Third Term SS 1 Literature Lesson Notes

















Frank Ogodo Ogbeche is from Yala Area of Cross River State. He attended Awori-Ajeromi Grammar School, Agboju in Lagos and the Federal school of Arts and Science Ogoja in Cross River State. He obtained a degree in communication Arts from the University of Cross River State Calabar and worked in the state Government House of office. He later transferred his services to the presidency (S.G.F). He is working as a senior civil servant.

He is a member of the Association of Nigerian Authors (ANA), Nigeria Institute of Public Relations (NIPE) and Nigeria Union of journalism (NUJ).

His plays include: The Intruder and the promises of the gods. He has some poems in his vernacular language.



The drama centers on Hon. Ade Amaka the minister of External Relations. He uses his official position to corruptly enrich himself. Chief Ade – Amaka connives with Ochuole and Madam Hoha to accomplish his nefarious business. The two women are engaged in recruiting young people mostly graduate who are desperately in need of job for this purpose.

He employs Ochuele as a principal officer in the ministry while madam Hoha operates a hotel. This hotel becomes a meeting place for the recruitment as well as an entertainment place where Chief Ade Amaka at the same carries out his diabolic practices. 

Ocahule coincidentally comes in contact with Aloha her school mate. This girl is in desperate need of a job having roamed the streests more than three years in search of job, Ochauole promises to help her get a job in the ministry of External Relations. She assures Aloho that she will speak to her boss on her behalf Aloho returns home and breaks the news to her born again Christian friend Ogeyi who she squats with. Ogeyi perceives danger in the job that Aloho is attempting to accept. She knew Ochuole as a woman of questionable character right from school. She discourages Aloha from accepting the job offer. Aloho has exhausted her patience so, she brushes her advice aside and goes on to accept the job.

On resumption, Aloho meets Chief Ade Amaka at the madam Hoha’s hotelwhere the chief had an affair with her. He then employs her as protocol officer. He specifies her job has that of itinerant officer who will be travelling round the world as the occasion demands. Chief Ade Amaka urges her to start her duty the following day and that she will deliver a document to his business partner in America.

Aloho, is amazed at sudden offer of traveling, but she obeys. At the airport, at the checking point the document turns out to be cocaine. Aloho is caught and detained. The chief comes to her rescue. He offers fabulous amount to the judge and the commissioner of police who ensure that the prosecuting office stays away from court. He dismisses the case for lack of evidence.

Aloho is discharged and acquitted. She is amazed that she has suddenly become a free woman in an act that she was caught red handed.

In the office chief Ade Amaka continues in his nefarious practices of awarding contract indiscriminately as well as inflating the figure. Allegation of embezzlement trails him behind.

Aloho abandons the job, but she realizes that she has become pregnant. Hercondition worsens. She informs her friend Ogeyi who advices against abortion. Aloho refuses her advice and goes for abortion. Three times, she attempted after agreeing with the doctor, and certain mysterious occurrences prevented the operation. She goes home to receive help from her mother and family members.

Ogeyi, goes to the police station to incident the matter. Her visit coincides with the time the Assistant commissioner was seeking for evidence to indict the dubious chief Ade Amaka. Having recorded her story, she returns home. Okpoto the brother of Aloho arrives  from home and announces the death of Aloho after she was delivered of her baby.

Chief Ade Amaka has been arrested inhis office together with Ayo a clerk and Ochuole and others. The matter was charged to court. Chief Ade pleaded not guilty in all the counts. His defence counsel also argues to free him from the allegation. The plaintive urges the court to use the weight of evidence to convict him.

The court convicts chief Ade Amaka for 25years with hard labour and to return to Government a sum of one point two billion naira. The commissioner of police and the chief judge for the connivances they receive twenty years imprisonment with hard labour. Ayo the clerk, who assisted the SS3 with vital document at the cost of two thousand naira, also receives five years as his own harvest of corruption. Madam Hoha and Ochuole received ten years jail sentences each and he orders the hotel to be sealed. 



  1. CORRUPTION: According to Oxford illustrated dictionary, corruption is moral deterioration especially wide spread use of corrupt practice such as using bribery or fraudulent activity to achieve ones desire goal or ambition. It can also be described as irregularly altered form of word, from its original. 

Chief Ade Amaka is the Honourable Minister of Foreign Relation. He uses his official position to corruptly enrich himself. He realizes that there has been graduate unemployment in the country, so he uses that as an avenue to victimize young graduates who are in desperate need of job. Many in their bid to secure the illusive job ended up being seduced by the chief. He employs Ochuole as administrative officer but he regularly sleeps with her in madam Hoha’s holed in the suburb of the city.

Again chief Ade Amaka, uses her and madam Hoha to recruit fresh girls retuning from national service into his nefarious business of drug trafficking. Aloho, a school mate of Ochuole, stumbles into Ochuole and narrated her ordeal in the labour market. Ochuole playing trick, promises her of a nice job available in the ministry. On meeting the minister, he offers her the job of a protocol officer. The job soon turns to cocaine pushing. Aloho after being seduced by the honourable minister was forced to travel with document to be handed over to a friend in America, right at the airport before departure; a custom officer catches her red handed with drug suspected to be cocaine. 

The Minister in order to sweep the case under carpet meets the chief judge and the police commissioner. He pacifies them with reasonable amount of money that made the prosecuting officer to decline coming to court to prosecute the case. Listen to their conversion.

The judge: chief this is not an easy, but I shall try as usual and you have to be reasonable this time. The heat has been turned on and this is not a child’s play. If this girls squeals, you are in for it.

Chief A. Amaka

That’s no problem……………

I shall come to the house with five hundred thousand naira this evening

The judge: That’s all right and will discuss with her lawyers and the case be dismissed want of evidences. The amount should be raised to one million naira to take care of the people involved in the case…….” p.50

With this action of bribery and corruption the case is dismissed. Another case involving wide scale allegation of embezzlement has equally been instituted against chief Ade Amaka, through the Assistant commissioner of police. 

  1. DRUG TRAFFICKING: The ministry of Foreign Relations being the gates ways to go out and come into the country of Jacassen, makes it possible for the minister to send out goods and import other commodities chief Ade Amaka has been using his unique position to get involved in drug trafficking. He has agreed with the middle women who assist him to recruit young girl into prostitution and drug trafficking.

He has recruited Aloho and handed over the document. The custom officer discovers that the document she is carrying contains drug that is suspected to be cocaine. At the trial because of the huge amount of money chief Ade Amaka has provided the case was dismissed for want of evidence.

  1. JUSTICE: It surprises the two police officers. Constable Ojo is shocked by this rape of justice. Yakubu is equally unstable with the dismissal of the case. In amazement he asks “what is really wrong with our legal system? Have we come toa point where any money-bag or highly placed individuals will and can try with the judiciary and get away with any crime committed no matter how heinous that case may be?

This is ridiculous? Ojo wonders why the prosecuting counsel was absent, “Constable Ojo” Sir what is more surprising is why the prosecutor and the defence counsel were absent at the deferent time the case came up. I think something went wrong…..p 56. In their amazement they plan to ensure that the chief is severely punished at any other offence he will commit… If the old crook is left off the hook of the cocaine racket, certainly he will be nailed after we have concluded our investigations of smuggling going on? There is a pointer to him. P 57.

As they are discussing, Ogeyi arrives and gives the detail of what transpired between chief Ade Amaka and Aloho. Yakubu the Assistant commissioner vows to make the mater known to the media. The press ran it for some periods. This drums the government and secret intelligent unit into it. Chief Ade Amaka and his staff (Ochuole and Ayo) are arrested together with the Chief Judge Odili. In the trial that ensued, Chief Ade Amaka the Judge, Ochuole, Ayo are allfound guilty and sentenced accordingly? Thus the long arm of the law catches up the perpetrator of evil; proving that evil can only triumph for a while but justice remains the ultimate avenger of all evils.

Listen to the court room drama

Registrar: Suspects at the bar, you stand convicted of fraud, embezzlement drug dealing bribery and corruption, abuse of public officers, betrayal of people’s trust etc….. Has any of you anything to say for yourselves why the court should not give you judgement according to law.

Ade-Amaka: Please be lenient with me and temper justice with mercy. I never did all that I am being accused today, think of all that I have done for this country. What will happen to my family? My entire village and government depend on me. I am already advanced in age, please don’t send me to jail.

The Judge: For all the atrocities you must have perpetrated in this country under the cover of Minister which have not been detected, I say nothing. But for those ones known and in which you stand convicted. I find you guilty as charged and therefore sentence you to twenty-five years imprisonment with hard labour in addition; you are to refund the sum of one point two billion naira to the government.

As for you the commissioner of police and chief justice, all I can say, is that you are a big disgrace to our noble profession. Greed and avarice have denied you the profession and you have to pay for your sins. You are both sentenced to twenty years each with hard labour. You must reap the harvest of your corruption” P.120.

The clerk for accepting two thousand brides to do his official duty bags five years jail sentence.

Ochuole and Madam Hoha are sentenced to ten years each but Madam Hoha’s hotel is to be sealed to avoid its being used as a haven for criminal activities.  



He is the hero of the play. He is an educated man who has been working as the Minister of Foreign Relations. Ade-Amaka is not disciplined. He lives a careless life and is a greedy man. He loves to acquire money through dubious crooked method. In order to realize his dreams. He floats chains of companies and is dubious. p.13

He slashes government money through some conduct pipes. P.13. He employs the services of irresponsible women like Ochuole and Madam Hoha, to carry on the nefarious business.

He employs Ochuole as the Chief Administrative Officer. Her real job is to connive with Madam Hoha, who runs a hotel nearby. The activities include recruiting young women to be employed as drug traffickers for the minister and to volunteer themselves for sex whenever the Chief desires them. There are certain percentage that goes to them each time success is made on the employment of these girls, they also stand to benefit from the procede of each successful travel any of these drug pushers make. This explains the reason why Ochuole passionately works on Aloho her former school friend to accept the offer of protocol officer in the ministry. 

The Chief’s major concern is to sleep with any of the new employees and to send them on Foreign trip to carry out cocaine across to America or any other designated country. He spends money recklessly and lacks self-control. His relationship with Ochuole casts more right on his irrational behaviour and extravagant spending. 

“……look Chief, stop this baby thing and don’t refer to me as baby again.

“……just try and be yourself for once. Chief I am not happy. There are a number of things worrying me. 

Ochuole: I need twenty thousand naira Chief to send to the village. I got a message yesterday that my mother is sick and is in the hospital”. P.16.

Chief Ade-Amaka, does not question her to know the source of that money. He simply produces money.

That’s twenty thousand naira baby. You can send it now if you like, but please let me enjoy my stout when it is cold, you know I like my drinks chilled.” P.16. 

He is like a Chameleon with effective coloration. He informs Aloho that she will work as protocol officer but pushes her to push cocaine for him, he seduced, and impregnated her. The trial judge describes him as a wolf in sheep clothing. He is a thief who uses his biro to steal huge amount of money from the government “you and your likes are the real armed robbers that the Jacassan people should be afraid of”. P.119. He awards contracts and inflates the price. He cooks and changes revenue figures. He pretends to be a man of the people while he is indeed a selfish man. He has inordinate ambition to liquidate the government he serves. He is extravagant and is also amoral. He knows how to free himself in a difficult situation. For example when he realizes that Aloho has been caught, he calculated the shame that it will bring upon him. Instead of seeing his reputation being dragged to the mud, he contracted Odili the judge and ensured that the case was dismissed. He uses his connection with the Commissioner of Police of perpetrate his atrocities.

He lost his bid to win the battle when Ogeyi the born again friends of Aloho re-characterizes the cocaine episode and his involvement in bribing the police commissioner and the judge. 

As his power of manipulation failed him, justice prevails and he is jailed twenty five years because of his unstable and questionable character. 


  1. ALOHO:

She is slim with dark skin and is 4ft.6m. Aloho is a fresh University graduate who is in search of a job. She is equally a born again Christian. Her inability to secure job compels her to abandon her faith in her God.

“I am tired of searching for job. I want to settle down…..Look at me with all the decency what have I achieved. Where has decency or dignity taken me to? I am tired I need some rest; just leave me alone I want to think (….). But Ogeyi you see, I tried to live outside the world all along right from my youth, I see that the world is leaving me behind can’t you see? You can call me a rebel, but I need a job. That is what matters to me now. Have I not tried to live a holy life all along? What has become of that joblessness…..

She meets Ochuole in this spirit of discouragement. Impatience pushes her to accept the job despite repeated warnings of Ogeyi her girlfriend and the one that is harbouring her in a strange land. 



  1. Discuss the character and role of Chief Ade-Amaka in the play
  2. Discuss any three dramatic techniques in the play
  3. Discuss the character and role of Ochuole or Aloho in the play






Raymond Caleb Ayodele Charley was born in 27th March 1948. He schooled in Sierra Leone capital of Freetown and onwards in Leads University London. He studied theatre Arts. He worked as a civil servant in the ministry of Education before being appointed as a lecturer in the department of dramatic Arts of Milton Mar gal Teacher Training College. He was a regular in many theatre plays. He led his group to display this work in FESTAC 1977 in Lagos. It won the best play in the tournament. 


The play centres on a white man named Whitehead who has come to exploit the rural community of Mando of their natural endowment Diamond. Mr. Whitehead plans to play on their intelligence by using their ignorance to achieve his selfish ambition.

The play opens with Maligu the Kings adviser who announces the reception of a letter from an imaginary Whiteman who has indicated interest to come and live among them in the village without disclosing his main reason.

Maligu uses his position to convince the chief priest. He urges him to dam the consequences of the actions of the spirits. With much persuasion Soko the priest agrees to prophecy that the spirit has consented to welcome the stranger having set aside its precious order that no stranger must be welcome to habit with the people of Mando Land. The priest Soko has earlier prophesied that any attempt by Mando people to welcome a visitor well breed mysterious sickness, disease and war. 

Because of the confidence the Mando people repose on their priest who has been the mouth piece of their fore fathers, they agree to welcome the visitor in their midst.

Kindo the son of the king, the heir apparent and the chief of the warriors casts his doubt on the change of mind of the spirits. He bases his doubt on the questionable character of both Soko and Maligu since both of them are corrupt. 

But the king Santigi is in agreement that the stranger should come. Kindo puts in strong argument to support the former position of the gods. 

The king’s verdict is final. Kindo sends out warriors to fetch them to the palace. The Whiteman arrives but decides to rest for a day before seeing the king. His right hand man arrives without observing the official protocol of African homage to the king. This man called Parker receives flogging in consequence. Kindo compels the Whitehead to portray before the king allowing his head to touch ground. Having been admitted, Mr. Whitehead orders for gin and hard drug, tobacco and offers it to the people. The adverse effect of this changes the rightful conduct of the people. They begin to behave abnormally, so much so that the women lose their virtue. Kindo gets angry and confronts white head but he absolves himself from their abnormal behaviour expressing that they did not reject the offer.  

Parker and white head visit the king. The king reminds Whitehead about his promises, of building schools, plant tobacco and to help the villages. He informed the king that he can only fulfil the promise if the people embrace hard work as a way of life. As the king departs to address the people, whitehead reveals to Maligu that his real motive for coming is Diamond deposit which is everywhere in the soil realizing that Kindo will be the major obstacle in the realization of this dream, they plot to eliminate him. The king returns and is given tobacco and hard drug by whitehead just to make him happy whitehead using Maligu, tries to rape Wara, Kindo’s woman. He plans to sacrifice Soko and Parker. He instigates Parker to kill Soko the priest. Kindo gets information about this, and rushes to the shrine. He kills Parker, come to the King to unveil whitehead’s secret plan but Maligu accuses him of murdering a strange Parker. He uses his weight as the chief warrior by pointing out the activities with his warriors just to obey the king’s order. 



Exploitation is a situation whereby an individual or group of individual, race or colour derives certain benefits, pleasure or leisure from the industry of another person, group of persons, race or colour. It involves eating from another person’s sweat, treasure, land or labourer, or mineral deposits such as diamond.

Whitehead realizes that there is enormous Diamond deposit in Mando community; he craftily begins to convert it. He used the tool of western education by deceiving the semi-educated Maligu who has become the king’s adviser because of his exposure to Western education. Maligu a man of corruption decides to contaminate the chief priest Soko with his corruption virus.

In their greed for wealth, they change the verdict of gods for their own selfish end. They begin to collect money from whitehead continuously having lied to the people that the gods Have changed their previous order that no stranger should come and co-habit with the people of Mando. 

Mr. Whitehead succeeds in manipulating the King’s adviser and the priest and secures a smooth passage to the King. He wins the King on his side. He however faces opposition in the hand of the King’s son who is also the head of the warriors. Kindo the king’s son refuses to be manipulated. He insists that the verdict of the gods cannot be altered to suit a stranger.

Mr. Whitehead policy of exploitation leads him to offer fake promises of building school to the people, establishing large tobacco farms and of course assisting them both economically and socially. 

These laudable promises are to enable him gain access into the diamond deposit on Mando land. When however, the king desires to see the fruit of those promises he began to attach conditions to their realization. He first of all demands that the people must prove themselves as hard working or industrious people.

As Kindo intensifies his doubt over Whitehead’s mission in their land, the Whiteman sees his interest being threatened. He calls for the head of Kindo. He plots the death of Soko the priest and equally the death of his interpreter Parker just to ensure that Kindo is linked to the death of one of them in order to face capital punishment of being banished from Mando land so that he can carry on his policy of exploitation without any interference or obstruction. 

His wicked plan fails him because Kindo’s wisdom and destiny outsmarts his craftiness. Kindo has been able to discover his plot of assigning Parker to kill Soko. He Kindo then kills Parker in revenge. The information gets to the king that Kindo has murdered Parker; the king ordes the banishment of Kindo his son.

Being the head of the warriors, Kindo reserves a right to address the people of Mando land before obeying the expulsion order of the king. He addresses the people and exposed the wickedness of the connivance or the secret plot between the duo to exploit Mando land of it rich natural resources Diamond. 

This exposes whitehead as a man desiring not to live. Kindo strikes him down before the people and proceeds on the exile with the warriors.

The play is laden with the imagery of colonial powers, Britain and the policy of imperialism .they came with ulterior motive of evangelizing, educating and developing Africa only to end up exploiting Sierra Leone nayAfrica of its enormous resources for the development of Europe. This policy is in line with the establishment of Enugu, the capital of the former eastern of Nigeria. They came to evangelize, educate but ended up in snatching the ngwo people of Enugu, Nigeria their coal at iva-valley with the construction of rail along the palm-belt downward to sea in Port Harcourt for the overall development of British Empire. Till today the people of iva-valley live in shanties and in a degraded condition.


Maligu and soko are both selfish. After receiving the letter, maligu takes it to soko the priest. He informs him of the need to deceive the people for them to receive money form the whiteman. Soko tries to absolve himself but maligu lets him realize that he sokois not completely innocent as he has been deceiving the king and the people that he sleeps in the cave while in the actual fact he sleeps in his hut. Realizing that his reputation will be dragged to the mud, he agrees to join him to deceive the people.

They both plot to deceive the people that the gods have set aside the original order they have given to the people that no stranger should visit the land let alone living in the land.

They convince the king who inturn allows white head to come. In the end soko lost his life, while the gain maligu desires to gain from the white man didn’t last as the white head deceiver uses his head to pay for deceit.


The story is set on Sierra Leone rural community of mando land. Of colonial it is at the advent of incursion into Africa using religion as a subterfuge to achieve their exploitative tendencies of African rich natural resource.


He employs the use of simple words. He also employs the languages of the local English to reflect the people he is discussing. He also employs figure of speech such as simile, metaphor, irony, epigram, apostrophe, and symbols.



He is the king’s adviser who misdirected him to set aside the former pronouncement of the gods in preference to corrupt claim he has fabricated. He is the originator of the woes that betides wara, soko, and parker and of course white head. He informs soko the priest to prophecy that the gods desires to welcome a certain visitor that people must accept. He craftily flatters soko to ‘’talk to people. Your voice is the voice of unearthly wisdom. It is the voice of the spirits of our forefathers. You divine the fate of the land. The people kneel with hope in obeisance when you perform your weird incantations and rites. They believe everything that you say and do. Where is that wisdom ? you are not…’’ with the above oratory deceit, soko succumbs and volunteers to carry on his wills and that of the white head unquestionably. His advice that soko should summon the people is followed to the letter….. tomorrow, you will summon the people and tell them that you see a stranger, approaching and that he must be received because the spirit ofour forefather say that harm will befall us if we drive him away. Leave the rest to me.’’

As an opportunist, he connives with the white head and plans the separation of wara kindo’s woman from his lover {kindo}. They act in unison to plot the death of soko, plan to kill parker and realizing that kindo has discovered their game plan, he urges the king to banish kindo thereby forcing him to embark on exile.

Maligu is selfish. After he has realized that white heads sole purpose of coming is not to build school for the people or plant tobacco but to exploit the people’s labour to extract diamond, he agrees with the white head to kill soko who he considers a threat to the major gain. He again realizes that the thrown will be vacant after the departures of kindo since the death of the aged king is imminent; he pressurizes the king to send kindo parking so that he will become the next king to enjoy the proceed of the white heads income tax. Kindo will certainly fight with the last drop of his blood to stop him. ‘’ I go now my people, but I shall come back. The king will soon die and you will make maligu the king. Then I shal come back with my warriors to take the crown, which belongs to me.’’


He is the village priest. He is not honest. Tradition bestow on him to stand as the voice of the gods to the people. This demand that he should be sleeping in the cave instead of in hi hut. Most often soko abandons this obligation and continues to sleep in his house, but he makes the people believe that he has been living with the gods and discussing with them. Unknown to him certain top officers of the palace are aware that he has not been performing this role.





GABRIEL IMOMOTINE OBAINBAING OKARA: was born in 1921 in the ijaw area of the delta region of Nigeria. After hi secondary education in, Nigeria, he developed himself, by private reading and deep thinking, into a remarkable person and poet. He is known a principal information officer in the eastern Nigeria government service.

His poems and short stories have been broadcast, published in various journals, particularly in ‘’Black Orpheus’’, and translated into many languages. His novel, the voice, published in 1964, reveals hi deep concern with the problem of the development of an English languages capable of fully expressing the African’s view of life.


When at breaks of day at a riverside

I hear jungle drums telegraphing

The mystic rhythm, urgent, raw

Like bleeding tree of speaking of

5   primal youth and the beginning,

I see the panther ready to pounce,

The leopard snarling about to leap

And the hunters crouch with spears poised;


And my blood ripples turns torrent,

10  topples the yearsand at once I’m

In my mother’s laps a suckling;

At once I’m walking simple

Paths with no innovations,

Rugged,fashioned with naked

15 warmth of hurrying feet and groping hearts

In green leaves and wilds flowers pulsing.


Then I hear a wailing piano 

Solo speaking of complex ways

In tear-furrowed concerto;

20  of far away lands

And new horizons with

Coaxing dimineudo, counterpoint,

Crescendo. But lost in the labyrinth

Of its complexities, it ends in the middle

25 of a phrase at a dagger point.


And I lost in the morning mist

Of an age at a riverside keep

Wandering in the mystic rhythm

Of jungle drums and the concerto


Piano symbolize or represent the western civilization or European culture while the drums symbolize diverse African civilization and its reach cultural heritage. The incursion of western civilization into the cherished African way of life places African man in a state of confusion and retards the growth of hi cultural life. The poet is embittered that the advent of European civilization has brought in strange culture which has been very difficult for the people to comprehend. Though culture is dynamic but the way and manner the new culture(piano) has arrived and the poor impartation and the swiftness with which the invaders tend to propagates it creates serious burden to the people it has been imposed on. ‘’then I hear a willing piano sol speaking of complex ways/in tear-surrounded concerto, of the far away lands.’’

It because of the way ‘’things have fallen apart’’ and the centre of African civilization refuses to hold’’ that compels the poet to put down his pen. As these two culture class the speaker is in dilemma.

He does not know which culture is genuine to be followed. The African way of dressing, worship, food, language or the European way of worship, dress, food , dance and language.


In line 1-8 the poet stand by the river side in the early hour of the morning. Sound of some jungle drum flow though his ears. The drums bring in deep message to his heart. The deep message rushes in like blood out of the flesh of a suddenly killed animal. Thejungle drums take him down the memory lane recalling to him what happened to him when he was a child at home. As he listens to the messages of the drum it appears as if a leopard has arrived to kill its prey. The leopard bares his teeth and poises for war. The hunters have also gathered in readiness to kill with their spears. The drums invigorate and arouse the people into forceful action. The drums tense the atmosphere.  

In line 9-16 His blood gradually returns inside him, the ancient drums carried him to the memory lane when he used to sit at his mother’s lap as a suckling child. The sound of the drums brings to his memory, how he walked along the bush path in the olden days. The bush paths were ungraded, untraded and gutter less. The message of the drums forces hi mind to return and walk along the narrow paths which people’s feet have made as he hastily, gladly moved through the blooming vegetation and flowers of tropical dark forests.

In lines 17-25 the sound of the piano pierces though the ear of the poet. The piano’s sound appears singing and crying at the same time.

The piano is just a lone voice without supporting drums. It speaks varieties of things and diverse way of life that make it difficult for the people to understand. It uses cry to put its messages across.

It discusses place that are far away and strange experiences and knowledge which proves that it is an alien speaker. The voice fluctuates, rises and softly falls. There are other entertainments that are coming from the same piano, at the same time. The speaker observes that, whichever way the music of the piano takes; whether high or low tunes, It is gradually drawing him closer to like the music of the piano. He is worried that while he hasbeen deeply engulfed in the heaviness of the piano’s melody, but it suddenly stops without final conclusion. Its abrupt stoppage become painful and devastating as if a daggerhas pierced through his flesh or body.

In line 26-29. The speaker discusses how he has been taken down the memory lane on the river side in the years gone by. In those ancient days indeed, nothing appeared visible and feasible to him as he stood dumbfounded. His mind begins to make an unsteady fluctuation between the magic flow of the jungle drums and the difficult nature of the piano and vise versa; without siting with anyone. He remains in dilemma


The poet employs many devices to convey his message.

Diction: his choice of language is good. He uses simple language that can be easily understood by a lay reader. Though there are some complex words that a lay reader must resort to the dictionary for proper meaning. Such words as ‘panther’ in line 6, ‘’crouch’’ in line 8, ‘’furrowed concerto’’, coaxing ‘’diminuendo’’, line 22, ‘’crescendo’’ line 23 ‘’labyrinth’’ line 23.


The speaker makes use of water imagery having come from river rime area. We can see such words as ‘riverside,’’ ‘’torrents’’ line 8. He makes effective use symbols. The title of the poem piano and the drums symbolizes cultural clash between the western civilization and African civilization and the consequences of the marriage that exist between the two cultures or civilization.

He againmakes use ofmetaphor to convey his message. He uses mist as a metaphor to mean that which is difficult to be remembered. In the last stanza mist is metaphorically employed to show that in the midst of culture clash, the speaker does not know which of the civilization to follow. ‘’ I lost in the morning mist of an age of a riverside deep.’’ Wondering in the mystic rhythm of jungle drums and the concerto.’’



The poem moves from one line to other without a break in sense.

‘’and my blood ripples, turns torrent, topples the years and at once I’m in my mother’s lap suckling’’ this is another clear use of imagery.

Alliteration: this is another device employs by the speaker. The poet employs the use of consonant sound. To enhance the music flow of the poem.



  1. Discuss the use of contrast in Gabriel okra’s ‘’piano and drum’’.
  2. Discuss Gabriel okra’s ‘’piano and drum’’ as protest poem.






He is a sierra Leonia writer he has produced many wor, to develop African literature. A dinning table is from the collection of his poems.

The Poem 

Dinner tonight come with

Gun wounds. Our desert

Tongues lick the vegetable

Blood the pepper

Strong enough to push scorpions

Up our heads. Guests

Look into the oceans of bowls

As vegetables die on their tongues.


The table

That gather us is an island where guerrillas

Walk the land while crocodiles

Surf. Children from alpha beta with empty palms dine

With us; switchblades in their eyes,

Silence in their voices, when the playground

Is emptied of children’s toys

Who needs roadblocks? when the hour

To drink from the cup of life ticks

Cholera breaks its spell on cracked lips

Under the spilt

Milk of the moon, I promise

To be a revolutionary, but my Nile, even

Without tributaries comes lazy

Upon its own Nile. On this

Night reserved for lovers of fire. I’m

Full with the catch of gun wounds, and my BOOTS

Have suddenly become too reluctant to walk me.



The speaker likens their dinner to a deep gun wound sustained in the battle field. The pain of the injury is compared to a dry tongue as the anguish causes slivia to dry in the tongue just like a desert which has been emptied of water. The agony resulting from the owund forces him to loose consciousness. Even the non participants are overwhelmed with the devasted effect of the bullet. Hence their own tongue are equally dry of saliva.

The speaker describes the dinning table as a war theatre where soldiers fight on land while the naval warfare takes over the sea. Hence, “The table that gathers us is an island where guerrillas walk the land while crocodiles surf”. 

Thus it is a warfare that is fought both on land and sea. This war has already begun to claim its casualties. The innocent children are not left out of the devastation. They helplessly face the wars situation in tiers and silence.

“Children from Alphabeta with palms dine with switch blades in their eyes. Silence in their voices”

The war denies them of the toy and happiness in their usual play ground in joyous mood. Even the availability of instrument of play has become a taboo to demand for. Children toys and play ground have become unnecessary luxury and an inhabitation to say the list. This explains the rhetoric questions “who needs road block”.

As the fighting fiercely rages the unhealthy atmosphere. The filthy condition and the environmental degradation, or pollution results in outbreak of diseases such as cholera and Kwashiorkor. This takes its tolls on the emaciated body structure.

In the worsening war situation, the speaker is determined to carry on the liberation struggle “revolution” but the injury sustained in the battle weakens his bones and nerves. He laments that the gun wound has rendered him ineffective or useless in a night where brilliant warriors are called upon to demonstrate their military power. And that the leg has become heavy to enable him fight like a truly wounded soldier. 


War destroys, devastate causes anguish to people. It does not discriminates, as it causes the participants to get maim, sustain injury so does it cause non participants to suffer anguish, despair and painful memory. The children are not equally spared. The war, deny them of their childhood joy and play. It inflicts injury on them and can lead to outbreak of diseases like cholera and even death. The wounded may be maimed for thereby putting them in perpetual agony. 



Rhetorical Question

“When the playground is emptied of children’s toys/who needs roadblocks?”





Written by Kofi Awoonor

Kofi Awoonor was born at Wheta, near Keta in the Volta Region of Ghana, of a Togolese mother and a Sierra Leonean Father. He was educated in Ghana at Achimota College and the University of Ghana, where he graduated in English Language and Literature. He taught for sometimes at the University Institute of African Studies where he specialized in Vernacular Poetry. He was one of the editors of Ghana’s Literary Journals, Okyeame where some of his poems have appeared and has published a volume poetry. Rediscovery 

The Anvil and the Hammer

Caught between the anvil and the hammer

In the forgoing house of a new life,

Transforming the pangs that delivered me

Into the joy of new songs

The trapping of the past, tender and tenuous

Woven with fibre of sisal and

Washed in the blood of the goat in the fetish hut

Are laced with the flimsy glories of paved streets

The jargon of a new dialectic comes with the

Charisma of the perpetual search on the outlaw’s hill


Sew the old days for us, our fathers,

That we can wear them under our new garment,

After we have washed ourselves in

The whirlpool of the many river’s estuary

We hear their songs and rumours everyday

Determined to ignore these we use snatches 

From their tunes

Make ourselves new flags and anthems

While we lift high the banner of the land

And listen to the reverberation of our songs

In the splash and moan of the sea.



An Anvil is a block usually of iron with flat top concave side and often pointed end on which metals are worked in forging.

Hammer on the other hand is a tool with heavy metal head at right angles to the handle used for breaking nails etc.

The poet of speaker is someone who is in a dilemma in his effort to transform himself to a glorious future. In his bid to move forward and to usher himself to a new era, he tries to use the available instrument the anvil and the Hammer to achieve his goal.

The poet is an African, who sees Africa in a confuse state of trying to use the European cultural values to solve all His problems. African under colonial yoke tries to use the acquired colonial values to get rid of colonialism so as to attend a new era of liberation or emancipation.

“Transorming the pangs that delivered me/into the joy of new songs

He vies civilization as not being fully European value, and therefore calls for a blend of cultural value between the European civilization and African heritage value. He does not see civilization as a total wipe out of African value. He recommends the reawakening of our past cultural value especially our good values and to mix it with the good aspects of others to build a concrete and unshakable future. This is to ensure that “The trapping of the past, tender and tonous” are “woven with fibres of sisal and washed the blood of the goat in the fetish but….” are laced with flimsy glories of paved streets. He believes that the colonial language as a language of writing or literature would serve as a valuable tool for intensive search and further discoveries of future technology and development in this regard. The poet in a clarion call demands for the good African heritage or value so that it can serve as a good background in our effort to develop in the European ideology or civilization.

He sees this as a panacea for future development and relationship with the on-going civilization or superior technology transfer. The speaker further advocates that, it is after we have acquired much of this so called technology transfer of civilization that we can sit down and develop it in our own culture pattern. “Determined to ignore these we use snatches/from their tunes/make ourselves new flags and anthems”.

He sees this as a way of preserving our values loosing the advancement made possible through the invading cultural values of outsiders. Bu so doing we will be bold to announce our arrival in the committee of advanced nations of the world. “And listen to the reverberation of our songs/in the splash and moan of the sea”.



Diction: The poem is complex for a lay reader to understand. Unlike Kofi Awonor’s songs of sorrow which is easy to understand at the surface value or reading. The imagery of breaking and remolding using the instrument of Anvil and Hammer makes it difficult to comprehend easily.

The words “tenous” and phrase “Jargon of a new dialectic” Charisma of perpectual out law’s hills call for serious pondering in understanding or interpretation. Anvil and hammer are used as symbol in the reconstruction or building the nation.


Enjambment or run on line:

This figure is excessively used on the poem. There is constant moving over of expression across the lines of the poem, forcing the verse to end in the nextline.

“Caught between the anvil and the hammer / in the forging house of a new life.”

“The Jargon of a new dialectic comes with the/Chairman of the perpetual search on the out law’s hill”.


The poet repeats the word “songs” severally to emphasise the importance of cultural background in the new world order. The word songs in plural is used in lines 4, 25 and 20.


There is repetition of consonant letters in the line to enhance the melody flow of the poem. The following lines serve as typical examples:

The trapping of the past, tender……tenous “t, t” (line 5)

“Woven with fibre of sisal and”

“w” “w” alliterates (line 6)


  1. Discuss Kofi Awonor’s Anvil and Hammer as an expression of cultural clash 
  2. Discouss Kofi Awonor’s Anvil and Hammer as a protest poem






The play is in chronological order, one event succeeds, the order. It opens with Lago a soldier under the command of Othello. He is arguing with Roderigo a wealthy manin Venice. He desires to elope with the beautiful Desdemona. 


He discovers that Desdemona is in love with Othello, he then plants Lago to keep watch over Othello’s ambition on the girl. Roderigo has mistrust on Lago because he is very close to Othello. He attributes Lago’s inability to feed him with adequate information about Desdemona to this reason. Ironically however, Lago is not in close relation with Othello because he has chosen Casio to be his right hand man instead of him (Roderigo). In conspiracy, Lago and Roderigo inform Brabantio Desdemona’s father that Othello is in love with his daughter. This information angers Brabantio who in response sends people to arrest Othello at night for abusing his daughter. Lago when asked by Othello, denied having any knowledge of Brabanatios provocation when infact he is the brain behind the ugly scene. Lago instead, advises Othello to apply wisdom in handling the men that Brabantio has sent to arrest him. Othello relies on his fame and reputation and decides not to hide, or flee. Othello and Desdemona get married without the consent of Desdemona’s father. 

Desdemona’s father accuses Othello of using magic power to influence his daughter’s consent. The conflict almost resulted to cries but for the letter that arrives to inform Othello to resume duty in Cyprus to meditate on crisis. Brabantio is unhappy situation, he had wished that Otello, be fired and be made to face the full weight of the law (imprisonment). The council opens and the senators and the Duke are discussing what to do to their enemies (the Turks). Brabantio complains in bitterness to the council how Othello has forced his daughter to relationship through magical powers.

The council is then compelled to bring in Othello to give evidence. Desdemona is equally invited to counter or support Othello’s evidence. Othello discloses how he falls in love with Desdemona and her response to his proposal. Since Desdemona’s evidence supports that of Othello, the Duke and council encourages Brabantio to consent and receive Othello as his son-in-law. They see this as the only remedy to the tension.

Recognizing military intelligent the night in Othello and his wife, recommend them to be sent to Cyprus to fight and defeat their Turkish enemies. The verdict does not go well with Roderigo, he becomes disappointed, his dreams of having Desdemona has dashed as this is a legally confirmation of Desdemona’s marriage to Othello. Lago remains hopeful and encourages Roderigo to fight on. He feels that the marriage will soon hit the rock (collapse) he urges him to gather more money for him.

Lago is unhappy with the decision of Othello to make Casio his lieutenant instead of him (Lago). He continues to ectort more money form Roderigo by criticizing Othello before himself. He designs a plan to deceive Othello that his wife Desdemona has been playing secret love affairs with Casio. 


  1. The drama Othello is an example of (a) comedy (b) tragic-comedy (c) catastrophe (d) tragedy
  2. Othello is the (a) Antagonist (b) minor character (c) melancholy (d) protagonist of the play
  3. Bianca is the (a) Wife of Othello (b) Wife of Lago (c) Lady Duke (d) Casio’s mistress
  4. The antagonist of the play is (a) Lodovico (b) Bratiano (c) Casio (d) Lago
  5. The handkerchief wa first picked by (a) Bianca (b) The Servants (c) Emilia (d) Desdemona
  6. Desdemona was murdered by (a) Lago (b) Her husband (c) Her own suicide (d) Emilia
  7. The commander that took over the command of Cyprus from Othello is (a) Casio (b) Lago (c) Montano (d) Roderigo
  8. The wealthy man that sends gift to Desdemona through Lago is (a) Casio (b) Roderigo (c) Lodovico (d) Bar Brantio
  9. The setting of the drama is in (a) Venice and Cyprus (b) Rome and Italy (c) London and Paris (d) Germany and Turkey

Hold your hands

Both you of my inclining and the rest where it my cue to fight, I should have known it

Without a prompter, whither will you that I go.

To answer this your charge?

  1. Speaker A is _________
  2. He is speaking to speaker B ………………
  3. What is meant by ‘To answer this your charge?’

Barbrantio Desdemona’s father has accused Othello of using charm to force his daughter into marriage with him.

“I think this tale would win my daughter too good Brabantio take up this mangled matter at the best/men do their broken weapons rather use/than their bare hands”

  1. Speaker A is ___________
  2. He is referring to speaker B ____________
  3. Speaker A is advising speaker B






Oliver goldsmith is an Irishman that was born to rev. goldsmith in 1728 at pallas. The goldsmiths appeared not interested to worldly matters. He lives in solitude. Some cherished staying with adults sometimes. He hated some of the characters of his teachers. Hence thy did not inspire him. His teachers regarded him as a dull boy who looked ugly.

He attended country Langford school at edge worth’s town(1741-1745). He develops interest in reading Latin poems and history. He later attended Trinity University at Dublin. He waited on fellow but wealthier students to do menial jobs for them. He used the money he receives to pay his school fees and took care of himself. He became elected to medical society in January 1753. He recklessly squandered his money. He graduated and obtained degree in medicine practice as a physician in 1753. He travelled wide and also became interested in literary work. He became known more in the library circle than in the field of medicine.

He works include: the vicar of Wakefield, The citizen of the world, an inquiry into the present state of policy learning, stated the Bee, The Mistakes of the Night, The Biography

Of Lord Bolingbroke, the Life of Dr.Panel Memoir’s of Voltair. The Life of Richard Nash Esq.

His poems include the Traveller, the deserted village, the hermit, a balad, the hunch of venison, a poetical epistle to lord clave’s relation, a poem, the captivity etc.

Gold smith wroteextensively. These are his other works (i) Beauties of English poetry (ii) compendium of Biography. He died in 1974.




The popular adagesays train a child in the way he will go when he grows he will not depart from it. Mr.s. Hardcastle has Tony Lumskin from her former marriage. She passionately loves his boy so much that she lives the boy to behave the way he likes without being cautioned or advised properly. She over pampers Tony so much that he has whatever he demands even at a tender age. She believes that when Tony grows he will sort out things and throw away the ugly part of his life or behaviour. But this never happened. 

Tony rejecting adult’s supervision carves out a territory for himself. He chooses to spend his life in the alehouse (hotels) instead of being in school with his makes and the mother encourages him. She says that her son does not need much education to spend fifteen pounds a year. Whenever Mr. Hardcastle her newhusband tries to intervene Mrs. Hardcastle interferes in defence of his boy, expressing that Tony is just a lad who is still under age. As tony grows up, he becomes a misfit. The landlord of the “three pigeons (where he usually drinks) calls him a mischievous son of a whore”. Hastings and Marlow on arrival describes him as sourcy one that is not well brought up, while the information they heard on Kate is that of an epitome of modesty, properly bred and virtuous woman. 

Again after his misbehaviour by driving his mother and the party that left to hand over Neville to her aunt per-degree round their compound thereby putting fear in his mother. Mr. Hardcastle seeing the deceptive drama qualifies them as “a pair that only spoils each other. But is not the whole age in combination to drive sense and discretion out of door”. Mr Hardcastle is equally unhappy with his wife for using her position as a mother to influence Kate on the wrong character or trait that sweeps across the town. “There is my pretty Kate! The fashions of the times have almost infected her too. By living a year or two in town, she is as fond of gauze and French frippery as the best of them.” Kate however quickly gets transformed to preferred norm because of her father’s strict discipline on her.

Mr Hardcastle tries to prove that a foolish child will become an undisciplined adult by declaring Tony to be fully mature. He foolishly rejects Neville and her casket of jewels whereby throwing him into abject poverty and shame. Kate on the other hand following the strict discipline of her father uses her discretion to win Marlow’s heart and gets married to the super-rich family. Tony for want of wisdom arising from improper upbringing gets ruined.



Mrs Hardcastle desire to keep Miss Neville’s casket of jewels within family cannot be realized, she had hoped to get Constance Neville the daughter of her aunt who died and bequeathed this inheritance to his daughter Constance. Out of greediness, Mrs Hard castle plans a false marriage between Neville and Tony Lump skin her son so that her son will live on the income that will come from that inheritance. Constance realizes that there is love lost between her and Tony and begins to desire her true love which she finds in George Hastings.

On a visit to the Hardcastles, Miss Constance Neville discloses to Hastings the evil desire of Mrs. Hardcastle. She pledges her undivided love for Hastings. Hastings responses by recommending elopement to France where there is no parental influence on marriage. He believes that their love as it stands now is far greater than any inherited property. In other words, Hastings regards Neville as his own Jewels of inestimable value. “He says, such a tedious delay is worse than inconstancy. Let us fly my charmer. Let us date our happiness from this very moment. Perish! Perish! Fortune! Love and content will increase what we possess beyond a monarch’s revenue. Let me prevail! They agree to enlist the sympathy of Tony to help them recover the casket. Tony proves himself equal to the task. He produces the casket and hands it over to Hastings but Hastings hands it to Marlow for self-keeping. He in turn hands it over to the landlady (Mrs. Hardcastle) for safer keeping. 

When Mrs. Hardcastle gets to know the plot about elopement and the miscarriage of love within Tony and Neville, she decides to send her to their aunt Pedigree. That journey suffered shame as Tony’s deception brings fear upon them. Constance being hunted by it, resolves to put her hope in Mr. Hardcastles wisdom. She urges Hasting to exercise more patience for three years. “In the moment of passion fortune may be despised, but it ever produces a lasting repentance. I’m, resolved to apply to Mr. Hardcastles compassion and justice for redress”. Indeed Mr. Hardcastle’s wisdom proffers solution to the matter.

He brings out Tony, declares him of age and desires him to consent or decline his interest on Constance Neville as his wife. Tony declines. He therefore marries Constance and Hastings ensuring they have their casket of jewels inheritance intact. Tony the false lover looses out. The case of Kate and Marlow takes a dramatic turn. The young Marlow is timid, and approaches the interview in a formal way. Kate attributes Marlow’s flaw to lack of exposure. She believes the malady can be cured easily by the skilful and virtuous wife like herself. “Ha! Ha! Was there ever such a sober, sentimental interview? I’m certain he scarce look at my face the whole time. Yet the fellow but for this unaccountable bashfulness, is pretty well too. He has good sense, but is buried in his fears, that it fatigues one more than ignorance. If I could teach him a little confidence, it would be doing somebody that I know a piece of service. 

But who is that somebody? That faith a question I can scarcely answer. In contrast, Mr. Hardcastle is totally disappointed on the conduct of Marlow. He is worried about the Union he has so cherished that will seal the relationship between his family and that of Sir. Marlow. When the father and daughter compare note, the outcome is at variance. Kate requests for a fresh interview. She comes out with no visible change. “Never mind me papa, but he is still the modest man I first took him for, you’ll be convince of it as well as I. But if I shortly convince you of his modesty, that he had only the fault’s that will improve with age. I’ll hope you’ll forgive him”. 

Mr. Hardcastle dismisses Kate’s claim as an improper observation, he calls Marlow a coxcomb and warns that he will be proved right at the arrival of Sir. Marlow which is soonest. Marlow apologizes that it is possible he has been mistaken the house as an inn and may have equally been treating the servants and services and the lady as a bar maid. He desires the lady to educate them further. Marlow apologizes further his foolishnesses to her and desires to check out of the house upon this discovery. Kate prevails on him and both agree to accommodate each other. Kate confesses her true love. “I never knew half of his merit now.” He shall not go. If I have power or art to detain him, I’ll still preserve the character in which I stooped to conquer, but will undeceive my papa, who perhaps, may laugh him out of resolution”. With Marlow’s apology and Kate’s true confession, their marriage becomes solemnized at the arrival of Sir, Marlow and everyone is in a joyous mood. “Yes my dear friend, this union of our families will make our personal friendships beneficiary; and though my daughter’s fortune is but small. Sir Marlow esteems true love better than fortune which he has greatly acquired for his son and his wife.



This is revealed in the character of Mrs. Hardcastle. She has realized that her niece Constance Neville has inherited valuable treasure from her father. Mrs. Hardcastle develops interest in the treasure. To assure full possession of it, she plans a force marriage between her soon Tony Lumpskin with Miss Neville, knowing fully well that there is no love in existence between them.

When she realizes that true love exists between Neville and Hastings, she plots to send Neville far away so as to destroy that relationship.

When she receives back the casket which Tony has stolen from her bureau from Marlow, she tries to connive with Tony to say the casket is missing. It is because of the casket that she continues to put Tony under the age of discretion. Mrs. Hardcastle is preoccupied with the trend of fashion. She complains bitterly of loneliness. She wants to dress like the people in London while living in rural district. She collects magazines and gets herself transformed through what she observes other people do outside her environment. 

The wind of affectation that sweeps across nearly sweeps Kate along. Her father Mr. Hardcastle complains bitterly to this observation. “Blessings on my pretty innocence”. Drest out as usual, my Kate. Goodness! What a quantity of superfluous silk has thou got about thee, girl! I could never teach the fools of this age, that the indigent world could be cloted out of the trimmings of the vain.



Mr. Hardcastle is an epitome of contentment. He does not wants to be affected by the so called winds of change that sweeps across. He reflects of the old times ways of Marlborough and the large houses. He trains Kate to be modest. His attitude or way of life has nothing to do with Tony. At last it is the life of contentment that stands the test of time.  



He is a conservative man who lives in an old fashioned house which is often mistaken to be inn. He is a man of the people who volunteers his house for peace settlement centre. He is outspoken and always stands by his word and is equally generous. The landlord of the three pigeons confirmshim as “A troublesome old blade, to be sure, but keeps as good wines and beds as any in the whole country.” He is a retired army officer who is full of reflection of the events in the military when he served. He discusses this with his wife who does not show much interest in the heroic deeds of the past. “Ay, your times were fine times indeed; you have been telling us of them for many a long year. Here we live in an in, rumbling mansion, that looks for all the world like an inn, but that never see company. He lives in solitude to the detriment of his wife who loves crowd. “Our best visitors are old Mrs. Oddfish, the curate’s wife and cripple gate, the lame dancing master; and all entertainment your old stories of prince Engine and Duke of Malborogh. I hate such old-fashion trumpery. His wife Mrs. Hardcastle tells George Hastings that her husband is an old school who prefers everything ancient. He does not fully approve of the influence the township life is bringing into the rural district thereby robbing it of serenity. “I wonder why London cannot keeps its own fools at home.”

As a disciplinarian, he does not approve of the pampering training his wife has been giving Tony. He holds the duo in ridicule. “Ay, there goes a pair that only spoil each other. But is not the whole age in a combination to derive sense and discretion out of doors? There is my pretty darling Kate! The fashion of the times have almost infected her too”. He ensures that the above anomaly he finds in Kate is corrected. Now wonder she believes herself so well that the suitor plans to die for her love.

He is a beloved husband, dutiful father who tolerates, forgives and accommodate all. He does not send Mrs. Hardcastle packing because of Tony’s habit and behaviour. He forgives Marlow for being impudent or insultive to him. Realizing that there is love lost between Tony and Neville, he pronounces the young to be of age. After his declaration that he does not like Neville, he unites her with Hastings. 

He teaches his servants to treat his guest couteosuly and gives them liberty to carry on their regular routines so long as they keep to the rules. Mr. Hardcastle, as a good father does not want his daughter to make mistake in the choice of a husband. After convincing her that the son of Sir Marlwo will be good for her, he still insists for a separate interview. Even when the interview has been conducted separately, he still remains unsatisfied because of the ill behaviour he notices in Marlow. He orders for a fresh interview. When he receives convincing statement from Kate and the unqualified apology from Marlow, he consents and gives his daughter’s hand in marriage to Marlow. Mr. Hardcastle is humble. He admits to his friend Sir. Marlow that Kate does not have enough fortune but has good manner to compliment, for what she has not. He is a good spirited man who rejoices with those who rejoice. “Well, I’ll be in too good spirit to think of anything but joy. Yes, my dear friend, this union of our families will make our personal friendships heredity and though my daughter’s fortune is but small.” Unlike his wife Mr. Hardcastle is not convetous. Once he realizes that Tony does not love Neville but Hastings does, he declares Tony of age and allows the casket of jewels to depart from his step son to a total stranger, to ensure equity and fairness. 







George Herbert (1593-1633) like Donne had both a political career (as public orator at Cambridge University and as a Member of Parliament, and religious career as a pastor at Bremerton). His poems reflect a consonant attempt to a comfortable and lasting relationship between himself and God. These attempts were frustrated by Herbert’s sense of his own sinfulness and belief that human beings were inherently unworthy of God’s love.

Herbert’s poetry is notable for its craft.

In the 164 poems that make up the temple’’, no stanzaic form of rhyme scheme is repeated exactly from one poem to the next.

The Poem

The Pulley

As the title implies, the poem deals with God’s

Means of drawing us to himself’’ {palmer}


When God at first made man,

Having a glass of blessing standing by,

‘’Let us, ‘’said he, ‘’pour on him all we



Let the world’s riches, which dispersed lie,

Contract into a span.” 5

So strength first made way

Then beauty flowed; then wisdom, honour,


When almost all was out, God made a stay,

Perceiving that alone, of all his treasure,

Rest in the bottom lay. 10


“for if I should.” Said he,

“bestow this jewel also on my creature,

He would adore my gifts instead of me,

And rest in Nature, not God of Nature;

So both should loser be. 15


“yet let him keep the rest,

But keep them with repining restlessness;

Let him be rich, and weary, that at least,

If goodness lead him not, yet weariness

May toss him to my breast.” 20



In line 1-5 God expressing his love for mankind declares that “ let all created  world richly endowments be poured on mankind as shower of blessing. He emphasizes further that the bountiful blessings that scattered throughout the length and breadth of the universe offered mankind for his early enjoyment.

In line 6-10. The speaker in itemizing the catalogue of the blessing or worldly treasure other lines reveals that God first of all bestowed mankind with strength. And goes on to add natural beauty, he further bestowed mankind wisdom, then released honour, and lastly offered him pleasure of relaxation. When God has however accomplished this great task and has finished the distribution of the above treasure to mankind he pondered a while examine the attitude of man. Realizing the non-appreciative tendencies of mankind to God gesture, the poverty of his thought, he tried to hesitate in releasing the most valuable treasure which formed the bottom line of the catalogue of the gifts or the most expensive jewel of inestimable value). At last volunteered it (released) with condition.

In line 11-15, God realizing the unworthy nature man, his ignorance of the superlative position of God ad supremacy in the Hierarchy of power and might, he expresses disappointment in the character of man .he wondered whether man will not misuse the last  and the most treasured jewel, if he gives it to him. Judging from man’s ingratitude, God concludes that man in his sheer ignorance will chose to worship the material gifts instead of the giver of such endowment. God therefore lament that man will rather depend on the creation instead of the creator. The action will benefit neither god nor man. “So both should losers be”

In lines 16 20, God resolves unreservedly to offer man all his bountiful blessings. He however released with the storms of life. The accompanying storms vary from: chronic sickness, famine, financial problems, joblessness, childlessness, poverty, failure in examination, business, and in career. When man is faced with any of these difficulties in life(life’s storm) and has sought for solution in every human endeavour and failed, he will resort to God the ultimate solution solver. This is explains in:“if Goodness lead him not, yet weariness, may loss him to my breast.”


  • The uniqueness and the supremacy of God’s power over man.
  • Only God has solution to man’s problem.
  • The vanity of abandoning God in pursuit of material things.
  • God exercises absolute control over all creation.


Alliteration: made man “M” alliteration line 1

The poet employs the use of repetition for purses of emphasis and to enhance the unity of the poem.

Certain words that are phrases are used to achieve this aim:

The word “God” is repeated four times in the poem, it appears in each stanza.

The “Let” appears in 3,4,16 and 17. The pronoun “he” is used in 3 repeated in 11, and 13.

The word “when” is used in line1, repeated in 8.

The word “rest” is used in line 16 to draw comparism and repeated so in 19. The word “nature” is used twice in line 14.


Metaphor: this is direct comparism of unrelated thing in “repining restlessness” is a metaphor for suffering or difficulties.

World riches” is metaphorically world treasures.


Allusion: this is reference to historical event or abstract thing that is unrelated to the story. The phrase “let us” is reference to biblical story of creation of man in gen 1:26.


This figure uses half to complete full is used in the word “breast” in the last line of the poem. God’s breast is God himself


This is associated with the rhyming pattern of vowel sound in a line of poem. 

Examples are “made” “man” “a” assonates. Line 1, “made” “away” “a” assonates (line 6) made” “a” “stay” “a’’ assonates. Line (8) “would adore” “Ou” assonates “so” “both” “o” assonates, should loser’’ “U” assonates, yet let” “e” assonates.

Rhyming scheme:

The four stanza poem is arranged in alternate rhyming with the last line of the five limes standing on it. the rhyming reacts.



  1. Discuss George Herbert is “the pulley” as an expression of vanity.
  2. Discuss the use of symbolism in George Herbert’s poem “the pulley’




Williams Blake was born on the 28th November 1757 in London where he remained for most of his life. He was educated at home by his mother until 1767 when he was sent to Henry pars drawing school. At the age of fourteen he became an apprentice to James Basirethe engraver and after studying at royal academy school he started to produce water. Colours and engravings for magazines. In 1783 he married Catherine Boucher. Some f Blake’s earliest poems were written at the age of twelve and his first book of poems was produced in 1783 (poetical sketches), and this was later followed by (songs of innocence) in 1789, and (songs of experience) in 1794.

I love to rise in a summer morn,

When the birds sing on every tree;

The distant huntsman winds his horn,

And the sky-lark sings with me.

O! What sweet company.


But to go to school in a summer morn,

O! It drives all joy away;

Under a cruel eye outworn.

The little ones spend the day,

In sighing and dismay.


Ah! Then at times I drooping sit,

And spend many an anxious hour,

Nor in my book can I take delight,

Nor sit in learning’s bower,

Worn thro’ with the dreary shower.


How can the bird that is born for joy,

Sit in a cage and sing.

How can a child when fears annoy.

But droop his tender wing.

And forget his youthful spring.


O! Father& mother, if buds are nip’d,

And blossoms blown away,

And if the tender plants are stripped

Of their joy in the springing day,

By sorrow and care’s dismay


How shall the summer arise in joy.

Or the summer fruits appear.

Or how shall we gather what grief’s destroy

Or bless the mellowing year



The speaker in the poem is a young boy who cherishes rising up in the fresh and enjoyable, summer morning. The cheeping of the birds announces the day break. The boy gets entertained by the slender company of the hunter who blows his clarion form a distance field and sweet lullabies of sky-lark.

In the 2nd slender: the speaker express his disappointment in attending school in a sweet summer morning where he desires to derives pleasure in the mirth of summer it weakens and burden him to study under a discipline teacher who supervises hi actions. “Under a cruel eye outworn” the boy is embittered with school system, and wondered why the pleasure of pleasant, summer should be substituted with the compulsory and constant school going system where boredom replaces childhood happiness.

In stanza 3: Expresses the boy’s weariness in the system. He sits drooping out in the sea of tediousness. The boy restrains the assault on him by the oppressive personality of the teacher and unnecessary lectures (shower of meaningless words) the finicky teacher gushes his words of erudition without even attempting to understand the boy’s aspiration and his desire for unchecked freedom. The learning bower represent a garden where the boy can study in a natural atmosphere with nature, which is totally devoid of the teacher’s interference.

In stanza 4: the speaker likens his situation to that of a bird. He declares that bird that is born cheerful and jovial can never sing sweet songs if restricted in a cage. In the same vain, a child places under umbrella of intimidation, fear, tension, uninspiring teacher can not experience the natural instincts of joy, and playfulness. Obviously, a world full of rigid course of discipline will ruthlessly take away the beautiful spring (the precious childhood days) of one’s life.

In stanza 5: the boy complains to the education authorise, to parents, desiring that if a budding child is picked and swept of in the early stage of life and is thrown in an ocean of anguish, where there is no one to care, if Misery withers the tender plants the beautiful buds and the new buds, summer can never ever be joyful. 

In stanza 6: the boy warns that if care and concern is enthrone to rule over the plants,Flowers, birds such a summer will be dry and will bear no fruit. He further desires from his parents how, how they can recover what grief has destroyed. Saying further that if the plants are withered due to canker of grief, no fruit will be there in the season of autumn(mellowing year), by implication, the child means , that if childhood pleasures and joys are restricted and truncated, the adult life will be drab and fruitless.


The poem discuss a boy’s repelling comparison at his school, his company from the animate objects of summer morning (bird’s flowers etc.) to the unanimated object of his school is certainly a matter of concern and grief. School life is an ordeal for him.

The boy’s feeling of summer festivity is countered by the terrifying eye of the teacher that robs from him all his childhood happiness. School is nothing but prison that negates the playful activity of childhood. The restriction or imposing in school form a hurdle for the natural expression of the creativity and forlorn the essence of genuine.

2)   Rigid school training kills skill and creativity in a growing child.

3)   Parentsshould endeavour to relax the rigid control over their wards.

4)   The compulsory formal education that is begins formulated by the adult without the input of the children who bear the consequence of their parent’s action should be revisited to add more leisure for the young stars to exercise themselves properly. After all our work and no play makes jack a mere toy.



Discuss William Blake’s “schoolboy” as a protest poem.

Sharing is Caring – Pass It On