Management And Control of Pests

 

Subject : 

Biology

Topic :

Control of Pests

Term :


Second Term

Week:

Week 5

Class :

SSS 2

 

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have the previous knowledge of

Invertebrate and Vertebrate Pests

that was taught in the last lesson

 

 

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • define pest control
  • say the methods of pest controls
  • list the diseases cause by pests and their agents

 

Instructional Materials :

 

  • Poster
  • Wall Chart
  • News paper
  • Online Video
  • Pictures

 

 

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Dialogue
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation

 

Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks

 

Content :

 

Control of pest refers to the management and prevention of pests with the sole aim of minimizing their effect on crops and livestock thereby maximizing food production.

Pest control focuses on:

  1. Reduction in pest population.
  2. Safety or protection of crops

For effective control of pests, a good knowledge of pests’ habits and life cycles is vital. Careful study of the above will reveal the following for good use in control:

  1. Stage and peak period of attack.
  2. Resting stage after attack.
  3. Most vulnerable stage for control.

Methods of Pest Control

Various methods have been used to good effect in controlling pests, namely

  1. Physical methods: These methods involve collection of pest by hand or traps are killing them. Burning, flooding and the use of scare-crows are ll methods controlling pests physically. This could be carried out in a limited are involving large-sized pests as snails, beetles, birds etc. Physical experiences are usually tedious and strenuous.
  2. Cultural Methods: These contain modified farm practices like bush fallowing, crop rotation, combined cropping, closed-season apply and altering planting time. The goal is make environmental situation unfavourable for the event of pests. Such strategies are handiest as a result of most pests are plant particular.
  3. Biological methods: this involves the use of natural predators and parasites on the pests. Extracts from sources can also be used in pest control. Such are inexpensive and long lasting.
  4. Chemical methods: This entails the usage of pesticides such as pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, and rodenticide. The purpose is to kill or cut back pest inhabitants thereby defending the crops from assault. Although efficient the quite a few unfavorable unwanted effects of chemical pest management have posed severe concern.

Apart from the specified methods discussed above, there are modern developments in pest control.

Sterile male technique and use of chemicals attract and repel pests are in use. The combination of control practices (integrated method) and knowledge of life cycle of pests has also proved effective.

 

 

 

 

 

Ailments Attributable to Pests and Agents

  1. Fungal diseases: Fungi diseases in crops are caused by Fungi which are usually microscopic and parasitic. Fungal diseases attack the leaves, roots and stem of plants. E.g Smut, rust, blight, root rot, and downy mildew are fungal diseases.
  2. Viral diseases: these are diseases which are parasites. Common symptoms include Mosaic motting, lesions, chlorosis, stunting and recrosis. Many plant viral infections are spread by insect vectors like aphids, beetles and hoppers. Crops affected by viral diseases are Tobacco, Cassava, and garden egg.
  3. Bacterial diseases: these are caused by bacteria which tend to form spotting of leaves, stems and fruits. Bacteria also cause soft rots, bacterial blight, bacterial wilt and bacteria galls.

 

 

https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/pests-and-diseases-of-crops-fungal-diseases-of-plants.jpg

 

 

 

Fungal Diseases of Plants

Most types of plant-related diseases are caused by fungi. The leaves of this plant have been infected by tar-spot fungus. Fungi can infect all parts of the plant including leaves, stems, flowers, roots, and fruit. The physical manifestations of fungal diseases of plants include wilting, club root, root rot, wood rot, cankers, various types of mildews, blights, lesions, and leaf spots. The consequences of fungal illnesses may be devastating as evidenced by the potato blight that destroyed the Irish potato harvest of 1845 and brought on a widespread famine in Farmland

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation

 

The topic is presented step by step

 

Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics

 

Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

 

Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

 

 

Conclusion

The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.

 

 

 

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is pest control or management ?
  2. For an efficient management of pests, what ought to be the main focus?
  3. List 3 methods of pests’ control.
  4. Point out 3 pests and point out the chemical agent used of their management.
  5. What are the causative agents of pest diseases in crops?
  6. List 3 symptoms of viral diseases.
  7. Which plant parts are usually affected by fungal diseases?

 

 

 

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