

3 state three things that badly affect a child’s development.

4 explain what puberty means.

5 list three things which we can do to keep the body physically fit.

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

[mediator_tech]

1. Infancy is the stage of child development that lasts from __________.
a) birth to two years
b) two to six years
c) six to ten years
d) eleven to twenty years

2. Early childhood is the stage of child development that begins at __________.
a) birth
b) one month
c) two years
d) six years

3. Childhood proper is the stage of child development that begins when the child __________.
a) starts school
b) turns ten years old
c) reaches puberty
d) becomes an adult

4. Adolescence is the stage of child development that begins around __________.
a) one month
b) two years
c) ten years
d) eleven years

5. The growth rate in height increases for children from __________ years of age.
a) one to two
b) two to six
c) six to ten
d) ten to fifteen

6. Boys and girls grow almost at the same rate in terms of __________.
a) height
b) weight
c) physical maturity
d) physical fitness

7. Girls tend to stop growing earlier than boys, usually by the age of __________.
a) ten years
b) thirteen and a half years
c) fifteen years
d) eighteen years

8. Lack of ventilation can hinder a child’s __________.
a) weight
b) physical maturity
c) growth and development
d) malnutrition

9. Living in a dirty environment can affect a child’s __________.
a) ventilation
b) physical fitness
c) malnutrition
d) growth and development

10. Malnutrition prevents normal growth and can lead to a condition called __________.
a) kwashiorkor
b) puberty
c) physical maturity
d) malnourishment

11. Decay of the teeth can occur when __________.
a) teeth are not brushed properly
b) children eat only once a day
c) children lack physical fitness
d) children suffer from malnutrition

12. Taking proper care of the body and practicing good hygiene is important for __________.
a) physical fitness
b) growth and development
c) malnutrition prevention
d) body sanitation

13. To keep the body physically fit, we must eat well and consume __________.
a) various types of food
b) only meat and fish
c) rice and beans
d) oranges and groundnuts

14. Resting well after work or play is important for maintaining __________.
a) physical fitness
b) growth and development
c) malnutrition prevention
d) body sanitation

15. Eating well, resting well, and maintaining good hygiene contribute to overall __________.
a) growth and development
b) malnutrition prevention
c) physical fitness
d) body sanitation

[mediator_tech]

ASSIGNMENT

Choose the best answers for the following questions:

1. When a child is between one month and two years of age, the child is

_____________.

A a teenager B a youth C an infant D an adult

2_____________ is when a child is between ages two and six years.

A Adolescence B Early childhood C Infancy D Teenage

3 A child that is between ages thirteen and nineteen years is called _____________.

A a teenager B an infant C a toddler D an adult

4 When a child is becoming an adult which begins at age eleven years, the child is _____________.

A a lady B a gentleman C an adolescent D a chief

5 A child’s body starts to develop in some special and sensitive ways from about _____________ years.

A age five B age ten C age six D age two

6 The special ways in which the body develops include _____________.

A height B weight C A and B D none of the above

7 The inability of air to enter and move around in a room is known as _____________.

A ventilation B poor ventilation C preservation D cross ventilation

WEEK 6&7

Topic: DRUG ABUSE

Subtitle: EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE

 

Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to:

1.. list four factors that are responsible for drug abuse.

2 mention the effects of drug abuse on people.

3 identify the major sources of drugs in society.

4 list behaviours that promote physical well-being.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of: charts

Resources and Materials: Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

.Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Content

Causes of drug abuse

 

When drugs are wrongly taken by a person, they are said to have been and can become harmful. Drugs must only be taken under proper guidance and advice, otherwise, they can be abused. Someone who cannot do without

a particular drug is called a drug addict Such a person is said to be into drug addiction. A drug addict is likely to perform poorly at school or work.

Factors contributing to drug abuse

1. Ignorance, or illiteracy

2. Peer pressure,

3. Cantonment

4. Inability to resist the Temptation

5. Pride

Effects of abuse of stimulation

1. Restlessness,

2. Sleeplessness

3. Mental disorder

4. Loss of appetite

5. Convulsion

6. Withdraw dependence, socio Economic effects,

7. Poor work performance,

8. Debts,

9. .Stealing, frauds, armed robbery, social outcast

, 10 School dropouts

.

Sources of drugs

Small scale sources:

1.hawkers,

2. herbalists,

3. Provision sellers, snacks stores,

4. pharmacists

Manufacturers

barons, beer parlors keepers, hotel clubs,

large scales sources.

.

Prevention of drug abuse and life coping skills

 

How do we prevent drug abuse to give a child?

1.We should have regular exercise.

2 We should make sure that whatever we eat or drink will be good for our health.

3 We should avoid bad friends. We should always refuse to do wrong things, even if all the people around us are doing them.

4 We should engage in such sports as football, tennis and athletics.

5 As much as possible, we should join such good youth clubs as Boy Scouts and Girl Guides.

6 We should obey our elders and religious leaders. This is very important because they teach us about what is right and wrong.

Strategies& Activities

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step 3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1. list four factors that are responsible for drug abuse.

2 mention the effects of drug abuse on people.

3 identify the major sources of drugs in society.

4 list behaviors that promote physical well-being

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION):

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

Lift the three (3) good places you can get drugs.

2 Use your dictionary to find the meanings of the following words:

a) Harmful

b) Abused

c) Ignorance

d) Illiteracy

e) Attitude

f) Habit g) Misuse

h) Appetite

i) Athletics

j) Dropout

[mediator_tech]

1. When drugs are wrongly taken by a person, they are said to have been __________.
a) used properly
b) abused
c) prescribed
d) manufactured

2. Someone who cannot do without a particular drug is called a __________.
a) drug abuser
b) drug dealer
c) drug addict
d) drug manufacturer

3. Ignorance or illiteracy is a __________ contributing to drug abuse.
a) cause
b) cure
c) prevention
d) treatment

4. Peer pressure can influence individuals to engage in __________.
a) drug abuse
b) drug counseling
c) drug prevention
d) drug research

5. Inability to resist temptation is a factor that can lead to __________.
a) drug addiction
b) drug education
c) drug production
d) drug legalization

6. Restlessness and sleeplessness are effects of __________ abuse.
a) drug
b) alcohol
c) tobacco
d) caffeine

7. Loss of appetite is an effect of abusing __________.
a) stimulants
b) sedatives
c) hallucinogens
d) depressants

8. Drug addiction can lead to __________ performance at school or work.
a) excellent
b) average
c) poor
d) outstanding

9. Hawkers, herbalists, and pharmacists are examples of __________ sources of drugs.
a) small-scale
b) large-scale
c) legal
d) illicit

10. Drug abuse can lead to __________ effects on socio-economic well-being.
a) positive
b) negative
c) neutral
d) insignificant

11. Prevention of drug abuse includes engaging in regular __________.
a) exercise
b) meditation
c) medication
d) therapy

12. It is important to ensure that what we eat or drink is __________ for our health.
a) harmful
b) beneficial
c) neutral
d) tasteless

13. Avoiding bad friends and refusing to do wrong things are strategies to prevent __________.
a) drug abuse
b) drug manufacturing
c) drug marketing
d) drug research

14. Engaging in sports and joining youth clubs can help in developing __________ skills.
a) coping
b) academic
c) leadership
d) communication

15. Obeying elders and religious leaders is important as they guide us in understanding __________.
a) drug regulations
b) drug policies
c) drug risks
d) right and wrong actions

WEEK 8

Topic: POLLUTION

Subtitle: MEANING OF POLLUTION

 

Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to:

1. Explain pollution.

2. Name four things that can pollute the air.

3. State four ways in which the land is polluted.

4. Mention three harmful effects of air and land pollution.

5. State two ways in which government can reduce or prevent pollution.

6. List four things which individuals can do to prevent or reduce pollution.

7. Explain the need for people to know about the environment

.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of: charts

Resources and Materials: Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

.Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Content

MEANING OF POLLUTION

Pollution is a situation in which something is dangerously dirty and no longer safe

for use.

TYPES OF POLLUTION

1. Air pollution

2. Water pollution

3. Land pollution

4. Noise pollution

AIR AND LAND POLLUTION

Air pollution is when the air is no longer pure for people to breathe. This can be due to smoke from vehicles and factories, as well as harmful chemicals in the air.In land pollution, the ground is no longer safe for farming and other purposes. When land is polluted, it may be unsafe to dig a well there, because the water mabe polluted. This often happens where things, such as crude oil, petrol and some chemicals spill on the ground. Such soil is no longer good for farming and other user

Ways by which air and land are polluted

Pollution involves conditions which are harmful to man, animals and plants. Air is polluted in the following ways:

1 Burning of coal or oil, which gives off smoke, pollutes the air. Also, a lot of smoke produced from factories pollutes the air.

2 Car and buses, which run on diesel and petrol, give off bad gases which pollute the air.

3 Dust particles pollute the air, especially in the dry season. Harmattan winds carry a lot of dust in the dry season.

4 When too much insecticide is sprayed in a room, the air is polluted.

5 Smell from waste dumped on the land by factories pollutes the air.

6 Smell from household refuse also pollutes the air.

Land can be polluted in the following ways:

1 When petroleum from damaged pipes leaks onto the land and rivers, it pollutes the land and rivers. Such pollution sometimes happens in areas of Nigeria where crude oil or petroleum is found. Such land is useless for farming, and fishes can no longer live in such rivers.

2 Farmers sometimes use chemicals on the land. They also add fertilizers to the soil. All these chemicals can pollute the land.

3 In big cities, refuse dumps are found in some places, and such waste pollutes the land.

4 Farmers use insecticide to kill insects and animals which are harmful to crops. If the insecticide is too much, the land may become polluted, and no longer suitable for growing crops.

5 Some factories produce wastewater which runs into streams, and these streams are thereby polluted. Fishes are killed as a result.

6 Those that urinate and defecate (pass out feaces) in the streets pollute the land

Harmful effects of pollution

We have learnt about some of the harmful effects of pollution. These effects include the following;

1The air is no longer safe for breathing. Such air brings diseases like cough, lung disease, sneezing and blood poisoning.

2 Polluted land smells bad, and diseases like cholera, dysentery and diarrhea are common in such places.

3 Polluted land is no longer useful for growing crops.

4 Polluted water no longer contains good fish and animals.

5 Polluted water is unsafe for drinking by human beings.

Ways of preventing pollution

1 Smoking of cigarettes should not be allowed, especially in crowded places, such as buses or taxis.

2 We should provide toilets in our homes and public places for people to use.

3 Industries which produce a lot of smoke should make the smoke harmless to people.

4 Wastewater from industries must not be allowed to pass into streams.

5 We should not stay or sleep in a room which has just been sprayed with insecticide, instead, we should wait outside, until much of the smell has gone away.

6 We should always keep our surroundings clean.

7 Government must not only make laws on keeping a clean environment, it must also ensure that people and companies obey such laws.

8 Government must give people sound education about keeping the environment clean. This can be done through the radio and television

Strategies& Activities

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1. Explain pollution.

2. Name four things that can pollute the air.

3. State four ways in which the land is polluted.

4. Mention three harmful effects of air and land pollution.

5. State two ways in which government can reduce or prevent pollution.

6. List four things which individuals can do to prevent or reduce pollution.

7. Explain the need for people to know about the environment

.(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION):

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

A

Choose the best answers for the following questions

:

1 When something is very dirty and no longer safe for use as a result of being exposed to contaminants, this is called _____________.

A evaporation

B pollution

C preservative

D premature

2 Smoke from vehicles, factory emissions can cause _____________.

A land pollution

B air pollution

C car pollution

D noise pollution

3 _____________ can be caused by crude oil, petroleum and chemical spill on the ground.

A Air pollution

B Land pollution

C Water pollution

D Wind pollution.

4 Burning of coal or oil that produces smoke causes _____________.

A water pollution

B coal pollution

C air pollution

D noise pollution

5. _____________ carries a lot of dust in the dry season and also pollutes the air.

A Rain

B Thunder

C Harmattan wind

D Whirlwind

 

 

 

 

 

[mediator_tech]

1. Pollution is a situation in which something is dangerously dirty and no longer __________.
a) harmful
b) safe
c) useful
d) visible

2. __________ is a type of pollution caused by smoke from vehicles and factories.
a) Air pollution
b) Water pollution
c) Land pollution
d) Noise pollution

3. Land pollution occurs when the ground is no longer safe for __________ and other purposes.
a) farming
b) fishing
c) swimming
d) construction

4. Harmful chemicals in the air contribute to __________ pollution.
a) air
b) water
c) land
d) noise

5. Burning of coal or oil and smoke produced from factories are sources of __________ pollution.
a) air
b) water
c) land
d) noise

6. Vehicles running on diesel and petrol release __________ gases that contribute to air pollution.
a) harmless
b) beneficial
c) bad
d) fresh

7. Dust particles, carried by Harmattan winds, contribute to __________ pollution.
a) air
b) water
c) land
d) noise

8. Petroleum leakage from damaged pipes can lead to __________ pollution of the land and rivers.
a) air
b) water
c) land
d) noise

9. Chemicals used by farmers on the land can contribute to __________ pollution.
a) air
b) water
c) land
d) noise

10. Refuse dumps in big cities contribute to __________ pollution.
a) air
b) water
c) land
d) noise

11. Polluted land may no longer be suitable for __________.
a) fishing
b) swimming
c) farming
d) construction

12. Diseases like cholera, dysentery, and diarrhea are common in areas with __________ land.
a) polluted
b) clean
c) fertile
d) well-maintained

13. Polluted water is unsafe for __________.
a) breathing
b) swimming
c) fishing
d) drinking

14. Providing toilets in homes and public places helps in __________ pollution prevention.
a) air
b) water
c) land
d) noise

15. Government laws and education play a crucial role in __________ pollution prevention.
a) air
b) water
c) land
d) noise

[mediator_tech]

WEEK 9

Topic: NATURAL DISASTER

Subtitle: CAUSES OF NATURAL DISASTER

 

Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to:

1 give the meaning of natural disasters.

2 show the differences between natural and man-made disaster

3. mention three types of natural disasters.

4. list the causes of these natural disasters.

5 list four things that happen when natural disasters occur.

6 mention four things we can do to stop or control natural disasters

.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of: charts

Resources and Materials: Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

.Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Content

Meaning of natural and man-made disasters

 

A disaster is a sad event that happens suddenly. People often lose their lives and property in disasters. A disaster can come from nature, or by accident. Natural disasters are caused by nature. They are not caused by man’s Carelessness. Examples of natural disasters are earthquakes, floods, tornadoes and Windstorms. Erosion of the soil sometimes causes disasters in an area. Each of these disasters causes a lot of damage to the land, buildings, animals and people.

Man-made disasters are usually due to man’s mistake or carelessness. Examples of man-made disasters are the crashing of airplanes, sinking of ships, derailment of trains, or collapse of big buildings in which many people live. Fire disasters and car accidents in which many people are killed are also man-made disasters

Types and causes of natural disasters

Natural disasters are of different kinds. They are, therefore, caused in different ways,

e.g.

1.Floods:

When rain falls heavily for a long time, rivers overflow their banks. The buildings and farms along the banks become covered partly by water. This is called a flood. Sometimes, there is loss of buildings, crops, bridges and even lives

2. Earthquake

3. Tsunami

4. Thunderstorm

5. Volcano

 

Effects of natural disasters

Natural disasters have many bad effects. Some of these are:

1 Loss of human lives.

2 Loss of animal lives.

3 Damage to buildings.

4 Damage to roads and bridges.

5 Destruction of farmlands.

6 Pollution of land, air and water.

7 Destruction of electric poles and cables.

8 Spread of diseases.

All these cost a lot of money and hard work to put right. These bad effects cause a lot of sorrow to the people affected.

.

How natural disasters can be controlled

There are several ways of controlling natural disasters. These include the following:

1 We should build houses far away from rivers.

2 Thunder-catchers should be used in areas where thunder and lightning are common. A thunder-catcher is usually made of steel, and placed on the roof to keep thunder and lightning from damaging a house.

3 Where earthquakes occur very often, the use of light materials is best for building houses.

4 We should plant trees around our houses. Trees planted around houses break the force of strong winds; so houses are safe.

5 As a result of their knowledge and skill, meteorologists (scientists who study the earth atmosphere) are sometimes able to tell when a disaster may occur. They should warn the people ahead of time, and the people in the areas concerned should leave those areas immediately.

6 Fires can be controlled if we use anti-fire paint and materials for our houses.

7 We should not throw refuse into the gutters because this causes flooding, especially during the rainy season (as it blocks the water passage).

Our attitude to victims of natural disasters

Disasters are unfortunate, and they can lead to injury and loss of lives and property. Most times, the people affected by these disasters need help and assistance. It is the duty of members of the community, or those that are not affected, to show

Positive attitude to the victims, as follows:

1 We should show love to the victims of disasters by being a part of the rescue team. We can help take them to the hospital.

2 We should visit them and help them to understand that their situation is not a hopeless one. We should say positive things to them.

3 We should pray with them.

4 We must give them gifts, such as clothes, blankets, food, books and money.

5We could also take them into our homes and look after them until they can settle into new homes, or until their old homes have been repaired and made safe

Strategies& Activities

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 gives the meaning of natural disasters.

2 show the differences between natural and man-made disaster

3. Mention three types of natural disasters.

4. List the causes of these natural disasters.

5 list four things that happen when natural disasters occur.

6 mention four things we can do to stop or control natural disasters

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION):

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

Answer the following questions in your exercise book:

1 Mention four (4) examples of natural disasters.

2 State two (2) types of natural disasters you have experienced or witnessed.

3 Mention four (4) types of natural disasters.

4 Explain two (2) of the four natural disasters you mentioned above.

5 Mention six (6) effects of natural disasters.

WEEK 10

Topic: MECHANISED FARMING

Subtitle: PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE

 

Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to:

1.explain the concept of mechanized agriculture.

2 identify some agricultural machines.

3 explain the problems associated with mechanized agriculture.

4 explain how modern agricultural technology can be applied to fishing and farming.

5 list three advantages and three disadvantages of modern agricultural technology

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of: charts

Resources and Materials: Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

.Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Content

Meaning of mechanized agriculture

In the olden days, our people farmed with only cutlasses, sickles and hoes. They used small fishes as a bait to catch fishes in small rivers and lakes around them. The food they produced was, therefore, small and not enough to sell to other people.

This type of farming is called subsistence farming.

Today, the government of Nigeria is interested in agriculture. Each state government has a ministry of agriculture. Some state governments have departments of fishery. In order to produce plenty of food, the government and

some wealthy citizens use machines on their farms. The use of machines for farming is called mechanized farming

. On such farms, machines are used for clearing and weeding, and for planting crops and harvesting. These machines make the work of agriculture much easier and faster

Types of agricultural machines and their uses

1 Tractor:

A tractor is a multi-purpose motor vehicle with large wheels, used for lifting or pulling farm implements.

2 Sheller:

This is a machine used to separate seeds from the husk or cob.

3 Harvesters

: These are machines or implements designed to make easy the process of harvesting various crops.

4 Incubators

: These are machines used for hatching fertilised eggs artificially.

5

Planters:

These are machines designed to plant seeds of crops, such as maize, guinea corn, rice and beans. A planter places seeds in the ground in rows.

6 Plough

It is a machine having one or more heavy blades, and it is used to break the soil, in preparation for sowing seeds and planting.

Problems associated with mechanized farming

Mechanized farming makes farming a lot easier, and increases output, but it has so many problems which include the following:

1 Unavailability to farmers

:Most farmers are not so rich and, therefore, cannot afford the cost of tractors and other mechanized farm implements.

2Inadequate spare parts

: Availability of spare parts for the machines is a major concern, as these parts are still being imported.

3 Unemployment:

Many farm workers or laborers have been put out of job (lost their jobs) because machines are now doing their jobs.

4 The shape of our land

: Our landscape is too rough, and much of it is unconducive for farm mechanization.

 

Application of agricultural technology to fishing and farming

The application of agricultural technology to fishing and farming, which has made fishing and farming a lot easier and lucrative, includes the following:

1 The use of insecticide and pesticides by farmers to control insects and pests has helped to increase the quality and quantity of crops.

2 Also, the use of drugs for treating and immunizing birds and animals has also helped to improve the quality of livestock and farm animals.

3 The use of irrigation facilities, which involves the use of special pumps designed to channel water or carry water from nearby streams to the farm, has also made the cultivation of crops easier in the savannah or dry region.

4Tractors, harvesters and sellers are machines used by farmers to aid and facilitate the process of farming. This method has led to increased output and also increased the quality of food crops produced in the farms.

5 In the area of fishing, the use of trawlers (fishing boats with nets) for harvesting large quantities of fish has made fishing business lucrative for fishermen.

6 The use of modern fish ponds in areas without rivers has helped to promote the business of breeding fish by fish farmers. Fish pond is a modern way of breeding fish in large quantities without a river or stream.

 

Advantages of modern agricultural technology

Agricultural technology, or mechanized agriculture, involves the application of modern technology in the production, storage and processing of farm products and livestock.

This system has a lot of advantages, which include the following:

1 It saves time:

.

2 It reduces health hazards

.

3 It increases production

4 It encourages large-scale farming

:

5 It improves the quality of produce: Farm mechanization usually improves the quality of some farm produce, e.g. rice processing

Strategies& Activities

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1. explain the concept of mechanized agriculture.

2 identify some agricultural machines.

3 explain the problems associated with mechanized agriculture.

4 explain how modern agricultural technology can be applied to fishing and farming.

5 list three advantages and three disadvantages of modern agricultural technology

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION):

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

Mention four (4) tools used for farming in the olden days.

Mention six (6) modern agricultural equipment.

Write four (4) problems associated with mechanized farming.

State four (4) advantages of modern agricultural technology.

Why do most farmers still continue in subsistence agriculture in spite of the

benefits of mechanized farming? State three (3) reasons.

Explain the uses of the following modern farm equipment

WEEK 11

Topic: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN

Subtitle: TRADITIONAL ROLES OF MEN AND WOMEN INOUR SOCIETY.

 

Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to:

1. List ways in which men and women are the same, and the ways in which they are different.

2 list the traditional roles of men and women in society.

3 list the changing roles of present day women in society.

4 identify some problems of inequality

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of: charts

Resources and Materials: Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

.Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Content

Similarities between men and women

Men and women are created by God to perform certain tasks and duties on earth. However, in every society and culture, men and women have various roles to play, as determined by nature. Men and women are similar in the following ways:

1 They are both human beings.

2 They both have the ability to think and make meaningful decisions.

3 In this modern world, men and women have the potential to reach any height in politics, academics, religion, and other fields of endeavor.

Men and women are, however, different in some ways. The following are some

of the ways in which men are different from women:

1 Men usually have stronger muscles than women.

2 Men have deep voices while most women have soft voices.

3 Men grow beards and moustaches while most women do not.

Traditional roles of men and women in society

By nature and by tradition, men play very crucial roles in society. These roles include the following:

1 One of the traditional roles of men is to provide the family needs, such as food, clothes and shelter.

2 It is also the duty of men to provide security for their families.

3 The man also takes important decisions on matters affecting the family.

4 The man, as the head of the household, leads and guides members of the family.

5 The man also guides the family in spiritual matters.

Women also play some crucial roles in society. They are as follows:

1 The traditional role of women in society is to take care of the house and cook for the family.

2 Women also perform other duties, such as keeping the environment clean, sweeping the house, and washing clothes and plates.

3 Women also give moral support to members of the family.

4It is also the traditional role of women to take good care of the children, and make sure they are morally upright.

The changing role of women in present day society

The world is changing because of Western influences, modern technology, education and the mass media.

In present day society, therefore, the traditional role of women has changed. For instance, the economic situation has made it necessary for women to work for money instead of staying at home as full-time housewives. As a result of this, women nowadays perform the role of men by providing food, shelter and clothes for the family. The awareness campaign made by government, as well as local and international organizations, on the need to raise the status of women in our society, has led to the changing roles of women in our society Women are now found in various positions and occupations, which were only for men in the past. Such occupations include medicine, engineering, and the forces (such as the police and the army).In the area of government and politics, women now contest with men for political offices, like those of the president, governor, senator, local government chairman and councilor.

Strategies& Activities

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

  1. List ways in which men and women are the same, and the ways in which they are different.
  2. 2 list the traditional roles of men and women in society.

3 list the changing roles of present day women in society.

4 identify some problems of inequality

 

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION):

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

Write three (3) problems of inequality faced by women in society.

Mention six (6) occupations that were previously for men in society.

Explain one (1) important point in Unit 3, that has resulted in the changing

roles of women in society.

Mention two (2) factors that have caused the changing roles of women in

society.