ALKANOIC ACID

PRACTICALS

WEEK 1

TOPIC: ALKANOIC ACID

1. SOURCES, NOMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE OF ALKANOIC ACID,

  1. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES,
  2. LABORATORY TEST AND USES

PERIOD 1: SOURCES, NOMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE OF


ALKANOIC ACID

Alkanoic acidS have carboxylic group as their functional group i.e –COOH. The general molecular formular is [mediator_tech]CnH2n+1COOH. They occur in fats and oils. They are pepared in the laboratory by the oxidation of primary alkanols with excess acidified potassium tetraoxomanganate (vii).

 

The name of any alkanoic acid ends with –ioc

  1. methanoic acid or formic acid( from insect bite) HCOOH
  2. Ehanoic acid CH3COOH.

3 Propanoic acid. CH3CH2COOH

 

  1. Butanoic acid. CH3CH2CH2COOH

 

 

 

 

EVALUATION:

  1. State the general formula of alkanoic acid
  2. Draw the structural formula of 3-carboxyl-3-hydroxylpentanedioic acid
  3. draw the structural isomers of an alkanoic acid with the formula C7H14O2

 

 

 

PERIOD 4: LABORATORY TEST AND USES OF ALKANOIC ACID

Addtion of the acid to saturated solution of sodium hydrogentrioxocarbonate (iv) produces effervescence. The gas is colourless and odourless and turns lime water milky.

USES OF ALKANOIC ACIDS

  1. They make up a serie of fatty acids which are extremely good for human health
  2. Food industry uses many organic acids for the production of soft drinks, food products etc.For example ethanoic acid is used for making vinegar.
  3. In pharmaceutical industry organic acids are used in making drugs such as aspirin, phenacetin e.t.c.
  4. ethanoic acid is used for making cellulose acetate which is used in manufacture of synthetic fibres like rayon and artificial silk

EVALUATION:

  1. State two uses of alkanoic acid.
  2. describe the laboratory test for alkanoic acid

GENERAL EVALUATION

OBJECTIVE TEST

  1. Which of the following is the functional group of alkanoic acid? (a) –OH (b) –COOH (c) –CHO (d) –COR
  2. The product of the reaction between propanoic acid and methanol in the presence of H2SO4 is (a) ethyl propanoate (b) propyl methanoate (c) methyl propanoate (d) ethyl ethanoate.
  3. The gas given off when propanoic acid reacts with calcium trioxocarbonate (iv) is (a) hydrogen gas (b) oxygen gas (c) carbon (iv) oxide gas (d) chlorine gas
  4. Which of these acids is present in insect bite? (a) ethanoic acid (b) methanoic acid (c) butanoic acid (d) citric acid
  5. Complete oxidation of propan-1-ol gives (a) propan-2-ol (b) propanone (c) propanal (d) propanoic acid

Essay

  1. Complete the following reaction equation:

(a) CH3CH2CH2COOH + CH3CH2COOH

(b) CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH

  1. What is esterification reaction?
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