third Term

Week 3





  1. Traits of Freshwater Habitat
  2. Types of Freshwater
  3. Zones in Contemporary Water Habitat
  4. Fresh Water Organisms
  5. Adaptation of Organisms to Fresh Water


Traits of Freshwater Habitat

The freshwater habitat contains the lakes, ponds, streams, springs, and rivers. These water our bodies are identified for low salt content or low salinity. The animals and crops in freshwater habitat range from those within the estuarine habitat. That is because of the salinity issue.

Some traits of freshwater habitat embody:

  1. It has low salt content material.
  2. Comparatively small physique of water.
  3. The water is shallow.
  4. Its temperature varies with depth and season.
  5. Low density water.
  6. Turbidity will depend on season.
  7. There’s out there oxygen in all elements of water but extra on the floor.
  8. Freshwater habitat accommodates bony fishes like tilapia.

Sorts of Freshwater

Freshwater is split into two broad varieties:

  1. Stagnant water (lentic): Swimming pools, pond, puddles, and lakes.
  2. Operating water (lotic): Springs, streams, and rivers.

Tidal Pool

The fluctuation of the tide permits for a novel surroundings alongside shorelines. The present frequently circulates and replenishes a wealthy provide of vitamins alongside seashores, however organisms residing there have to be tailored to each buffeting waves and frequent shifts from open air to finish submersion. Marine organisms adapt to the consistently altering environment in a wide range of methods. Starfish use suction-cup toes, barnacles repair completely to massive objects like rocks and boats, and seaweed anchors firmly to the ocean flooring. When the tide goes out, pockets of water stay trapped in rocks, depressions within the sand, and pure basins known as tidal swimming pools, just like the one proven right here throughout low tide.



  1. Point out 5 water our bodies that may be categorise as freshwater habitat.
  2. Record two main kinds of freshwater habitat with three examples every.


Zones in Fresh Water Habitat

In freshwater habitat, 4 major zones are considered:

  1. The sting of the water.
  2. Water floor.
  3. Physique of water.
  4. Backside of water.

Contemporary Water Organisms

Some organisms in freshwater habitat embody: 

Fresh Water Vegetation

Grasses, raffia palm, algae, bamboos, sedges, water lettuce, duckweed, microscopic plankton, water hyacinth, submerged crops equivalent to phytoplankton (algae), ceratophylum, micro organism, water lilies, spirogyra, hornwort and bladderwort.

Fresh Water Animals

Crabs, water snails, dragon flies, water snakes, toads, frogs, mosquito larvae/pupae, water scorpion, tadpoles, water bugs, diving beetles, fishes equivalent to tilapia, flatworms, insect larvae, molluscs, worms, copepods, water skaters, water beetles, mud fish and cat fish, planarian, and dragonfly nymph.

Stream Life

(Left): On the stream’s supply, animals should be capable of face up to each the chilly and the fast present of the robust headwater. Some organisms, particularly the smaller ones, have hooks and suckers to assist them cling to the rocks; most have streamlined our bodies that decrease drag.

(Proper): Free-swimming organisms populate the decrease, slower areas of the stream.

Adaptation of Organisms to Fresh Water

These options of organisms which structurally, physiologically, and behaviorally match them for all times of their explicit habitats and enhance their possibilities of survival are referred to as variations. They’re tailored to the surroundings within the following methods:

  1. Some animals connect to stationary objects by adhesive buildings like suckers (leech), foot (water snail) and hooked claws (mayfly nymph).
  2. Most submerged water crops have in depth parenchyma with massive air areas which allow oxygen to diffuse to all elements of the crops throughout photosynthesis.
  3. Crustaceans use antennal gland as osmo-regulatory organ.
  4. The lung fishes (protopterus) use gills for respiration however when the water dries up, they dig into the mud and breathe with lungs till the rains.
  5. The presence of chloroplasts even within the epidermal cells of leaves and stems of submerged crops for photosynthesis.
  6. A streamlined physique is typical of many animals from insect larvae to fish for swimming[mediator_tech]
  7. Roots are shorter and fewer branched, whereas rootless are devoid of root hairs for help.
  8. Submerged crops take in water and vitamins directly attributable to lack of cuticle.

Pond and Lake Life

Nonetheless water, basically are a lot hotter than rivers and streams, and may help many alternative sorts of plant and animal life. The silty mattress of ponds and the shallower elements of lakes help rooted crops and burrowing larva, meals for free-swimming animals equivalent to fish and frogs. In deeper zones, the place oxygen is much less ample, solely animals tailored to the chilly surroundings exist. Plankton develop in any respect ranges.



  1. Define 4 zones or areas of freshwater habitat.
  2. Record ten crops and animals of freshwater habitat.
  3. Enumerate 5 adaptive measures of crops and animals.
  4. (a) Define 4 traits of freshwater habitat. (b) When is the freshwater turbidity prone to be excessive?
  5. Point out two crops and two animals that dwell in freshwater and the way they adapt to the habitat.
  6. Record all of the traits of the 4 zones or areas of the freshwater habitat.



  1. Meaning of Marshland
  2. Water and Vegetation Patterns of Marshes
  3. Significance of Freshwater Marshes
  4. Traits of Marshland
  5. Sorts of Marshes
  6. Plants and Animals within the Marshes


That means of Marshland

Marshland is a treeless land through which the water desk is at, above, or simply beneath the floor of the bottom. It’s dominated by grasses, reeds, sedges, and cattails. These crops typify emergent vegetation, which has its roots in soil coated or saturated with water and its leaves held above water.

Llanrhidian Marsh

The salt marsh channels on Llanrhidian Marsh in South Wales slowly fill with water on the incoming tide, watched by a flock of oystercatchers and gulls. The diurnal cycle of the tides flooding and exposing the flats generates a novel ecosystem wealthy in marine life. Salt marshes are discovered within the intertidal zone alongside low-energy coastlines, forming alongside the margins of estuaries, the place freshwater from the land mixes with sea water. The in depth root programs of salt marsh crops allow them to resist robust winds, waves, and flooding from storms, and act as pure buffers in opposition to storm injury to upland improvement.

Marshes could also be freshwater or saltwater. Freshwater marshes develop alongside the shallow margins of lakes and slow-moving rivers, forming when ponds and lakes turn into stuffed with sediment. Salt marshes happen on coastal tidal flats. Inland salt marshes occupy the edges of saline lakes. The character of a marsh – its plant composition, species richness, and productiveness – is strongly influenced by its relationship to surrounding ecosystems. They affect the provision of vitamins, the motion of water, and the kind and deposition of sediment.

In the prairie pothole nation of glaciated central North America, freshwater marshes endure a cyclic renewal that’s induced by periodic drought and depending on the feeding habits of muskrats. The cycle begins with a virtually dry marsh through which seeds of aquatic crops germinate within the mud. When the marsh fills, the aquatic crops develop densely. Muskrats eat massive areas of the emergent vegetation, creating patches of open water. This causes the shallow-water emergent to say no, however the submerged and floating species persist. When the subsequent drought comes, the cycle begins once more.

Salt marshes are finest developed on the Atlantic coasts of North America and Europe. In jap North America the low marsh is dominated by a single species, salt – marsh wire grass. The excessive marsh consists of a brief wire grass known as hay, spike grass, and glasswort. Glasswort is the dominant plant of Pacific Coast salt marshes.

Water and Vegetation Patterns of Marshes

In some marshes, such because the saw-grass wetlands of the Everglades or in salt marshes which are swept twice day by day by tidal floods, water flows like a sheet throughout the floor, and the terrain is usually dominated by one or two species of emergent vegetation. In different marshes the water flows in channels reasonably than in sheets, flooding solely at instances of snowmelt and heavy precipitation and bringing in vitamins and sediment. Such irregular deposition of sediments offers variations in water depth, thus creating circumstances beneficial for a wide range of wetland species. Deep marsh water is colonized by aquatic submerged crops (pond weeds) and floating crops (pond lilies). Shallower water helps reeds and wild rice. Very shallow water helps sedges, bulrushes, and cattails.

As sediments and natural deposits increase the underside of a marsh above the water desk, aquatic vegetation is step by step changed by shrubs and ultimately by a terrestrial ecosystem of upland grasses or forest bushes.

Significance of Freshwater Marshes

Freshwater marshes present nesting and wintering habitats for waterfowl and shorebirds, muskrats, frogs, and plenty of aquatic bugs (see Freshwater Life). Salt marshes are wintering grounds for snow geese and geese, a nesting habitat for herons and rails, and a supply of vitamins for estuarine waters (see Estuary). Marshes are necessary in flood management, in sustaining high-water tables, and as settling basins to cut back air pollution downstream. Regardless of their nice environmental worth, marshes are frequently being destroyed by drainage and filling.

Marsh Deer

Blastocerus dichtomus, A feminine marsh deer reveals off her summer season color of shiny chestnut brown. The distinctive color and enormous ears of this deer distinguish it from smaller South American deer. As its identify suggests, the marsh deer lives in marshy areas with dense brush the place it might probably feed on grasses and legumes. The species is uncommon all through its vary due to habitat destruction, overhunting, and susceptibility to ailments contracted from agricultural livestock.[mediator_tech]

Traits of Marshland

  1. Marshes are low-lying wetlands coated below shallow waters for lengthy durations of time.
  2. They’re often fashioned in lowlands and plains close to lakes and creeks, river banks or river mouths the place water drainage is poor.
  3. They encompass grass-like vegetations which is ready to develop in a waterlogged soil.
  4. On account of abundance of vitamins and mineral current within the water, marshes are breeding and nursing grounds for huge number of organisms.
  5. The relative humidity within the ambiance over the habitat is often excessive.
  6. The water our bodies often include a lot decaying natural matter.
  7. The decay of natural matter takes place on a big scale in a marsh and this causes a lower within the oxygen content material of the water. Below the primarily anaerobic circumstances within the water or soil, foul smelling gases could also be produced through which hydrogen sulphide and methane could also be current. The merchandise of this decomposition change the chemical properties of the marsh. As an illustration, some marshes are very strongly acidic.

Sorts of Marshes

Marshes could also be both saltwater or freshwater marshes. In Nigeria, salt water marshes are discovered alongside the Atlantic coast, which is influenced by the tides. Often, freshwater flowing down the river, which empty into the ocean, mixes with tidal sea water within the estuaries, creeks and lagoons. Nonetheless, within the dry season, the amount of river water is comparatively small, and enormous within the wet season. This huge quantity of river water mixes along with tidal seawater in estuaries, creeks, and lagoons, filling them up and inflicting them to overflow their banks.

The water that floods the land close to the estuaries, creeks and lagoons is a mixture of contemporary and salt water; therefore the marshes are known as saltwater marshes.

Freshwater marshes happen inland, simply past the boundaries of the saltwater marshes and past the areas influenced by tides. On this zone, solely the freshwater of the rivers overflows the river banks to flood the adjoining lowland, forming freshwater marshes.

Vegetation and Animals within the Marshes

Vegetation present in saltwater marshes embody numerous grasses and likewise algae that float on the water floor. Main animals embody mangrove crab, lagoon crab, hermit crab, mudskipper fish, bloody calm (Arcasenillis), oysters, barnacles and angel-fish.

Freshwater marshes even have floating crops in standing water like algae, water lettuce, Lemna and Salvinia (water arum), numerous ferns and sorts of sword grass. The animals embody frogs and toads, in addition to fishes and birds that wade into the water to feed on fish for instance, the heron.

Adaptive Options of Vegetation and Animals in Marshes

The various circumstances of the marsh makes the organisms able to adapt to all types of situation:

Adaptive Options of Vegetation in Marshes

  1. A comfortable muddy backside that gives little help and anchorage;
  2. Low oxygen ranges or an anaerobic surroundings within the soil;
  3. Excessive salinity in salt marshes and
  4. Change in water ranges because of the ebb and circulate of tides.

Adaptive Options of Animals in Marshes

  1. Invertebrates equivalent to clams, shellfishes, shrimps and oysters;
  2. Reptiles just like the salt marsh snakes and diamondback turtles;
  3. Amphibians equivalent to frogs and salamanders;
  4. Birds like the nice blue herons and clapper rails and
  5. Mammals equivalent to muskrats, racoons, rabbits, and river otters.


In saltwater marshes, all of the organisms have to have the ability to tolerate the salinity of the soil or water. In addition they need to tolerate the low oxygen focus within the soil and water.

In freshwater marshes, the crops present variations much like these of freshwater crops. Saprophytic organisms equivalent to micro organism, which dwell on the lifeless natural issues in marshes, need to adapt to the primarily anaerobic circumstances right here.



  1. Outline marsh.
  2. Record kinds of marshes.
  3. State 4 traits of marsh.
  4. Write three adaptive options of crops and animals in marshland.


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