Third Term Lesson Notes SS 1 English Grammar


SUBJECT: ENGLISH LANGUAGE                                            CLASS S.S 1




Revision of Last Term’s Work and Examination 

Comprehension- Reading to grasp word meanings in various contexts.

Commonly Misspelt Words

The Use of Dictionary

Practical Approach to Summary Writing

Comprehension: Reading for the main point. “Beauty” 

Vocabulary Development: Advertising

Structure: Adjuncts: explanation and Examples 

Writing: Narrative Essay: Explanation, Features and Outline of a topic

Comprehension: Fishing in Hausa Land, page 227, Effective English

Summary Writing: A Sample Passage, page 152-153.

Vocabulary Development: Words associated with home and family life.

Writing: Expository Essay: Explanation, Features and Outline of a topic

Structure: Introduction to Clauses.

Essay Writing: More on formal letter.

Speech Work: Rhymes

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Government and Politics.

Comprehension / Reading Skills: More on Skimming and Scanning.

Speech work: Diphthongs /ei/ and /ai/

Structure: Conjuncts and Disjuncts. 

Structures: Plural forms of Nouns and Compound Nouns.

Speech work: Words of two syllables which are stressed on the first or second syllables

Essay Writing: Story Writing- A story which illustrates the saying- It is a man’s world”

Comprehension and Reading Skills: Reading for leisure

Writing: Semi Formal Letter: Explanation and Features

Sentence Structure and formation.

Spelling: Dropping (e) and retaining (e)

Comprehension; Summarizing in a specified number of sentences 

Speech Work: Homophones

Structure: Functions of comparatives.

Vocabulary Development: Sports and Entertainment.

Comprehension/Reading Skills: Identifying statutory topic, theme and key sentences of a passage. Vocabulary Development: Words associated with journalism and advertising. Structure: Antonyms as words opposite in meaning and nearly opposite in meaning.

Informal Letter Writing: Explanation and Features

Comprehension/Speaking skill. Speech work: contrasting /i/  and  /i: /. Essay writing: Argumentative – Indiscipline is Responsible for the Poor Performances of Students in Examinations’ 

Structure: Pronoun references to the three Persons in English

Comprehension: Summarizing in a specified number of words. Vocabulary Development: Words associated with Building. Structure: synonyms: words nearest in meaning
Revision and Examination




Revision of last term’s work and examination

Comprehension: Reading to grasp words meanings in various contexts.

Commonly Misspelt Words


Comprehension: Reading to grasp words meanings in various contexts.

  • Content:
  • Reading 

Contextual Usage of Words

The passage in unit 8 page 133 makes comparison between men and women from some findings, it is concluded that men interrupt discussion more than women.  Also, it’s recorded that certain men consistently dominate talk in any conversation.

Words can give various meanings in various contexts, for example; the word ‘man’ can be used to have various meanings in various context e.g. That man is my father. ‘man’ in this context means an adult male human being.



State the synonyms of the following:

  1. Appreciate 
  2. Debt
  3. Forgiveness 


He was assigned to man  the gate of the company. ‘man ‘ here means guide, He is to  man  the office ‘man’ here means take charge, or manage.


In the passage read, the word ‘sex’ as used in the passage means ‘gender’.

In another context it could mean an intercourse between a male and a female.


‘leave’ in the first line of the second paragraph means ‘make.’ ‘leave’ could also mean vacate or a short break from work.



Give another word to the underlined words as used in the passage

  1. The woman  railed  profusely when talking
  2. I have walked down the rail  on the stair case
  3. The rail is risky for vehicles to cross



Unit 10 page 162 of the Effective English.

Commonly Misspelt Words

There are words that students easily get confused about in terms of spelling. The words are: 

Misspelling Correct spelling

Accomodations Accommodation

Begining Beginning

Clearify Clarify

Continous Continuous

Defiinate Definite

Convenant covenant

Dilligent diligent

Auxillary Auxiliary

Enimity Enmity

Enviroment Environment

Greatful grateful


EVALUATION: write out the correct spellings of the following words: grammer, guidiance, fourty, intrest, grieivous, mispel, bustop, noticable, ocasion, occured.   


  1. The Use of Dictionary

The dictionary is used for the following of purposes: meaning, spelling, pronunciation, usage, stress, collocation, transcription, parts of speech/ word classes etc. consider the word ‘abuse’.

  1. Abuse: 
  1. Word class: Noun, Verb. 
  2. Transcription: /әbju:s/(N), /әbju:z/(V)
  3. Meaning: misuse, unfair violent treatment insult
  4. Collocation: drug/alcohol/substance abuse


Note: The transcription of the word ‘abuse’ above already include its stress, while the collocation covers its usage as well. The Oxford Advanced Dictionary is used here.



Using a good dictionary, write out the transcription, word class, meaning, stress, collocation/usage of these words: rapport, acquaint. Defer. Solicit, acquiesce, cohere, comply, concur, obsess, and concede.




Practical Approach to Summary Writing

Vocabulary Development: Advertising

Comprehension; Reading for main point “Beauty”

Structure:  Adjuncts: Explanation, Categories and Examples.

Writing: Narrative Essay: Explanation, Features and Outline on a Topic


  1. Practical to Approach Summary Writing.

There are two approaches to summary writing: the précis and the question-answer type. For the sake of WAEC, we will look at the rules guiding the second one.


Rules of Summary

  1. Read the passage twice or three times and make sure you understand it before attempting the questions.
  2. Answers to summary questions must be as short as possible. You will be penalized for wordiness.
  3. You must write your answers in your own words; lifting attracts zero.
  4. Avoid the inclusion of extraneous materials in your answers.
  5. Your answers must be written in sentences and numbered. Answers in phrases will attract penalty.
  6. Ensure your answers are error-free. Grammatical errors will also be penalized.
  7. Avoid ambiguous expressions in your answers. Be as clear as possible.



Read the passage on page 212 to 214 and answer the summary questions on page 215 of Effective English book 1.



Page 111 – 112 of Countdown English (Revised Edition)


  1. Vocabulary Development: Advertising
  • Explanation
  • Relevant words

Advertisement – texts, pictures and illustrations or music used in creating awareness about a product or service.

Target – the group of people that an advert is aimed at. It may be children, men, students etc.

Advertising – is the process of creating awareness on a product or service.

Publicity – any material that is written or spoken about a product or service.

Market – those who may buy the product

Branding – is the activity of giving a particular name and image to a product/goods or services.



  1. A public announcement of a product or service is called ______(billboard, newsletter, advertisement)
  2. ______ is the person/group that consumes the product. ( advertiser, agent, end-user)
  3. The activity that is related to buying and selling of goods and services on TV or Radio is ____( commercials, announcements, news casting)
  4. _____ is a company which helps produces advertise their products. ( consumer, advertising agency, public relation unit)
  5. A reduction in the price of something is _____ ( gift, dash, discount)



Page 183 – 184 of Countdown English ( Revised Edition)


  1. Structure: Adjunct: Explanation, Categories, Examples.

This is a type of adverb which modifies the verb by altering its meaning. An adverb answers the questions how, when, where, to what extent, hoofter etc. the action in a sentence has been performed.

  1. The teacher taught us well. (how?)
  2. The programmer ended happily. (how?) 
  3. The lesson will commence now. ( when?)
  4. I will see you later.(when?)
  5. He sometimes forgets his own name. (how often?)

Adjuncts are classified with the following categories:


Name Questions Examples

Manner How? Well, quickly, slowly, fast

Time When? Now, again, lately, soon, yesterday.

Place where? There, near, outside, somewhere

Degree To what extent? Scarcely, quite, hardly, very

Frequency How often often, usually, normally

Direction ____ forward, away, eastward



Write six sentences each containing a category of adjunct given above and underline the adjuncts.



Page 250 of Countdown English Language (Revised Edition)


  1. Narrative Essay

Contents: Explanation, Features and Outline of a Topic.

A narrative essay is a written account of an imaginary or real event in the past. This involves detailed explanation and orderly arrangement of the storyline or incidents.


Basic Features

  1. The title is boldly written in capital letters ( preferably)
  2. The past tense is used in expression.
  3. There should be vivid description of events.
  4. The events should be orderly/ chronologically arranged and properly linked together.
  5. The paragraph should be well developed and embellished with figurative language, proverbs etc. to make it interesting


Outline: My Most Interesting Journey

  • The preparation for the journey, and why.
  • When the journey started ( morning, afternoon)
  • Describe how you felt and who or what you saw.
  • Explain the interesting part of it using figures of speech
  • State how long it lasted and when you arrived.
  • Conclusion: lessons learnt (if any)



Mention the key features of a narrative you write the essay as an assignment.



Page 6 of Countdown English (Revised Edition)



Choose the word that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the italized words and that will, at the same time correctly fill the gap in the sentence.

  1. One of the two armed robbers was daring (a) Morose (b) reckless (c) rational (d) secretive    (e) timid
  2. You must conform with the school rules, for if you ____ you will make discipline impossible. (a) deny (b) avoid (c) follow    (d) deviate    (e) denigrate
  3. Many people in developing countries are indigent ; but in the countries that are more highly developed technologically, there are more ……….people. (a)indigenous (b) poor

(c) effluent   (d) affluent   (e)  industrialized.

  1. The player was reprimanded by his coach. (a) raised (b) promoted (c)  praised (d) bullied 
  2. Everyone was convinced of his innocence


  1. Write five examples of a  noun clause
  2. Write three examples for each of the following : Adverbial and Adjectival Clauses.




Comprehension: Fishing in Hausa Land.

Summary: A sample Passage.

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with home and family life.


  1.  COMPREHENSION: Fishing in Hausa Land, page 227 of Effective English


  • Reading 
  • Explanation.

The passage is about how fishing is done in Hausa Land. It consists of the explanation and equipment used in fishing. Read the passage and answer the questions unit.



Answer the questions on the passage.



Page 227 – 228 of Effective English For SS1.


  1. Summary Writing: Leisure Time ( page 152 – 153) of Effective English Book 1.


The passage is about Leisure time and how it is spent from time immemorial. You are expected to read the passage twice or three times to understand it fully and then answer the summary questions on it.



Answer the summary questions of this passage on page 154 and submit to your teacher.



Countdown English ( Revised Edition).




  • Features of the Clause
  • Types of Subordinate Clauses
  • Features or Clauses


A Clause should have a subject and a predicate. E.g


Subject Predicate

Idowu bought a piece of land

A Clause must always have a finite verb and it distinguishes it from a phrase.


Types of Clauses

Independent and Dependent Clauses.

Independent Clauses:  These are also called main or principal clauses.  It expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence  e.g

My English Master is a kind man.

Tope is coming here tomorrow.


Dependent Clauses: These are also called subordinate clauses, It doesn’t express a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentences. It depends on an independent clause for its meaning

e.g……………………which he recommended

 ……………………….whose biro was stolen


Types of Dependent/Subordinate Clause.

There are three types of subordinate clauses: Noun,, Adjectival and Adverbial Clauses.

  1. A Noun Clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of a noun e.g.


  1. What he said  IS BITTER ( SUBEJCT )


  1. Truth    is bitter ( subject )b

B(i)  The  important thing is that  he has arrived   

Noun Clause).

  1. Adjectival Clauses and their Functions.

An adjectival clause is a  subordinate clause that performs the functions of an adjective, that is modifies a noun or pronouns.  The following subordinating conjunctions are usually employed to introduce adjectival clauses.  Who, whom, whose, that, which, where, when, etc. e.g

  1. The man  who came here  is a teacher
  2. The house, which has been renovated  looks very new
  3. The Lady whose car was stolen  is crying.
  1. Adverbial Clauses and their function:   

 An adverbial clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of an adverb, such as telling us how, when where, why to what extent or under what conditions, the actions of the verb is performed. In other words, the adverbial clause modifies the verb in the main clause.

She sings  as if she were hungry

Tope greeted me  when she came to my office.



  1. Manner ii. Time iii.  Place iv.  Reason  or cause   v. conditions  vi. Purpose  vii. Result     viii. Comparison      ix  concession



Underline and identify the types of clauses in the following sentences.

  1. We heard what he said.
  2.  The girl wanted what I could not give her.
  3. The principal who I told you about is a sadist.
  4. It happened on a day when I left the town.
  5. Go and bring water while I fetch wood.



Count down in English Language by Evans pg 220-224.


  1. Writing: Expository Essay


  • Explanation
  • Features
  • Outline on a Topic.


An expository essay is a type of essay that aims to instruct, inform, explain, criticize or analyse issues. In expository essay, we basically get educated or enlightened on such burning issues.



  1. The topic is boldly written in capital letters ( preferably).
  2. The points/arguments should be logically presented.
  3. Paragraphs should be developed with facts, examples and illustrations, comparison and contrasts, connectives.
  4. Proper definition and explanation of vague ideas is vital.
  5. The present tense is used.


Outline: The Problem With Nigeria

  • You can start by acknowledging the fact of the topic.
  • Mention at least three major problems and their causes.
  • Discuss how these problems are affecting us as a nation.
  • Suggest viable solutions to these problems.
  • Use facts and data from daily news.
  • Conclusions: recap and buttress your points.



Write an essay on the outlined topic above.



Page 19 – 21 of Countdown English Language (Revised Edition)


Family Relationship:  

Mother, Father, brother, sister, half-brother etc half brother :C = a boy or man who has the same mother of father as one half (also half sister).

Grandchild – child of one’s son or daughter.

Cousin – child of one’s uncle of aunt

Uncle – brother of one’s mother of father or husband of one’s aunt.

Aunt-  sister of one’s mother or father or wife of one’s uncle

Nephew  ( son of one’s sister or brother 

Step Mother –  Woman who maries one’s father (also step father )

Relative – member of the same family or extended family as oneself

Family – group of people consisting of parents and their children

Extended family – group of people consisting of parents and their children and such other peo0ple as one’s aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents.

Distant Relative –  Relative such as one’s cousin’s child).

Nuclear Family – Family consisting only of parents and their children and not including aunts, uncles, cousins, etc.

Words for objects in the Home furniture = “Large movable objects such as tables, chairs, beds, used in a room for sitting, sleeping or putting things on.

Utensils tools or objects for cooking 

Wardrobe –  Tall cupboard where one can hang one’s clothes

Grinder – ( device for crushing some things into small piece or making it into a powder’).

Blender –  machine used in the kitchen for mixing liquids and soft food together  into a smooth liquid substance.’.

Fridge – Cooling container for keeping food and other things in so that they stay fresh.


Complete each of the following sentences with the most appropriate word.

  1. The daughter of one’s sister or brother is one’s ……….
  2. Janice cannot marry yet because her ………. has not been able to pay the  bride price.
  3. There are no cooking ….such as pots and saucepans in the kitchen.
  4. Saturday mornings are spent……. The floor with stiff brushes and plenty of water.
  5. Out of the following only a … not a member of the nuclear family.

  (a) Cousin (b) Father    ( C)  brother     (d)  Mother    (e) Sister.



Register: pg 112 Exam Focus: English for JSCE.



Choose the word that contains the same sound as the sound represented by the underlined letters in the given word.

  1. Splash (a) measure (b) bus   (c) buzz (d) shoot
  2. Choleric (a) chores (b) chap  (c) cattle (d) short
  3. Yesterday  (a )joyful (b) union  (c ) please (d) physics
  4. Toddler. (a) thunder (b) weather ( c) cooked (d) though
  5. Tough     (a)phase (b) ghost (c ) long (d) garden (e) high



Write five examples of a noun clause performing different functions.




  • Speech Work: Rhymes
  • Essay Writing: More on formal Letter 
  • Vocabulary Development: Words associated with Government and Politics 


  1. RHYMES 


  • Definition 
  • Rhyme pairs 


Rhyme is two letters that have the same ending sound. Rhyme is also used in poetry to refer to a pair of lines that ends with the same sequence of sounds.


Rhymes Pairs

  1.   Should                    Would 
  2.   Food                        Sued
  3.   Bird                         Word
  4.   Laugh                       Calf 
  5.   Ride                          Site 
  6.   Buy                          Sky 
  7.   Head                        Said 
  8.   Fail                           Sail
  9.   Hair                          Bear
  10. Breeze                       Please 
  11. Know                        Hoe
  12. Crave                        Grave 
  13. Shock                       Rock 
  14. ball                          call
  15. dove                         love



From the words lettered A-D, chosen the word has the same VOWEL sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

Lock  Work  Port  Talk  Nurse 
Best  Regale  Vehicle  Many  Legal 
Grew  Sew  Who  Pull  Know 
Hill  Chief  Hike  Saw  Fit 
Hunt  Rough  Cough  Huge  Burnt 



More on Rhyme Standard Speech 10 page 32


  1. ESSAY WRITING: More on Formal Letter 


  • Definition 
  • Features

Another name for formal letters is official letters. They are letters we write to people in official positions. 



  1. Writer’s Address 

This should be written at the top right hand corner of the page like this: 

199, Airport Road,



15th July, 2010.

  1. Receiver’s Address: This is written on the line following the date on the left hand side of the page.



The Director,

Fola Associated Enterprises,

P.M.B.  10016,



  1. Salutation 

The salutation is the greeting, which comes after the receiver’s address.

 “Dear Sir” or “Dear Madam”. The “S” or “M” must be in capital as in the following.


Dear Madam,

Dear Sir, 


There is also a compulsory comma after the salutation. 


  1. Heading or Topic or Title 

This comes directly after the salutation but not on the same line. It is only official letter that has a heading and it is normally short e.g. 

  1. Invitation to a religious seminar 
  2. Complaints about the lack of facilities in my area.

The heading should either be written in capital letter all through or underlined when the first word of every lexical item is in capital letter 


  1. Body of the Letter 

No room for exchange of pleasantries matters. Slang and contracted forms like won’t, can’t. Use polite and formal words 


  1. Subscript (Complementary close) 


Formal letters end mostly with 


“Yours faithfully,


Kingsley Effiong,



Write a letter to the Commissioner for Education in your state, informing him of your council’s plan and how the council intends to implements its aid programme to school.



Countdown in English page 54-57




  • Definition 
  • Relevant words 


Government: It is a form of system of government or the act or process of governing 


Politics: It is an idea and activities that are concerned with the gaining and using of power in a country, city e.t.c.


Relevant words  Meaning 
1 Ballot box  Box into which voters put their ballot paper 
2 Constituency  Voters in a district or area; the district or area itself 
3 Democracy  Government that is run by all the people, directly or through representatives.
4 Despot  Ruler who does what he likes and oppresses the people directly or through representatives 
5 Electoral College  Group of people who have already been voted in as members of house, who now may vote in the president 
6 Nomination  Act of naming a candidate for a post or office 
7 Political Party  Group of persons or an association formed for the purpose of practising politics.
8 Voting Age  Minimum age at which one is eligible to vote 
9 Election  An occasion when people vote to choose someone for an official position;



Choose five vocabularies of government and politics and use them in sentences.


Use them in sentences 


Countdown in English by Evans 147-148



Fill in the blanks in the following passage with one of the words in the brackets (democracy, executive, despot, legislature, voting, ballet, electoral, booth, party, vote, constituency, candidate, nominate, election)


In a ___________ system of government an ________ president can very easily become a _________ unless his __________ refused to _______ him for another term. Usually, ___________is by ___________ . Each is usually nominated in his _________by his party. 



Write a letter to your father who is in another country telling him about the political situation of your country.




  • Comprehension / Reading Skills: More on scanning and skimming 
  • Speech Work: Contrasting /s/ and /z/ and /ʒ/ /f/ and /v/
  • Structure to Nominalization 




  • Skimming 
  • Scanning 


  1. Skimming

This is the process of going through written materials very fast in search of the main ideas. It involves glancing through the text to determine its gist. It also implies rapid reading with special attention to the main points. The reader who is skimming looks for keywords headings, sub-headings e.t.c. The reader covers the entire reading materials as quickly as possible jotting down only the salient or cogent points. One of the major purposes of skimming is the location of main ideas. It is looking quickly over the text to get a general superficial idea of the content of the printed material


  1. Scanning 

The major purpose of scanning is the rapid and efficient location of specific words, facts or details. It is the processing of large quantities of print materials for the purpose of localising particular facts or details. The reader is expected to look at the materials to be read attentively in order to find out the suitability or relevance of the material for a given purposes. The reader is expected to fast phrase by phrase with flexibility and a high degree of concentration in an attempt to draw out the salient points.



Skim and scan through the comprehension passage on page 152 of your Effective English and answer the questions under it.



Page 152- 153 of the Effective English 


  1. Speech Work: Contrasting /s/ and /z/ and  /ʒ/, /f/ and /v/

/f/ is a voiceless labio dental fricative while /v/ is a voiced labio dental fricative



/v/ /f/
Vine  Fine
Vast  Fast 
Halve  Half 
Alive  Life 
Proof  Prove 
Save  Safe 
Divine  Define 
Review  Refuse 
Invest  Infest 
Starve  Staff 
Sieve  Sift 
Live  Life 


/s/    /z/ 

/s/ is a voiceless alveolar fricative 

/z/ is a voiced alveolar fricative

/s/ /z/
Sow  Zoo 
Sip  Zip
Bless  Breeze 
Rice  Rise 
Dice  Dries 
Bins  Beans
Bus  Business 
Excess  Example 


/ʒ/     /ʃ/

/ʒ/is a voiced post alveolar fricative 

/ʃ/ is a voiceless post alveolar fricative  


/ʒ/ /ʃ/
Vicious  Erasure 
Gracious  Pleasure 
Nation  Treasure 
Machine  Exposure 
Precious  Measure 
Commotion  Confusion 
Indication  Decision 
Shrub  Beige 
Chauffeur  Mirage 



Write 2 words each to show contrast of the following pairs of sounds:

  1. / ʃ /  and  /ʒ/,  
  2. /s/ and /z/
  3. /v/ and /f/


Standard Speech 10 Book, Diction in English Course page 2-6




  • Definition 
  • Affixation 
  • Compounding 

Nominalization refers to the conversion from other word classes into nouns. The methods of deriving nouns include the following: Affixation, The use of the definite article (the) + Adjective, Compounding.


Affixation refers to the way affixes (bound morphemes) are applied to the word with new meanings, or to modify the meaning of words or change the grammatical classes of words. Affixes include prefixes, suffixes and infixes.


Suffixes used to form nouns include the follwing: ment, ness, ion, ship, hood, ation, ance, /ence, ancy/ency, atis, cido, ism, ist, re/or,ee, ster,ess/tress  /trix/ ine, let/ ette/ -ette/ -ling, -ve, -ant, -ing


“ment” it usually  goes with verbs 

  • Enslavement – enslave 
  • Encroach – encroachment 
  • Enlighten – enlightenment 


“ness”- This norpheme is applied to adjectives especially those that end with – ful, less, -y, ous, -ve e.g.

  • Useful – usefulness 
  • Heartless – heartlessness
  • Callous – callousness


“ity”- It’s often connected to adjective especially those that end with “ic”, “se”, “re”, “al” , “cal”, “ous”, “ve”, “ble”, “able”, “ce”


  • Ethnic – ethnicity
  • Intense – intensity 


“hood”- It is attached to nouns, adjectives or adverbs 

  • Man- manhood
  • Priest – priesthood 


Compounding: A compound noun is a noun composed of more than one word. The plural form of a compound noun is derived through the addition of “s” or ( an equivalent plural marker) to the major word of the compound noun. 


The major word may be the initial part of the compound e.g. 

Singular  Plural 
Secretary-general  Secretaries-general
Court-martial  Courts-martial 
Hanger-on  Hangers-on 
Solicitor-general  Solicitors-general 


The main word is the final part of the compound 


Headscarf  Headscarfs 
Talisman  Talismans 
Linguafranca  Linguafrancas
Child soldier  Child soldiers
Man eater  Man eaters
By election  By elections
Highway man Highway men 


Compound nouns that accept plurals in both parts

Singular  Plural 
Woman pilot  Women pilots
Man friend  Men friends



Use the following affixes to form nouns: phaty, ancy, graphy, tis, archy, ology.


Reading Assignment 

Nominalization: page 67 – 95 of Towards Effective Use of English by Folu Agoi



Question 2 & 3  of Effective English page 205




Structures: Prefixes and Negation

Suffixes of Pluralization and tenses

Speech Work:  Words of two syllables which are stressed on the first or second syllables.

Essay Writing: story writing- A story which illustrates the saying .”it is a man’s world “/


A: Prefixes and Negation of Pluralization and Tenses.

  1. Prefixes Meaning Examples

  extra outside extraordinary, extra marital

  ex  out of ex- official

  inter between/among inter marry, inter city

 trans across trans Atlantic,  Transpose, Transact

 post after postgraduate, post natal,

 pre before pre-history, pre-natal

 super above super human, super natural, natural,

 sub below substandard

 ab away from abduct, aborigines,

 unn bringing together annual

 ante year antenatal

 anti before anti social, anti clockwise.

 Arch against archbishop, architect

Negation Suffixes are less,


Childless, fatherless, motherless , heartless, odourless, penniless, useless,  

pluralization  suffixes e.g ies, es,

babies, flies, cases, boxes, 

Tense Suffixes  e.g ‘en’, ‘ze’  . strengthen, deafen brighten, smoothen, widen  


Practicalize, mobilize



Write 2 examples for each of the following suffixes: less, ‘ze’, ‘es’, ‘en’.



Complete English Course page 420 – 423


  1. Speech Work:  Words of two Syllables which are stressed on the first or second syllable.


Words of two syllables Stressed on first syllable

Words of two syllables stressed on the second syllable.

First Syllable.

The following words of two syllables are stressed on the first syllable 


BAsic SOLemn


CHRIStian CERtain

FORtune Period

HATred HAMlet

CAPtain VICtor

STUpid MANsion.

Exceptions to the above rule


1.When a two-syllable word contains a prefix, the primary stress is on the second syllable.

Here are some word examples:

  1. begin (6) enGAGE
  2. between (7)inspire
  3. beFORE                                          (8) Enough
  4. inFORM                                        (9) include
  5. aWAY                                          (10) desPITE


  1. When a two – syllable could double as a noun and a verb, the first syllable takes stress whjen it is noun and the second when it is a verb. E.g.


  1. CONtent                             (5) conTENT
  2. CONsent                            (6) conSENT
  3. IMport                              (7) imPORT
  4. REform                              (8) reFORM.



Stress the following words of two syllables.

Constract,remit, betray, arrange, baggar, hundred, primer.



Syllables and stress pag 23, standard speech 10, book , diction in English Course.


  1. Essay Writing 

A story which illustrates the saying – “It is a man’s World”



Writing  of the  story 

A story writing requires imagination.  The story must follow the order in which the events took place,g radually moving the reader to the climax of your story.

The tile, it’s a man’s world, should have a story which revolves round men taking over in every area of life.  You can talk of  a man in particular who exhibited the nature of men or with the help of other men excelled in life.

It is also usual in a narrative to use the simple past tense very frequently since the account, relates to past events, e.g. ‘he wrote’, ‘they thought’, ‘we were shocked’.

Be careful with your choice of tenses in this king of writing . See how appropriate the tenses are in the following sentences.

  1. We were sleeping when the robbers broke  into the house
  2. When we arrived  at the stadium, the match  had gone on  for twenty minutes



Narrate a story on the topic, ‘It’s a man’s world”



Countdown WASSCE,/SSCE English Language by EVAns pg 5-7



Choose the right option

  1. He would never do anything improper. He is an ………. Reputable man

  (a) Emphatically   (b) enormously     (c) eminently

  1. They were ………. Influenced by the words of the traditional ruler 

   (a) Intensely (b) successively (c) profoundly.

  1. It is not at all harmful.  On the contrary it is quite………..

   (a) Innocuous (b) delightful (c) inefficient 

  1. They may disagree at first; but they will come round to your point of view………..

  (a) Understandably (b) eventually (c )  swiftly.

  1. They were agitating for the ………of smoking in public places

    (a) abstinence (b)  prohibition    (c ) protest


Choose the option nearest in meaning .

  1. The sight of her out of date  clothes made  many of sue smile

  (a)old fashion (b) forgotten   (c) made of date

  1. No one greeted him or spoke to him and he realized he had become a pariah

    (a)  leper (b) outcast (c) traitor    

  1. He has such a strong personality : every one does what he wants

  (a) character (b) face (c) body

  1. It was such a peculiar thing to say; I can’t thing why he said it.

(a) strange (b) rude (c ) different

  1. I can’t find it anywhere; so presumably its been lost or stolen

  (a) undoubtedly (b) probably (c)  clearly



  1. She makes a little money by selling cloth/ a cloth in a market
  2. A care / the care/ care is needed when using sharp tools.
  3. A nurse put dressing/ a dressing on the wound
  4. I want my shirts to be bright/ a bright/ the bright colour – red or orange would do.
  5. We went down a  coal mine.  It was interesting /an interesting/the  interesting experience .




  • Comprehension and Reading Skills
  • Structure: Sentence Structure and Formation
  • Spelling:  Dropping ‘e’ and retaining ‘e’.


  1. Comprehension: Reading Skill Unit 9: Entertainment 


Reading for Pleasure



The passage is about a renowned Nigerian artiste’Onyeka Onwenu’. She is known for so many things a ‘grande dame’ of Nigerian music, broadcaster, signer, and award winning film actress, also known as a politician.  The article in the passage portrays her qualities and her ability to win over an audience.



Answer the questions under the passage.



Effective English pag 147 – 148  (Entertainment Vocabularies )

B: Structure : Sentence Structure and Formation 

Content: Types of Sentences According to Structure

Elements of Sentence  Structure.

The types of sentence according to structure:

(a) Simple sentence:  This contains only one clause e.g

Tope did not attend the party last night.

(b) The compound sentence : This contains two main clauses linked by a co-ordaining conjunction like ‘and’ ‘but’ ‘or.

Obi promised to visit us but he failed to do so

( c) The multiple sentence: This contains more than two main clauses linked by co-ordinating conjunctions. Like:

He may do the work himself or he may ask somebody else to do it for him, but I want the wok to be done.

(d) The complex sentence:  This contains one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

We bought the book/ which he recommended. ( one main clause and one subordinate clause)

(e) The Compound Sentence: This contains more than one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

Adamu came in the morning/ and told us/ that he was successful in the examination/ but that his scores were low.

The Elements of Sentences 


Apart from dividing a sentence into subject and predicate, a sentence may be said to possess five units or elements: subjects, verb, object, complement and adjunct (adverbial)


Element Abbreviation

A subject s

  1. verb v
  2. object o
  3. complement c
  4. adjunct(adverbial) A.



                       S        v               o                 A

  1. The policeman bought a new pistol last week


               s     v        c

  1. the girls were speechless

The subject points to the person or things the sentence is about, i.e who or what is being discussed.


  1. Predicate:  This is the second basic part of a sentence, which indicates what is said about the person or thing. The predicate includes the verb, auxiliaries, adverbs and adjectives which say something about the subject e.g /P/

they suffered

C objects

We have direct and indirect object

Direct Object

Children play  games

 I played the piano


Indirect Obejcts

He buys  me  lovely shoes

Sarah gave  her cat  a bath

Me  and her cat  are indirect objects

Shoes  and a  bath  are indirect objects

The indirect objects comes before the direct objects.


  1. Complements:  There are two types of complements subjects and object complements.

Subject of subject complement:  the girl is  kind

Ngozi is a teacher

Kind  and a teacher  are subjective complements.

Object or Objective Complement : The students made Samuel  a Coach 

The called Joseph  a mad man 

  1. Adjunct (Adverbial ) : This is a word or group of words that acts as an adverb in a sentence. It modifies a verb.  It may be adverbial  phrase, a prepositional phrase or a noun phrase.

The girl is  in the room

The goat is  behind the door

The seven basic simple sentence pattern:


  1. The girl laughed S. V
  2. Children  play games  SVO
  3. Tope is a lawyer SVC
  4. I gave Ife the book   SVOO
  5. She Considered him a foo   SVOl
  6. She is in  the toilet  SVA
  7. I  placed the cup on  the table   SVOA.



Write five sentences and analyse the sentence elements in them.


  1. Spelling Dropping  ‘e’ and retaining ‘e’

Content;Words  where ‘e’ drops

Words where ‘e’ is retained

Words where ‘e’ is dropped

  1. In adjective ending in le, drop the en and add ‘y’ to form adverbs e.g

able ably

agreeable agreeably

ample amply

humble humbly

Words like fulfill and skilful, have a single l in the middle but double the final as in fulfilled and skillfully.

  1. In words ending in a silent e,

 (a) drop the ‘e’ before suffixes, beginning with a vowel, but

 (b) retain the ‘e’ before suffixes that begin with a consonant e.g. (a) suffixes beginning a vowel 

  continue            continuous

(ous begins with ‘o’ a – vowel; so ‘e’ is dropped before ‘o’

live living

shine shining

write wiring

e.g. (b0 suffixes beginning with a consonant continue – continued ‘d’ is a consonant; so ‘e’ is kept before ‘d’

live lived move movement   love loved.

  1. The final ‘e’ is dropped in the following  e.g.

abridged abridgment

acknowledge acknowledgement 

argue argument 

judge judgment 

lodge lodgment.

Words where ‘e’ is retained 

  1. In such words as given below from which adjectives can be formed, the ‘e’ is retained to keep the c and g soft sounds

Notice   noticeable, service  serviceable, trace traceable, change  changeable.

  1. Sometimes the final ‘e’ is retained to avoid confusion with a smilar word.

Age   ageing syringe   syringing   

  1. In words ending in ‘oe; retain the ‘e’. eg. Canoe  canoeing  shoe shoeing
  2. In the following cases the final ‘e’ is retained when adding ‘ly’ e.f nice nicely vague vaguely



Countdown in English by Evans pag 234 – 235 



Practice 2 & 3 pg 148 – 149.



Comprehension: Summarising in a specified number of sentences .

Speech Work:  Intonation for simple polite rquest, simple greetings that attract quick response

Structure:  Functions of Comparatives


A: Comprehension: Summarizing in a specified number of serntences

Content: Guide to summarizing in a specified number of ‘serntences’

  1. Learn to identify the main idea or argument of the passage
  2. change the order of the material if it is to your own advantage to do so.
  3. as much as possible use your own words to answer the question
  4. the explanation in your own words must not change or distort the meaning of the passage
  5. do not change the original writer’s facts by wrong choice of words
  6. answer to summary question  must  be as shrot as possible and as clear as possible.
  7. your answers must be written out in sentences and nto phrases.
  8. Do not answer in forms of paragraph each answer must be properly numbered and must appear on a separate live
  9. Do not join two points in one sentences
  10. Its expedient for you to know that brevity is the essence of summary writing.



Read the summary passage on pg 29-30 of your Effective English and Answer the Summary question under it.



Summary writing page 102 – 103 of Countdown by Evans


B:  Speech Work:  Intonation

Content: Simple polite requests 

Simple greetings that attracts quick response


Simple Polite Requests

A stressed syllable is indicated with a  dash while an unstressed one is marked by a dot; a downward curve (,) shows a fall in voice, an upward  (  ) points to a rise.

A request gives a rising intonation e.g

May I see your  passport please

Let me come in

Come here

Get out of the room

May I sit down

I would like to meet your friend

Could I have a look at those pictures

Simple Greetings That Attracts Quick Response

Good morning Res- Morning

Well done



Study the  conversation in practice 2 page 25 of your Effective English and answer the question in practice 3.


C: Functions of Comparatives 




Comparative is the second degree of comparison of  adjectives.  In the comparative we have the ‘er’ ending added to the plain ( positive ) word which means more so. E.g

Big   bigger

The ‘est’ is the superlative which means more so than anything else.


Functions of comparative

  • It expresses a higher degree of the quality
  • It compares two things e.g.
  1. Tope is stronger than Caleb
  2. Our team is more popular than yours.

Regular Comparative : Adding ‘er’ 

Positive comparative

Poor poorer

Tall taller

Fat fatter

Big bigger

Short shorter

Cold colder.


Add ‘more’


Positive Comparative

Expensive more expensive

Important more important

Handsome more handsome

Decreased degree of quality is  usually shown by using less


Positive comparative

Strong stronger

Worthy less worthy

Fortunate less fortunate


Irregular Comparative:  it changes the whole word to produce comparative and superlative forms.


Positive Comparative

Good better

Bad worse

Little less

Far farther .


Write the comparative of the following adjectives: much, well, many, enviable, loyal.


Countdown in English by Evans pag 209 -210



Pg 102 of the effective English  test 1 & 4 



Comprehension: Identifying statutory topics, theme, and key sentences of a passage

Vocabulary Development : Words Associated with Journalism and Advertising.

Structure :  Antonyms as words opposite in meaning.


A: Comprehension: Identifying statutory topic, theme, and key sentences of a passage


A: Statutory Topics


Key Sentences.


Statutory topics are the main topics of a passage.  They are topics fixed for a particular passage. For example, we have passages that their topics are based on statutory topics, like, Law, Jounrnalism, Fishery, Photography etc.

The theme of a passage is the subject or main idea of a passage

Key sentences is the sentences comprises the main idea or what a particular  paragraph is all about.

Let’s analyse the passage on page 125 of the Effective English.

– the fixed or statutory topic for the passage is  nutrient supply to plant or sufficient nourishment to plants.


–  the theme are :  Plants growth, Eradicating plants  Deficiency.

–  Key sentences are the topic sentences, they are the sentences that give birth to other contribution in a paragraph, for example; the first sentence of paragraph one : “ Undernourishment is the cause of many failures in vegetables, growing is  the key sentences in paragraph one.

“Most plants obtain some of their food from the air …………..” is the key sentence for paragraph 2.

“ Extra supplies of essential chemical ……….” Is the key sentence for the last paragraph



Read the passage on page 152 of the Effective English and analyze the statutory topics, themes, and the key sentences.



Comprehension passage pg 125 of the Effective English

B:  Vocabulary Development :  Words Associated with Journalism and  Advertising


Advertising and Journalism

Relevant words.

Advertising is a form of selling . It is a means of passing across messages from manufacturer and advertisers to reach the customers.

Relevant Word

  1. Mass Media  – the means of communication such as television, newspapers , and radio that reach large number of people
  2. Journalism ; the profession of collecting, writing and publishing news through the newspapers and magazines or radio or television.
  3. Press Conference :  An interview for reporters  given by a politician or film stars
  4. Press Gallery : An area of newspaper reporters, especially in a  legislative assembly.
  5. Advertisement :  any public announcement designed to sell goods or publicize an event
  6. commercial 
    1. A radio or television advertisement 
    2. Sponsored or paid for by an advertiser
  7. Copy – writer :- a person who writes the words contained in an advertisement 
  8. Mass communication : art of reaching a great number of people with information at the same time

Other words to check

Advertisement space, yellow journalism, stickers, media, articulation, information, press release, junk news, print media, journals, direct mail, periodicals, newspaper, magazine, television, radio .



Choose five vocabularies of advertisement and sue them in sentences.


Unit 5 Advertising ;g 85-86 of the Effective English.


  1. Antonyms as Words Opposite  in meaning



Formation of Antonyms

Antonyms are words which have opposite meanings.  Sometimes, the antonyms are completely different fin form (friend: enemy, seldom, often, fertile: barren ) at the other times, they are partially similar inform (superior: inferior, regular:  irregular )

Study the following antonyms.

  1. antonyms that are completely different in form:

fertile barren

friend enemy

opaque transparent

victory defeat.

  1. Antonyms formed by adding a prefix ( a prefix is a word – elements added in front of a word)

adequate inadequate

legal illegal

loyal disloyal

possible impossible

regular irregular

respect disrespect

iii. Antonyms formed by changing the prefix:

ascend descend

construction     destruction 

encourage discourage

export import.

  1. Cheerful cheerless

  pitiful pitiless

  sinful sinless.



Write the antonyms of the following  words

Cowardice, fertility, careful, protagonist , relevant



Countdown in English by Evans. Antonyms  pg 161



Practice 2 pg 86 of the Effective English

Practice 3 pg 88 of the Effective English.




  • Comprehension : Speaking Skills
  • Speech Work: Contrasting /i/ and /i/ 
  • Essay Writing :  Argumentative – Indiscipline is responsible for the poor performances of students in examination 


A: Comprehension : Speaking Skills , Communicable Sequence


Reading page 99 – 100


Dialogue : Effective English.

The passage is about Titi’s parents who want to choose a suitable husband for her.  Titi, however, loves someone else.  In this scene her parents try to persuade her to get rid of ‘cast off’ the man she loves and accept their choice.  If she agrees, she will have an enormous  bride  price ( all my store of coral and gold shall be yours to command for dowry) Tit refused to be offered for sale so, she disobeyed her parents.



Answer the questions under the passage



Effective English page 101.


B: Speech Work : Contrasting /I/ and /i:/

Content;  Vowels /i:/ and /I/


/I/ is a short vowel

The spelling variants and word examples are

‘a’ – adage, village, palace

‘e’ – Peter, between, English

 ‘u’ – busy, minutes

‘ei’  – foreign

 ‘ie’ – chief, thief

‘y’ – busy , myth

 o – women

‘I’  sit, pin, bin.

/i:/ is a long vowel 

The spelling variant and words example are

‘a’ quay

‘ae’ – Caesar, aesthetic

‘e’ – eve, procedure

‘ee’ feed, weed, seed

‘ea’ – neat, peak, real

‘ei’ receive, deceive

‘I’  machine, prestige

‘ie’ relieve,believe

‘oe’ amoeba, oesophagus

‘ui’ suite

‘eo’ people.



/I:/ /i:/

hit heat

hill heel

sit seat

sin seen

dim deem

will wheel

list least

dip deep

lip leap

fill feel

bitch beach



Find your own five words to contrast /i and /I/

Reading Assignment 

Standard Speech 10 bk , diction in English course pg 11: vowel sounds

  1. Essay Writing : Argumentative 

Content: Explanation: outline , Writing .


  1. Write your topic
  2. Do not greet because it is not a debate topic
  1. Give a clear, intelligent definition of the subject of discussion 
  2. Define indiscipline in your introductory paragraph
  3. In the second to the fifth paragraph
  4. Conclude your argument in the last paragraph.



Write an argumentative essay on the topic “Indiscipline is responsible for poor performances of students in examination ‘.



Writing argumentative essays, pg 28 – 30 of the effective English



Pg 166 of the effective English practice 2 and 3.



Write an essay setting out your argument, either in favour or against the following topic. “Co-education should be encouraged ins secondary schools’.




  • Comprehension :  Summarizing in a specified number of words
  • Vocabulary Development : Words associated with building
  • Structure:  Synonyms : Words nearest in meaning.


A: Comprehension: Summarizing in a specified number of words


You have learnt in the eight week how to summarize in a specified number of sentences, now you, want to learn how to summarize in a specified number of words.

In this case your summary of the given passage must not exceed the specified number of words.

  • it should be very brief
  • A whole passage may be paraphrased into a paragraph or two
  • For example, when there is a list of things like: pepper, tomatoes, onion, magi, salt, groundnut,  oil etc. you can summarize it to one word’ soup ingredient’.


cream, lipstick, powder, eye pencil, hair cream, etc ll these are summarized into one word, ‘cosmetics’



Read the passage on pg 125 of your effective English and summarize into one hundred words



Faster Reading on page 168 of the Effective English 


B: Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Building


  • Building
  • Relevant Words


Building:  A building has two main parts: the  sub structure  which is underground and the  superstructure  which is  the  part above the ground. The substructure is usually called the  foundation

Relevant Words.


Concrete   mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water that hardens as it dries. (it’s used for foundation)

Glazier : person whose work is to put glass in windows.

Gravel   pebbles and pieces of rock coarser than sand.

Scaffold   temporary elevated structure or platform for holding workmen  and materials during the construction, repair of  decoration of a building .

Mansory the  skill of preparing and fixing stones in building .

Architect: A person who plans new buildings and sees that they are built properly.

Renovate: to put back into good condition 

Furnish  :  to put  furniture in a part of a building

Cistern  A tank for storage of water, as part of the system which flushes body waste from the toilet

Plumber: A man whose job is to fit and repair water pipes, bathroom articles etc. Other related words. Building plan, interior decoration, hinges, bricklayer, valuer, rubbles, tiles, commercial building, residential building, lintels, contractor,  lintels,.



With the aid of your dictionary, find out the meaning of the five words from the words listed above and use them in sentences.



Countdown in English By Evans pg 123.


C: Structure : Synonyms: Word  Nearest in meaning


  • Definition
  • Words and their Synonyms


A synonym is a word which very nearly has the same meaning as some other words, and which can replace the word in a sentence, without changing the meaning in the sentences. It helps to avoid monotony in writing .

Note the following synonyms and the different shade of meanings:

Synonyms: odour, scent, smell, stench, aroma, fragrance.

Aroma: refers to a pungent, spicy odour e.g the aroma of peppers

Fragrance :  Describes a smell that is sweet and agreeable e.g the  fragrance  of the rose flower odour and smell: refer to something that may be either pleasant or unpleasant e.g. the odour of ol leather, the smell of hydrogen sulphide.

Scent: is less strong than odour or smell as in the scent of lilac 

Stench: is an offensive foul smell as the stench of  burning rubber.


Typical Synonyms

Word Synonyms

Confess admit, own

Abandon give up, relinquish

Dangerous risky, perilous

Surrender resign, yield

Expensive dear, costly

Disaster misfortune, calamity

Aloof shy, withdrawn

Dishonest unjust, deceptive

Compensate requite, atone

Dull gloomy cheerless

Reject expel, emit

Protagonist hero, star

Obliterate efface destroy

Generous liberal open-handed

Famous renowned eminent



Find the synonyms of the following words request, rule, acute, entire, enemy.



Synonyms pg 160 of Countdown English Language by Evans



Page 205 questions 2 and 3 of the Effective English

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