1. Give the method for preserving the following: cow milk, butter, grains; wine

2. What is the difference between ideal posture and postural defects.

3. Mention 4 rights of a consumer

4. Give the meaning of the following: Gymnast; Paidotribe; Spotter, Gymnasium

5. Name 6 gymnastic equipment

6. Give the full meaning of these acronyms: SON; CPC; NDLEA: NAFDAC; NMA




  1. Method for preserving the following:
    • Cow milk: Cow milk can be preserved through pasteurization, which involves heating the milk to a specific temperature and then rapidly cooling it to kill harmful bacteria and extend its shelf life.
    • Butter: Butter can be preserved by refrigeration or freezing. Keeping it at low temperatures helps to slow down the growth of bacteria and prevent spoilage.
    • Grains: Grains can be preserved by storing them in a cool, dry place in airtight containers. This helps to protect them from moisture, pests, and mold.
    • Wine: Wine can be preserved by storing it in a cool and dark place, such as a wine cellar or refrigerator. It is also essential to keep the wine bottle tightly sealed to prevent air from entering, as oxygen can deteriorate the quality of the wine.
  2. Difference between ideal posture and postural defects:
    • Ideal posture: Ideal posture refers to the correct alignment and positioning of the body when standing, sitting, or moving. It involves maintaining a straight spine, balanced weight distribution, relaxed muscles, and a neutral position of the head, shoulders, and hips. It promotes efficient movement, reduces the risk of injuries, and ensures optimal functioning of the body’s systems.
    • Postural defects: Postural defects are deviations from the ideal posture, resulting in incorrect alignment and positioning of the body. Examples of postural defects include slouching, rounded shoulders, forward head posture, swayback, and uneven hips. These defects can lead to muscle imbalances, strain on the skeletal system, and various health issues such as back pain, reduced flexibility, and impaired breathing.
  3. Four rights of a consumer:
    • Right to safety: Consumers have the right to be protected from the marketing of goods or services that are hazardous to their health or safety. This includes ensuring that products meet safety standards and providing accurate information about potential risks.
    • Right to information: Consumers have the right to receive accurate and truthful information about the products and services they purchase. This includes clear labeling, disclosure of ingredients, pricing, warranties, and any relevant details that can help them make informed decisions.
    • Right to choice: Consumers have the right to choose from a variety of products and services at competitive prices. This ensures that they have options and can select the best available product that meets their needs and preferences.
    • Right to redress: Consumers have the right to seek compensation, refunds, or other forms of redress if they have purchased faulty or substandard products or received unsatisfactory services. This right aims to protect consumers from unfair practices and ensures that they can address grievances.
  4. Meanings of the following:
    • Gymnast: A gymnast is an athlete who participates in gymnastics, which is a sport that involves performing various exercises, routines, and acrobatic movements. Gymnasts demonstrate strength, flexibility, balance, agility, and coordination in disciplines such as floor exercises, vaulting, uneven bars, balance beam, and rhythmic gymnastics.
    • Paidotribe: In ancient Greece, a paidotribe was a physical education teacher or trainer who worked with young people, focusing on their physical development and training. The role of a paidotribe involved instructing and guiding individuals in exercises, sports, and activities to promote physical fitness and well-being.
    • Spotter: A spotter is an individual who assists and ensures the safety of an athlete during weightlifting exercises or other activities that involve potential risks. The spotter’s role is to provide support, stability, and help prevent injuries by being ready to intervene if the athlete loses control or struggles with the exercise.
    • Gymnasium: A gymnasium is a covered and enclosed space designed for physical exercise and sports activities. It is equipped with various fitness equipment and facilities to support different forms of exercise and training. Gymnasiums typically include areas for activities such as basketball, volleyball, badminton, gymnastics, weightlifting, and other indoor sports. They may also have fitness machines, mats, mirrors, and changing rooms. Gymnasiums serve as dedicated spaces for individuals and teams to engage in physical fitness, skill development, and competitive sports
  5. Six gymnastic equipment:
    • Balance beam: A narrow, elevated beam used in artistic gymnastics for balance routines. It requires precise footwork, balance, and concentration.
    • Uneven bars: A set of two horizontal bars at different heights used in women’s artistic gymnastics. Gymnasts perform dynamic and acrobatic movements, including swings, releases, and flips.
    • Vaulting table: A padded apparatus used in artistic gymnastics and gymnastics-related sports like vaulting. Gymnasts sprint and use the springboard to launch themselves onto the table for explosive and high-flying maneuvers.
    • Parallel bars: A set of two horizontal bars used in men’s artistic gymnastics. Gymnasts perform swings, support holds, and dynamic movements that showcase upper body strength and control.
    • Rings: A pair of suspended rings used in men’s artistic gymnastics. Gymnasts demonstrate strength, balance, and control by performing intricate holds, swings, and strength-based maneuvers.
    • Floor exercise mat: A large padded mat used in artistic gymnastics and other floor-based routines. Gymnasts perform tumbling passes, leaps, jumps, and dance movements on the mat.
  6. Full meaning of the acronyms:
    • SON: Standard Organization of Nigeria
    • CPC: Consumer Protection Council
    • NDLEA: National Drug Law Enforcement Agency
    • NAFDAC: National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control
    • NMA: Nigerian Medical Association


Spread the word if you find this helpful! Click on any social media icon to share