1. Personnel in Food and Beverage area and their functions- Restaurant
  2. Personnel in Food and Beverage area and their functions- Bar
  3. Personnel in Food and Beverage area and their functions- Kitchen
  4. House-keeping personnel and Receptionists
  5. Types of food service- Table service
  6. Types of food service- Self service
  7. Types of food service- Specialized service
  8. Table laying and table setting
  9. Types of table cover
  10. Demonstration of table laying and setting

11-12. Revision and Examination








  • Food and Beverage manager
  • Restaurant Personnel



In the food and beverage establishment today, there are many ways of using and deploying staff.  Also, different terminology is used to describe what the staff do for the establishment.

The four key requirements for deploying staff are these: [though it may depend on the establishment and the particular service method being used.]

  1. Sound Product Knowledge.
  2. Competence in technical skills.
  3. Well-developed social skills.
  4. The ability to work as part of a team.

Food and beverage staff plays an important role in the overall customers’ meal through experience.  They must have the ability to respond to customer needs and to observe the overall concern of a restaurant.

Good food and beverage staff should, through experience, be able to anticipate the individual needs of customers and read their body language.


Customers want individual attentions, good service professional should be able to anticipate the individual needs of the customers.



  1.   FOOD AND BEVERAGE MANAGER:  He is the overall head of the F & B department of the hotel. Depending on the size of the establishment, the food and beverage manager is either responsible for the implementation of agreed policies or for contributing to the setting of the food and beverage policies, the larger the organization the less likely the manager is to be involved in policy setting. 


Functions/Responsibilities of Food and beverage manager

  1. Ensures that the required profit margins are achieved in each financial period.
  2. Updates and compile new wine lists according to availability of stock, current trends and customer needs.
  3. Compiles in liaison with the kitchen, menu for the various food service areas and for special occasions.
  4. Purchases all materials both food and drinks.
  5. Ensures that quality in relation to the price paid is maintained.
  6. Ensures staff training, sales promotions and the maintenance of the highest professional standard.
  7. Employs and dismiss staff.
  8. Holds regular meetings with section heads to ensure all areas are working effectively.
  9. He also oversees all the sectional heads in his department such as head chef, restaurant manager, banquet manager, etc.


  1.   RESTAURANT MANAGER/SUPERVISOR: He/she has overall responsibility for the organization and administration of particular food and beverage service area.


Responsibilities of a Restaurant Manager

  1. He prepares duty rosters for the restaurant staff.
  2. He/she plans and organizes all the service activities of the restaurant such as staffing, training and promotes of team spirit.
  3. He/she also organizes daily staff briefing.
  4. He/she exercises cost control techniques for reducing breakages, spoilages and pilferages (stealing of small things in the establishment)
  5. He/she assess daily performance of the restaurant through number of cover sold, total food and beverages sales summary, plate wastage etc.
  6. He/she arranges suitable entertainment facilities.
  7. He reports to the food and beverage manager. 


  1.   HEAD WAITER /MAITRE D’HOTE/SUPERVISOR: He reports to the restaurant manager and the F & B manager.  


Responsibilities of Head Waiter

  1. He has overall charge of the staff team.
  2. He deputizes in the absence of the restaurant manager and ensures smooth functioning of the restaurant.  
  3. He sees that all the preparation duties necessary for service are efficiently carried out.
  4. He receives complaints from guests and answers them.
  5. He relieves the restaurant manager on his days off
  6. He is to communicate between the restaurant staff and the kitchen
  7. He is to do cost control and bill presentation. 
  8. He is to observe the number of covers of each station and determine the number of cover per steward.



  1. Explain two functions of a restaurant manager. 
  2. State two functions of head waiter.


  1.   STATION HEAD WAITER (Maitre d’hotel de Rang):  In large establishment, the restaurant areas are broken down into sections. Each section with sets of tables from four to eight in numbers is referred to as a station. A station head waiter is the one in charge of a station with his own team of waiters and waitresses. A good station head waiter must have a good knowledge of food and wine and its correct service. He reports to the head waiter and restaurant manager.


Responsibilities of Station Head Waiter 

  1. To instruct others members of staff on how to service correctly.
  2. To take the food and beverages orders (usually from the host) and carry out service at the table with the help of the chef de rang.
  3. Allocates station tables to station waiters.
  4. He checks the lying of the covers, tables and side boards.
  5. He looks after the gueridon service as it requires lots of skill.
  6. He is responsible for smooth service and also attends to all the guest complaints.


  1.   STATION WAITERS (Chef de range): The Chef de range has less experience than a station head waiter.


Responsibilities of station waiters/waitresses 

  1. They provide service to set of tables known as a station within the restaurant area.
  2. They attend briefing prior to restaurant opening.
  3. They complete mis-en-place before the restaurant opens.
  4. They set the tables with clean linen, cutleries, glasses, etc.
  5. They receive, greet and seat guests.
  6. They take customers’ orders and serve foods and drinks to them.
  7. They present the bills and receive payment correctly.



  1. Who is a station waiter?
  2. State three functions of station head waiter.


  1.   JUNIOR/ASSISTANT WAITERS/WAITRESSES (Demi-chef de rang): They do similar work with that of station waiters, but the difference is the size.


Responsibilities of Junior Waiters

  1. They report for briefing, well groomed.
  2. They assist waiters in setting the tables.
  3. They serve food during busy periods.
  4. They also remove the soiled dishes. 


  • He accepts bookings.
  • He keeps booking diary up to date.
  • He welcomes guests and takes them to their seats.
  • He also helps with the compilation of duty roster.



  1. Mention four personnel in Food and Beverage establishment. 
  2. State one major function of station waiter.
  3. State two requirements for deploying staff in to Food and Beverage establishment 
  4. Mention four responsibilities if restaurant manager.
  5. State five rules in steaming.



Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 103 – 105

Basic catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Page 124 



  1. Which of these is required by a Food and Beverage personnel for effective services? 
  1. Competence in technical skill B. Well -developed social skill C. Sound Product knowledge 
  2. All of the above 
  1. A good food and beverage staff should through experience be able to ____ the customers. 
  1. advice B. see C. assist D. anticipate
  1. Which of these is a personnel in the food and beverage department?  A. Chef de rang B. Bed steward C. House keeper D. Receptionist 
  2. ____ has the responsibility to communicate between restaurant  staff and kitchen. A. Restaurant Manager B. Head waiter C. Station head waiter D. Chef de rang
  3. ____ is responsible for checking the lying of the covers, tables and side boards. A. Station head waiter B. Station waiter C. Head waiter D. The manager



  1. List five personnel in the Food and Beverage department.
  2. State four duties of food and beverage manager.





  • Personnel in bar
  • Personnel in banquet



  1.   BAR MANAGER:  He is in charge of the bar. He reports directly to the F & B manager and works hand-in-hand with the restaurant manager.



  1. He ensures that the bar has all the drinks written in the wine list.
  2. He supervises the entire bar operations.
  3. He oversees the mis-en-place for the bar.
  4. He also ensures the provision of adequate bar equipment.



They should have thorough knowledge of all alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks being offered within the establishment.  He should have knowledge of the ingredients necessary for the making of cocktails. He should have the knowledge of the requirement of the liquor licensing laws to ensure compliance



  1.   Collects drinks from bar manager and stocks the bar with drinks.
  2.   To prepare and mix drinks and cocktail.
  3.   To maintain time keeping and bar stock books.
  4.   To supervise the entire bar operation.
  5.   To instruct, train and supervise all the product workers in all the bars.


Note:  A mixologist is an employee who mixes and serves alcoholic beverages at bars. They are also the creators of new mixed drinks. It can also mean a cocktail maker, cocktail bar person or simply bartender.  Mixology is the act of making/mixing drinks.



He/she must have the knowledge of foreign languages, beverage laws and laws relating to wine.  He/she must have a complete knowledge of wine and its suitability to various dishes.  He/she must have a good knowledge of handling and care of wine.  He/she must have the knowledge of stock-taking and also mixing of cocktails.



  1.   To prevent the wine list to customers.
  2.   To assist the customers in selection of wines.
  3.   He assists to uncork the bottles in the presence of guests.
  4.   To fetch the wines ordered with the help of the commis waiter.
  5.   He/she is responsible for the service of all alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks.



  1.   Who is a mixologist?
  2.   State three responsibilities of bar manager.



A banquet is a food and beverage service at a specific time and place, to a given number of people, to an agreed menu and price. Banquets are special functions such as weddings receptions, birthday parties, conferences, political meetings, etc.


Banqueting is a business of selling space to hold functions. Banquets require large halls with kitchen to provide quantity foods and personnel who are skilled in the art of handling large number of people. 



  1.   BANQUET MANAGER:  He is the overall head of the banquet operation. He reports to the F & B manager. Under him is a team of casual and/or permanent staff. 



  1. He is responsible for administration, operation, booking and selling out of the banquet facilities.
  2. He prepares weekly schedules for the banquet staff.
  3. He makes inventory of all the banquet equipment.
  4. He works in close coordination with the chef in preparing menus.


  1.   BANQUET HEAD WAITER:  He is the head of the waiting team in a banquet. He reports to the banquet manager.



  1. He supervises the necessary mis-en-place for the banquet service.
  2. He allocates the job to be carried out by each banquet waiter.
  3. He also ensures all equipment to be used are available.
  4. He ensures meals are served at the right temperature.



  1.   What is banqueting?
  2.   State three responsibilities of a banquet manager.
  3.   BANQUET WAITERS AND CASUAL STAFF: They make the actual arrangements including:
  • Carrying the furniture.
  • Setting table appointments.
  • Serving of foods and drinks to the guests during the function.
  • Clearing the tables during after the occasion.


FLOOR WAITER (Chef d’tage): The floor waiter serves foods to guests in their various rooms. This type of service is called room service. The floor waiter goes to the guest’s room with the food order and the bill which he presented to the guest.


LOUNGE WAITER (Chef de salle):  He is the one responsible for the service of foods and drinks to people in the lounge and other waiting areas. The meals served in these areas are finger foods and snacks.



  1.   State three responsibilities of a banquet head waiter.
  2.   What is mixology?
  3.   Who is a floor waiter?
  4.   State the main function of a lounge waiter.
  5.   Mention three advantages of boiling.



Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Amimu S. N. Bariki. Pages 76-78, 288

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages 125 and 126.



  1. A mixologist works within the ____. A. kitchen B. bar C. bedroom D. laundry area
  2. Which of these food and beverage personnel services alcohol? A. Steward B. Demi chef 
  1. Sommelier D. commits de rang
  1. Which of these food and beverage personnel is responsible for service of foods and drinks to people in the waiting areas? A.  Chef de sale B.  Maitre d’hotel C.  Chef de rang D.  Chef d’etage
  2. ____ assists the customers/guests to uncork the bottles. A. Bar-man B. Wine Butler C. Mixologist D. Server
  3. ____ is responsible for clearing the table after each course. A. Steward B. Waiter C. Demi Chef D. Bar Keeper



  1. State two responsibilities of a mixologist.
  2. State three responsibilities of a bar man.





  • Staff and their functions



This refers to the team who work together on shift basis, under the chef de cuisine (head chef) in the kitchen.


  1.   HEAD CHEF (CHEF DE CUISINE):  The head chef performs mainly administrative duties of supervision in large establishments, but in small establishment with fewer staff, he engages in handling the foods when necessary. He reports and works hand-in-hand with the F & B manager.



  1. a)  He compiles the menus.
  2. b)  He organizes the kitchen.
  3. c)  He prepares the duty roster for the kitchen staff.
  4. d)  He orders the food stuffs (commodities) as the need arises.
  5. e)  He supervises the kitchen and the staff.
  6. f)  He advises management on the purchase of kitchen equipment, utensils, etc.
  7. g)  He also oversees the hygiene and sanitation of the kitchen


  1.   ASSISTANCE or DEPUTY CHEF (Sous chef):  He relieves the chef de cuisine when he is off duty. He is the chef’s right hand man.



  1. a)  He supervises the work in the kitchen to make it run smoothly.
  2. b)  He cooperates with the head chef.
  3. c)  He replaces any cook who might not be around.
  4. d)  He works in each kitchen section.



  1.   State three functions of head chef.
  2.   State two functions of sous chef.


  1.   CHEF DE PARTIES (Head cooks):  These chefs are each in charge of individual sections of the kitchen. They are job specialists who organize their own sections. 


Parties and Their Duties/Functions

  1. Sauce party (le saucier): This is the sauce cook who prepares various stocks and sauces. He prepares all the meat, poultry and game dishes which are not roasted or grilled.
  2. Roasted party (rotisseur): The cook roasts and grills meat, poultry and game in the kitchen. All grilled and deep fried foods including potatoes are done by the roast party.
  3. Fish party (poissonnier): The fish cook prepares all fish dishes, fish sauces and ganishes. He also skins and portions fish for cooking.
  4. Vegetable party (permentier): He is in charge of vegetable garnishes to main dishes and prepares vegetable and potato dishes.
  5. Butcher (le boucher):  He is directly under the chef or sous chef. He cuts various carcasses of meat in readiness for cooking. Nowadays, pre-cut meat are ordered by many establishments.
  6. Pastry party (le patissier): All the sweets (desserts) and pastries are prepared by this cook.
  7. Baker (le Boulanger): He bakes all bread rolls, croissants, cakes, etc.
  8. Larder cook: The larder is mainly concerned with the preparation of food to be cooked by other parties. It includes preparing the poultry, meat, cleaning and filleting fish,etc.


  1. ASSISTANCE COOKS (Commis chefs): These are assistants often large in number depending on the volume of work done in each section by the party. They work with each head cook in various sections.


  1.   APPRENTICES (Lapprenti): These are people learning the trade so at a regular interval, they are moved from one party/section to another to gain knowledge of all the sections in the kitchen.



  1.   Mention three parties in the kitchen and their duties.
  2.   Who are the apprentices?


  1.   ABOYEUR (The barker):  He is in charge of announcing the menu. He stylishly calls out ordered dishes to cook and alerts the waiters when it is ready. He controls the hot plate during food service.


  1.   KITCHEN PORTERS (lesgareon de cuisine):  They are responsible for general duties such as carrying food from one section to another, changing and washing dirty linen, washing and scrubbing the kitchen working area, etc.


  1.   STILL ROOM MAN (le gareon):  He prepares coffee and tea, prepares breakfast foods, hot beverages and hot chocolate ordered from the restaurant during the day.



  1.   Mention the main function of a butcher in the kitchen.
  2.   What are the duties of kitchen porters?
  3.   Interpret the following French words to your customer: i. Aboyeur ii. L’apprenti iii.  Le sous chef
  4.   State three functions of F & B manager.
  5.   Mention two duties of banquet manager.



Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Omotayo and Olorunda. Pages 117-122.

Catering Craft Practice SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 154-156



  1. The food and beverage department is divided into the following except ____ A. kitchen B. the bar C. the hotel D.  the banquet section
  2. ___ is responsible for the vegetables used in the kitchen. A.  Apprentice B. Vegetable party 
  1. Cleaner D. Bottle collector
  1. The overall head of the kitchen is ____ A. chef de cuisine B. sous chef C. commis chef 
  1. lapprenti
  1. ___ is in charge of preparation of all roasted and grilled foods. A. Permentier B. Le saucier C. Le Boulanger D. Rotisseur
  2. Compilation of new menu is one of the functions of ____ A.  chef de party B. sous chef C. chef de cuisine D. mitre d’hotel



  1. State three functions of the head chef.
  2. State two function of the aboyeur.





  • Meaning of House-keeping
  • Responsibilities of house department
  • House-keeping personnel and their functions
  • Functions of the receptionist.



Housekeeping may be defined as provision of calm, confortable, safe and an aesthetically appealing environment. Housekeeping department is an operational department in a hotel, which is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance and beautification of the hotel and its surroundings such as guest rooms, public areas, back areas and surroundings. It provides clean and comfortable environment. The effort that a housekeeping department makes in giving a guest a desirable room has a direct bearing on the quest’s experience in a hotel.



  1. Cleans and maintains everything in the hotel so that the property remains fresh and attractive as the day it opened for business.
  2. Establish a welcoming atmosphere and ensure courteous, reliable service from all staff of the    department.
  3. Provide linen in rooms, banquet hall, conference venues, etc. as well as maintains an inventory of the same. 
  4. Provides uniform for all the staff and maintain adequate inventories.
  5. Cater for the laundering requirement of hotel, linen, staff uniform and guest cloth if need be.
  6. Deal with lost and found articles.
  7. Ensure training, control and supervision of all staff, attached to the department.
  8. Establish a good working relationship with other departments.
  9. Provide and maintain the floral decoration and maintain the landscape area of the hotel.
  10. Ensure that safety and security regulations are made known to all staff of the department.



  1.   What is housekeeping?
  2.   State three responsibilities of housekeeping department.



Housekeeping personnel/staff are divided into three categories:

  1.   Managerial  – Chief Executive/head housekeeper
  2.   Supervisory  – Assistant housekeeper, floor housekeeper or supervisors 
  3.   Unskilled –   Room attendant, housekeeping porter, public area cleaner (PA)




The executive house keeper is expected to: 

  1.   Organize and supervise the work of housekeeping department. 
  2.   Draw up duty rosters and ensures it is followed.
  3.   Supervise the discipline and conduct of the staff. 
  4.   Liaise between maintenance and housekeeping department.
  5.   Provide uniform to the hotel staff.
  6.   Organize and supervise the training of the staff.
  7.   To ensure uniform observation of hygiene and safety precautions. 
  8.   Deal with the articles which the guest has left behind in the room.
  9.   Inspect and approves all supply requisition for the department.
  10. Hire new employees and discipline the erring ones. 



  1.   He reports to the executive housekeeper and does his/her job when the executive housekeeper is not around.
  2.   He checks and ensures that all the guest room, public area and back of the house areas are clean and well-maintained.
  3.   He keeps an inventory of all housekeeping supplies and check regularly.
  4.   He updates records, register and file.
  5.   He provides the front office with a list of rooms ready for assignment to guest.
  6.   He is responsible for the hotel linen and checks its movement and its distribution to room attendants.
  7.   He provides the necessary information to executive and assists the executive officer in staff appraisal in areas of disciplining, termination and promotion of staff.



  1.   He reports to the assistant and the executive housekeeper and he is in charge of three or more floors.
  2.   He ensures supply of equipment, maintenance and security of floors and public areas.
  3.   He issues floor keys to room attendants.
  4.   He releases clean rooms to the reception.
  5.   He supervises the handing over of solid linen to the laundry and supervises the requisition of fresh ones from housekeeping.
  6.   He handles minor complaints and requests made by guests and staff.
  7.   He also ensures all staff on his floor follows housekeeping policies, systems, procedure and standards.



  1.   They are responsible for servicing the guests’ bedrooms, private sitting rooms, bathrooms and toilets. One room attendant cleans 12 to 15 rooms per day.
  2.   They change the bed linen.
  3.   They clean and tidy the room and sanitary installation assigned.
  4.   They should attend daily briefing.
  5.   They undertake the evening check of rooms.
  6.   They handover to the housekeeper any lost articles.



  1.   All heavy work such as the moving of furniture or heavy linen baskets is done by the house porter. 
  2.   He/she is directly responsible to the head housekeeper.
  3.   Assist with any guest room change by helping the guest to carry his luggage.
  4.   Assist room attendant during peak periods, like rushing period- festival periods.
  5.   Assist room attendant in deep cleaning activities. 



  1.   State three functions of executive housekeeper.
  2.   Mention the categories of housekeeping personnel.



Bed linen includes all the material/fabrics used in making bed. They are:

  1. Mattress cover- used for covering the mattress to protect it from dust and dirt.
  2. Bed sheets- used for making the bed.
  3. Pillow cases- used for covering the pillows.
  4. Bed spreads- used as a spread over a made bed and as a covering for the person lying on the bed.
  5. Blanket- used as a covering for warmth in cold nights.


Characteristics of a good bed linen  

  1. A good bed linen must be comfortable.
  2. It must have a good appearance. 
  3. It should be grease resistant.
  4. It should be cool and absorbent.
  5. It must be smooth but not slippery.
  6. It must also be durable and withstand abrasion while on bed and during laundry. 



Materials required for bed making includes:

  1. Bed and mattress
  2. Two bed sheets (the bottom and top sheets)
  3. Pillows and pillow cases
  4. One bed cover/ bed spread
  5. A blanket
  6. An underlay (or mattress overlay). It is a thick layer of padding between the mattress and the bedding.



  1.   List four materials for making bed.
  2.   State three characteristics of a good bed linen.



In relation to the hospitality industry, reception can be defined as the art of receiving and welcoming people officially into the hotel premises to make them feel at home with prompt and adequate attention given to their requests for immediate satisfaction of their needs within the scope of operation of the hotel or the organization. 

The reception is the main sales outlet of the hotel. It is the place where guests first assess the type of services rendered in the hotel and make necessary enquiries. Guests also check-in, check-out and pay their bills at the reception.



A receptionist is a sales personnel or clerk in a hotel reception. A receptionist is always found at the front office of an establishment. He/she must have good general education and thorough knowledge of the organization.



  1.   He welcomes, check-in and registers guests.
  2.   He/she confirms room status with housekeeping departments.
  3.   He carries out any bill adjustment. 
  4.   He deals with customers complaints.
  5.   He keeps the reception books up to date.
  6.   He carries out customers check out.
  7.   He prepares departure list.
  8.   He sends arrival list to all departments.



  1.   Explain five responsibilities of a receptionist.
  2.   State three responsibilities of an executive housekeeper.
  3.   Mention the major work of floor porter.
  4.   State three responsibilities of a floor supervisor.
  5.   State four responsibilities of a chamber maid.



Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages8-17

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Omotayo and Olorunda. Pages 13-21



  1. Which of these is used in making bed? A. Carpet B. Rug C. Bed cover D. Table
  2. An appealing environment is put in place in a hotel by ____ A.  bar dept. B. restaurant dept. 
  1. kitchen dept. D.  housekeeping dept.
  1. Someone who works in the front office of a hotel is called ____ A.  manager B.  storekeeper
  1. receptionist D.  housekeeper
  1. ____ organizes and supervises the work of housekeeping department. A.  Executive housekeeper B.  Assistant housekeeper C.  Floor housekeeper  D.  Lobby house keeper
  2. Which of these are examples of bed linen? A. bed spread, bed sheet, blanket. B. pillow, pillow case, mat. C. mattress cover, blanket, flower. D.  rug, cruet set, hardware.



  1. Mention three characteristics of a good bed linen.
  2. Mention categories of staff in housekeeping department.








Food service can be defined as the preparation, delivery and serving of ready to eat foods/meals in catering establishments. It is simply the manner of presenting prepared meals to the diners/guests.



  1.   Table Service
  2.   Self Service 
  3.   Specialized Service



Table service is a service where the customer is served at a laid table.


Types of Table Services

  1.   Gueridon Service: It is an enhanced form of table service, normally found in establishment with an a la carte menu and higher levels of service.  The term Gueridon means a movable service table or trolley from which food may be served. Gueridon service usually indicates serving foods on to the customers’ plate at the gueridon. It is more costly as: 

It requires higher level of service skills.

The use of more expensive and elaborate equipment.   

Large service area to allow for the movement of trolleys.


Mis-en place for Gueridon Service

In establishment where gueridon service is carried out, the basic layout is standardized.  This is to ensure that the required standards of service are met and that safety is a prime consideration of all the service staff.


The top and under shelf of the gueridon will be covered with a fold, although this will depend on the nature of the gueridon and its general appearance.


For convenience of working, the cutlery layout should be similar to that of a side board as this saves time and speeds up the service.


If hot plates or food warmers are used, then these are placed on the left hand side on the top of the gueridon.


Underneath may be placed a service plate and service server, side plates and some joint plates on to place dirty cutlery and service gears as the service is being carried out.


There should be some under flats of assorted sizes for the service of vegetable and sauces.  A selection of doilies or dish papers may be useful for the presentation of sauces and other accompaniments. 

Check pads will normally be on the waiter’s side board or workstation, together with a surplus of all the gueridon equipment in case of emergency.


Procedures for Gueridon Service

  • Gueridon service is a chef and commis service.
  • Always push the gueridon, never pull it to control and steer the gueridon in the direction and avoid accidents.
  • The gueridon should be kept in one position for the service of a complete course.
  • The spoons and fork are used one in each hand to give more control and makes the service quicker unlike silver service.
  • The dish is first presented to the customer and the name of the dish is stated, and then is returned to the gueridon. For example, your beef jollof rice sir, or madam.
  • Hot serving plates are placed on the side of the trolley, with the dish for the food to be served, placed on to the hotplate.
  • The food dishes are served on to the customer’s plates.  This may also include portioning, carving, jointing or filleting if necessary.
  • When transferring foods and liquids from the service flats and dishes to the plate, always run the fork along the underside of the spoon to avoid drips marking the plate.
  • The waiter may then serve the potatoes and vegetable onto the plate while the plates are still on the gueridon.  The waiter also serves the sauces onto the plates.  The plates are then placed in front of the customers.
  • Alternatively, where more than two covers are being served from the gueridon, only the main dish of each customer would be served from the gueridon, with potatoes, vegetables, sauces and accompaniments being served to the customers once the main food items have been served on the  customer’s plates and put in front of the customer.
  • When the service is finished at one table, wipe down the gueridon and move on to the next table immediately. It will then be ready for the commis coming from the kitchen with a loaded tray.



  1.   What is Gueridon?
  2.   Explain the meaning of Gueridon Service.


  1.   Silver /English Service: This is presentation and service of food by waiting staff, using a spoon and fork onto a customer’s plate from food dish made of silver.  All food is brought to the table in silver dishes. The dishes are presented to the host for approval and the served unto the guests’ plates from the left with silver spoon and fork. This service is not common as it requires more space and more staff and is offered by most of the first class restaurant.


Features of Silver Service

(i)    Food is always served from the left, while drinks are served from the right.

(ii)   Meals are served to the diner from platters.

(iii)  The guest to the host right is served first. (Usually the female guest)

(iv)  Service continues clockwise

(v)   Plates are cleared from the right

(vi)  There is comparatively less wastage since the unused food goes back to the kitchen


Advantages of Silver Service 

  1.   There is comparatively less wastage since the unused food goes back to the kitchen.
  2.   It is an elegant form of service and gives personalized service to the guest.


Disadvantages if silver service

  1.   There is a large investment in silver equipment.
  2.   One waiter is needed on a table.


  1.   American/Plated Service: This type of service requires that all the beverages as well as food are served from the right side and the clearing is also done from the right side. The meal is pre-plated for each guest from the kitchen. The pre-plated meals are brought to the table for the guests. It is widely used for banqueting.


Advantages of American/plated Service 

  1.   It does not consume much time i.e. it is fast. 
  2.   It is an inexpensive service.

Disadvantages of American/plated service 

  1.   There is lot of wastage of food.
  2.   It is not a personalized service.



  1.   Differentiate between silver service and plated service.
  2.   State two advantages of silver service.


  1.   Family Service:  The main course is brought to the table in a big dish from where everyone participate in serving the food into individual plates. Other courses like desserts are served in small bowls, for guests to help themselves. Everyone participate in the food service.



  1.   What is food service?
  2.   State the procedure for gueridon service. 
  3.   Explain the meaning of silver service.
  4.   Explain two advantages of plated service.
  5.   Explain what you understand by the term ‘waiting staff’.



Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 110-112

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages 257-259



  1. Service where customers are served at a laid table is called ____. A.  silver service B.  table service C.  self- service D.  cafeteria 
  2. ___ is a movable service table or trolley. A.  Kiosk B.  Echelon C.  Gueridon D.  Cafetaria
  3. The following are examples of table service except ____. A.  family service B. American Service C.  Gueridon service D. Vending service
  4. In ___ service, all serving materials are made of silver. A. silver B.  gold C. diamond D. stainless
  5. The only service where serving of meals and clearing of dishes are done from the right side of the guests is ___ A.  family service B.  plated service C. gueridon service D.  silver service



  1. State two procedures in Gueridon Service.
  2. State two disadvantages of silver service







This type of service is commonly found in cafeteria and canteens. It involves customers/guests serving themselves with little assistance from the waiters/waitresses.


Types of  Self Service

  1.   Cafeteria/Counter service: Here the customers queue in line formation past a service counter and choose their menu requirements in stages before loading them on a tray. They collect the necessary cutleries and find suitable tables to consume their meals.
  2.   Free Flow: Selection from a counter but in food service area where customers move at will to random service point. Customers usually exit the service area via payment point.
  3.   Echelon: This is a service of counters at angle to the customer flow within a free-flow area, thus saving space. Each of the service point may offer a different main course dish.
  4.   Buffets: This is a type of service where guests are expected to serve themselves. It is also known as self- service. In this service, variety of dishes is displayed on a long table and guests are expected to serve themselves.   There are various types of buffet.  The requirements of a particular occasion and the host’s wishes will determine the exact format in setting up the buffet table/ room.


Types of Buffet

  1. Finger Buffet: The guests select and consume the food with their fingers. The food and beverages may be at a buffet table or on trays that are carried by the waiters. Foods that do not require the use of cutlery are usually served. There is provision for napkins or serviettes for guests.
  2. Stands up or Fork Buffet: It is also known as stands-up buffet. The guest selects foods that are transferred on to a plate and he then eats the food using only a fork. There is no provision for elaborate cutlery; hence the name ‘fork buffet’, since one cannot use a knife and fork when one is eating while standing. Anything that would need a knife is avoided.  The room organization is similar to that used for finger buffet.
  3. Display/ Sit down buffet: The guests select their food and then eat at a table.  The guests approach the table to select their required meal, course by course. The guests then return to their tables to consume the different parts of the meal.  The table layouts are similar to the standard banquet layouts.


Basic Principles/Format in Setting up a Buffet Room

(i)    The buffet should be set up in a prominent position in the room

(ii)   There should be ample space on the buffet for display and presentation.

(iii)  The buffet should be within easy access of the still room and wash –up to avoid disturbing the     customers.

(iv)   There must be ample space for customer circulation.

(v)    Provision should be made for sufficient occasional tables and chairs within the room.

(vi)   The total presentation of the room should be attractive and promote a good atmosphere that is                  appropriate for the occasion.



  1. Define the following: (a) Cafeteria service (b) Buffet service
  2. State four principles in setting up a buffet room.



Here the customer orders, pays and receives the food and beverages for  instance at a counter, at a bar in licensed premises, in a fast food operation or at a vending machine.


In single point service customer comes to where the food and beverage service is offered. The service is provided in area primarily designed for that purpose.


Types of Single Point Service

The main forms of single point services are found in: 

  1. Takeaway: Here customers order is served from single point, at a counter, hatch or snack stand. Customer consumes off the premises, though some takeaway establishment provide dining areas.

This also includes  drive-thru where customer drives vehicles past order, payment and collection points.

Fast food which is originally used to describe service at a counter where customers receive a complete meal or dish in exchange for cash or ticket nowadays describe as type of establishment offering limited range of menu, fast-service with dining areas and takeaway facilities .

  1.   Kiosks: It is an outstation used to provide service for peak demand in specific location. It may be open for customers to order and be served, it can also be used for dispensing to staff only.
  2.   Food Court: This involves series of autonomous counters where customers may either order and eat, or buy from a number of counters and eat in separate eating area or takeaway.
  3.   Bar: Bar is used to describe a place where drinks are sold. Customers may order for drinks to be 

taking away or consumed in licensed premises. 



  1.   Explain what you understand by single point service.
  2.   List and explain two types of single point service.


  1. Vending service: This refers to selling of foods and beverages to customers using an automated machine known as vending machine.Vending machines are found in canteens, factories, offices, industrial concerns, railway station, etc. 


Vending machines used for food service operation include:

  1. Merchandiser – Here customer can view the products on sale.  It can be used for refrigerated drinks and pre-packaged meals and snacks.  It can also be used for hot meals and snacks.
  2. Hot beverages Vendor – This mixes the powdered ingredients with hot water to produce  the product. 
  3. In cup system –  Here the ingredients are already in individual cups to which hot water is added.
  4. Micro-vend system – Provides a range of hot or cold foods from which the customer may make a selection and heat in an accompanying microwave oven.


Advantages of Food Service Vending 

  1.   Low-cost automatic vending machines are cheaper to operate than the conventional method.
  2.   It can provide a 24- hour service. 
  3.   Food cost control automatic vending machine allows for strict portion control.
  4.   Automatic vending machines offer a wide variety of hot and cold snacks and beverages.
  5.   Reduced wastage as long as the customer demand has been correctly gauged, wastage can be reduced to a minimum.


Disadvantages of Vending 

  1.   There may be very little, if any, human presence.
  2.   The machines are subject to power failure and power surge.
  3.   One spoilt can take vital service hours to repair.



  1.   Explain the following terms: (a)Vending service (b) Buffet service (c) Silver service
  2.   State three types of buffet service.
  3.   State three responsibilities of a receptionist.
  4.   List the classification of vegetables.
  5.   Explain gueridon service.



Types of food service: Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S.N. Bariki. Pages 112 and 113



  1. An electronic machine used to dispense a product to a consumer after a certain amount has been put into the machine is called ____. A. mis-en-place B. vending C. silver D. gold
  2. ____ service also means serve yourself.  A. Vending B. Buffet  C. Silver  D. Gold
  3. ____ service is a method of food service that involves transferring food from a service dish to the guest plate from the left. A. Palater B. Gueridon C. Silver D. Buffet
  4. Which of these is not a type of buffet? A. Finger B. Display C. Fork D. Silver
  5. ____ allows the guest selects and consumes foods with the fingers A. Fork buffet B. Finger buffet C. Display buffet D. Silver buffet



  1.   Explain the following terms: (a)   Food court (b)   Buffet service (c)   Vending service
  2.   State three types of buffet service 




  • Specialized service
  • Banquet service



This service is provided in another location, where the area is not primarily designed for the purpose. The food and drink is taken to where the customer is.


Types of specialized service

  1.   Tray Service: Service of whole or part of a meal on tray to customers. E.g. on the hospital bed, inside train, aircraft seats, etc.
  2.   Trolley Service: Service of food and beverages from a trolley away from the dining areas e.g. for office workers at their desk, for customers at aircraft seat or at train seats.
  3.   Home Delivery Service:   Here food is delivered to customer’s home or place of work e.g. meals on wheel, pizza home delivery or sandwiches to offices.
  4.   Lounge Service: Service of variety of foods and beverages in lounge area, e .g. hotel lounge, airport lounge, etc.
  5.   Room Service: Service of variety of food and beverages in guest bedrooms or in meeting rooms.
  6.   Drive-in Service: Customers park their motor vehicles and are served at their vehicles.



  1.   What are specialized services?
  2.   Explain the following: a. Trolley Service b. Home Delivery Service c. Tray Service



Banquet service is an elaborate and ceremonious service of meals for large number of people. It covers conferences, wedding receptions, luncheon and dinner parties. A full time banqueting brigade of waiters is employed to handle the service of foods and drinks.


Banqueting services are of two types:

  1. Buffet where guests serve themselves and sit at tables pre-set with cutlery, glasses, etc.
  2. Sit-down style where guests are served by waiters.



  1.   What is vending machine all about?
  2.   Mention two advantages and two disadvantages of vending.
  3.   What is in- situ service?
  4.   Explain what you understand by banquet service.
  5.   State four reasons for cooking food.



 Types of Food Services:  Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 113 & 114



  1. ____ is service of food and beverage from a trolley away from the dining areas e.g for office workers at their desk. A.  Trolley Service B. Home delivery C. Room Service D.  Lounge Service 
  2. In ____ service, customers park their motor vehicles and are served at their vehicles. A. drive-in B.  tray C. lounge D. trolley
  3. Which of these services require special service machine? A. Buffet B. Vending C. Free flow 
  1. All of the above
  1. What type of service is most suitable for a large number of people in an occasion? A. Room 

service B.  Vending service C. Banquet service D.  Gueridon service

  1. ____ is a type of service where ordered meals are delivered to customers at their door steps. A. Lounge service B. House service C.  Personalized service D. Home service 



  1. Define specialized service?
  2. List and explain three types of specialized service.





  • Steps for laying the table cloth
  • Types of table setting
  • Materials for setting tables
  • Guidelines for setting tables



This is the process of covering the restaurant/dining tables with table clothes. Nothing is more attractive in the room than tables clothed-up with clean, crisp and well starched linen table cloths and napkin. The table cloth and napkin should be handled as little as possible to avoid creasing, which will be ensured by laying the table cloth, quickly and properly first time.


Laying the Table Cloth

  • Before laying the table cloth, the table and chairs should be in their correct position.  
  • The table top should be clean and the table level, with care being taken to ensure that it does not wobble.  If the table wobbles slightly, a disc sliced from a cork can be used to correct the problem.  
  • Next the correct size of table cloth should be collected; most table cloths are folded in what is known as a screen fold.  The waiter should stand between the legs of the table once the clothing-up has been completed.
  • If two table cloths are necessary to cover a table for a large party, then the overlap of the two table clothes should face away from the entrance to the room. This is for presentation purpose of both the room and their tables.  
  • The screen fold should be open out across the table in front of the waiter with the inverted and two single folds facing him, ensuring that the inverted fold is on top.



  1.   Place the thumb on top of the inverted fold with the index and third finger either side of the middle fold (see the pictures below).
  2.   Spread out your arms as close to the width of the table as in possible and lift the cloth so that the bottom folds fall free.
  3.   This should be positioned over the edge of the opposite side of the table from where you are standing
  4.   Now let go of the middle fold and open the cloth out, drawing it towards you until the table is covered with the cloth
  5.   Check that the fall of the cloth is oven on all sides.
  6.   Any adjustment should be made by pulling the edge of the cloth. 

If the table cloth is laid correctly the following should be apparent:

  1. The corners of the table cloth should be over the legs of the table.
  2. The cover lap should be even all around the table.
  3. The creases of the table cloth should all run the same way in the room. 

If two table cloths are necessary to cover a table for a large party, then the overlap of the two cloths should face away from the entrance to the room. This is for presentation purposes of both the room and the table.




  1.   Mention the steps involved in laying a table.
  2.   State two precautions to take when laying a table.



This refer to the way and manner a table is arranged with table wares such as serving dishes and eating utensils ready for serving and eating.



  1.   Informal Table Setting

This is designed for everyday use and suitable for any meal. Only the important cutlery are provided since the food is not a three-course meal; neither is the table cover laid before the family members or guests arrive. This is used mainly for family setting.

  1.   Formal Table Setting

This is the type of table setting for festive period or special occasion such as wedding, luncheon, dinner party, etc. It is also used in standard restaurants for different types of table service. The table is arranged according to the set rules and the service of waiters and waitresses is adopted. The tables are set before the arrival of guests and contain individual cutlery and plates at each person’s cover.



  1.   What is table setting?
  2.   List and explain two types of table setting.



*   Place mats

*   Table napkins/Serviettes

*   Cutlery

*   Menu card and table number

*   Cruet set

*   Serving plates

*   Water goblets

*   Wine goblets

*   Side plates

*   Butter  dish

*   Ash trays etc.

Note: Some of these items depend on the meal to be served.



  1. List and explain the two types of table setting.
  2. Mention five items for setting a table.



  1.   From a service salver, arrange cutleries in order of use, placing the first one to be used at the far end.
  2.   Place forks on the left side of the plates and knives on the right side.
  3.   The edges of cutlery should be an inch from the edge of the table or mat.
  4.   The bowl of spoon and prong of fork should be turned up while the sharp edge of the knife should be directed towards the plate.
  5.   Glasses should be turned up and place above the cutlery on the right side. Do not pour drink into glasses before guests arrive.
  6.   Place folded serviette/napkin on the side plate, in a glass cup, or on the table at the centre of the cover.
  7.   Place the cruet set at the centre of the table within easy reach for guests.
  8.   Place a low flower vase at the centre of the table.



  1.   Determine the number of persons to be served and the menu to be chosen. 
  2.   Make the table design simple and natural.
  3.   Choose and use colour and material to achieve an attractive table design.
  4.   The table setting should complement the meal.  The materials used for table setting should

       suit the type of meal and method of serving it.

  1.   Aim at the comfort and enjoyment of the people who are going to eat the food.
  2.   All the materials required for table laying and for the meal taking must be properly cleaned.
  3.   The pieces of cutlery should be placed fairly closed together.



  1.   List and explain types of table setting.
  2.   List six items for setting a table.
  3.   Differentiate between table laying and table setting.
  4.   List the steps involved in laying of a table.
  5.   List and explain types of table service. 



Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 174 and 175.

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages 271 and 272.



  1. A ____ adds to the attractiveness of a room. A.  well laid table B.  creased table cloth C.  over lapped booty D.  tea towel
  2. Table cloth can be made clean and crisp by A.  washing, starching, ironing B.  washing, dyeing, bluing C.  washing, painting, bluing D. wetting, dyeing, bluing
  3. The table cloth and napkin should be handled as little as possible to avoid ____ A.  tearing 
  1. glazing C. creasing D. bending
  1. One of the following is not needed for setting a table. A.  Place mat B. Disposable gloves 
  1. Cutlery D. Drinking glasses
  1. Most table cloths are folded in what is known as ____ A.  table fold B.  chair fold C. screen fold                D. top fold



  1. Mention four materials needed for table setting.
  2. Outline three steps to follow when setting a table.





  • Meaning of cover
  • Characteristics of Cover
  • Types of cover



Cover literally means to cover the course and dishes with a large white napkin in order to indicate that all precautions had been taken to avoid the poisoning of guests.


In modern food service operation, a cover refers to a portion of the dining table set a person’s meal with all necessary tableware for such meal. It is a place set for a person on the table. The term cover can be used to indicate the number of guests to be catered for e.g. 100 covers means tables are laid to cater for 100 guests.


A cover also refers to the entire necessary cutleries, crockery, glassware and linen required to lay a specific place setting for a person’s meal. Different types of place settings may be laid according to the type of meal and service being offered.



  1.   Each cover must be well balanced i.e. all the required cutlery, glassware, etc. must be available but not to be crowded with cutlery. 
  2.   All cutlery and table accompaniment must be placed at least an inch away from edge of the table. 
  3.   Knives and spoons are kept on the right hand and forks on the left hand side. 
  4.   The cutting edge of knives should be towards the left hand side.
  5.   The water glass is kept at the tip of the large knife.
  6.   The napkin is kept in the centre of the cover.
  7.   Cruet set is kept on top of the cover.
  8.   All covers must be laid directly opposite each other. A cover is normally about 60cm long



  1.   What is a cover in Food service industry?
  2.   Mention three characteristics of a cover.



  1.   A LA CARTE COVER:  These follow the principle that the cutlery for each course will be laid just before each course is served. Only the cutlery for hors d’oeuvre (1st course) is set on the table. Hence on the cover, we have:
  • Fish plate (at centre of cover)
  • Fish knife (at right side of fish plate)
  • Fish fork (at left side of fish plate)
  • Side knife (on the side plate) 
  • Napkin (on the fish plate)
  • Water and wine glasses (at the tip of fish knife)
  • Cruet set
  • Low flower vase 

When an a la carte has been laid, the cutlery required by the customer for the dishes he or she has chosen will be laid course by course.

  1.   CLASSIC OR BASIC LAY UP:  It is an approach to what is laid for the a la carte form of service.  Classic involve using large decorative cover plate instead of fish plate at the centre and/or replacing the fish knife and fork with a joint knife and fork.



  1.   Differentiate between a la carte and classic cover.
  2.   Mention five materials for setting a la carte cover.


  1.   TABLE D’HOTE COVER:  These follow the principle that the cutlery for the whole meal will be laid before the first course is served.  Where a table d’hote cover has been laid the waiter should remove after the order has been taken, any unnecessary cutlery and relay any extra items that may be required. The additional cover for a table d’hote menu is as follows:
  • Napkin (at the centre of the cover)
  • Side plate (with side knife on it)
  • Fish fork (at left side of side plate)
  • Soup spoon (at extreme right of napkin)
  • Fish knife (before soup spoon)
  • Joint knife (between fish knife and napkin)
  • Wine glass (at tip of knives)
  • Water glass (beside wine glass)
  • Sweet fork (in front of napkin, prongs towards glasses)
  • Sweet spoon (follows with bowl towards cruet set, the handle towards glasses)



  1.   What is cover?
  2.   State five characteristics of a cover.
  3.   State the principle of a la carte cover.
  4.   Mention two advantages of baking.
  5.   Mention the different  stages in frying.



Types of cover:  Basic catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages 272-274.



  1. The water glass is kept at the tip of the ____ A. large knife B. large fork C. spoon D.  knife
  2. Napkin is kept in the ____ A. centre of the cover B. centre of the table C. under the cover D. side of the cover
  3. Cruet set is kept ____ A. on the table B. on the cover C. on top of the cover D. on the napkin 
  4. The cutting edge  of all the knives should be towards the ____ A. left hand side B. right hand side C. side of plate D. any side
  5. One of the following does not belong to the group. A. Silver service B. Plated service C. Buffet service D. Gueridon service



  1. State the principle of a la carte cover.
  2. State the principle of table d’hote cover.




Vocabulary Development: Hotel & Catering, Summary Writing: Summarizing to get Implied Meaning, Structure: Prepositional Phrases






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