SUBJECT: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE FIRST TERM: E-LEARNING NOTES

 

FIRST TERM: E-LEARNING NOTES

SUBJECT: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

JSS 2 (BASIC 8)

SCHEME OF WORK

WEEKS TOPIC

  1. Revision of last year work briefly/soil, Definition of soil, Composition of soil, Type of soil,
  2. Properties of soil(physical and chemical properties)
  3. (i)Soil fertility and management,(ii) soil conservation
  4. Factors responsible for lost of soil nutrients, Effects of conservation practices on environmental pollution.
  5. Farm structures and buildings. Definitions, types of farm structures, types of farm buildings, Farm structures and buildings. Uses of farm structures and building,
  6. Maintenance of farm structures and buildings, factors guiding (i) siting a farm and ii)layout of farm structure and buildings (iii) Importance of siting farm structures and buildings.
  7.  Farm machines : (i) Definition, types and uses of farm machines.(ii) Tractor :Definition
  8. Types of tractor, tractor coupled implements, methods of maintaining farm machines.
  9.  Crop propagation: Meaning of crop propagation, Methods of crop propagation,(detail methods), Advantages and Disadvantages of crop propagation (both Sexual and Asexual crop propagation)
  10.  Revision.
  11. Examination.
  12. vacation

WEEK 2

DATE:

TOPIC: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL.

CONTENT: 1. soil texture

2. Soil structure

3. Soil pH.

SUB TOPIC 1: SOIL TEXTURE.

This refers to the relative proportions of the various sized particles that make up a soil sample.( i.e. the percentage of sand, silt and clay present in a soil sample).

It can also be defined as the degree of the finess or coarseness of a soil when felt. It was based on the soil texture that the soil is grouped into the various types.

Type of soil particles Diameter of particles in mm
Clay Less than0.002
Silt 0.02 – 0.002
Fine sand 0.20 – 0.020
Coarse sand 2.0 – 0.20
Gravel 2.0 and above

Soil texture can be determined by:

i. feel

ii. wetting and moulding

iii. sieving

iv. sedimentation .

IMPORTANCE OF SOIL TEXTURE

  1. It determines the type of soil that is found in an area.
  2. It influences water and air movement in the soil.
  3. It influences root penetration and workability.

EVALUATION

1. Explain the term soil texture

ii. How can soil texture be determined?

iii. State three importance of soil texture.

SUB TOPIC 2: SOIL STRUCTURE

This is the arrangement of particles of soil into aggregates. It shows the physical appearance of the soil as the particles are arranged.

TYPES OF SOIL STRUCTURE

  1. Single-grained
  2. Massive
  3. Granular
  4. Crumb
  5. Coherent
  6. Block and
  7. Prismatic.

IMPORTANCE OF SOIL STRUCTURE

  1. It influences the characteristics of the soil in terms of heat transfer, aeration, water movement , root penetration and workability.
  2. It also affects the rate of soil erosion.

SUB TOPIC 3:SOIL PH.

Soil PH is a measure of the degree of the acidity or alkalinity of a soil. It is usually measured with a pH metre. A soil can either be acidic or alkaline.

An acidic soil is usually corrected by liming. Liming materials includes: calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, wood ash, calcium oxide, calcium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide.

CAUSES OF SOIL ACIDITY.

1. Prolonged use of inorganic fertilizers.

2. Crop removal.

3. Leaching.

Soil acidity can be determined by using

i. Litmus paper

ii. BDH universal soil indicator method

iii. Colour metric method

iv. Electro metric method

EFFECTS OF SOIL ACIDITY.

1. It is toxic to plant roots.

2. It interferes with absorption of some plant nutrients

3. It reduces the activity of soil organisms.

EVALUATION

  1. What is pH scale?
  2. If a pH metre indicate 7 ,what does it signify?
  3. List three effects of soil acidity

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al
  • New Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E . U Okaro
  • Prescribed Agricultural science for JSS by S.A. Omoruyi et al
  • Essentials Of Agricultural Science For JSS And Colleges By Earnest Chukwudi

 

WEEK 3

DATE:

TOPIC: SOIL FERTILITY AND MANAGEMENT.

Contents: 1. Meaning of soil fertility

2. Methods of soil fertility management

(Advantages and disadvantages of each methods) .

SUB TOPIC 1:MEANING OF SOIL FERTILITY.

Soil fertility is the capacity of the soil to supply soil mineral nutrient or elements to crop in adequate amounts and in suitable proportions to enhance crop production.

A fertile soil is that which contains adequate nutrient elements required by crops .

CHARACTERISTICS OF A FERTILE SOIL.

1. High cat ion exchange capacity.

2. Good water holding capacity.

3. Adequate humus contents

4. Good granular (spheroidal) structure.

5. Good workability.

6. Essential elements available in required amount.

EVALUATION

1. Differentiate between soil fertility and fertile soil

2. What are the characteristics of a fertile soil?

SUB TOPIC 2: METHODS OF SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT.

There are several methods that can be used to maintain the fertility of the soil. They include bush fallowing, cover cropping, rotation cropping, application of organic and inorganic fertilizers.

BUSH FALLOWING: This is the practice of leaving a farm land uncultivated for a period of time. This is to allow the soil tore gain its lost nutrients in a natural form.

ADVANTAGES

1.It is an effective method in area with low pressure on land.

2. It protects the soil against erosion.

3. Fallen leaves decompose to increase organic matter content of the soil.

4. The method reduces evaporation of water and leaching of minerals are reduced.

5. Living organisms are build up in the soil which help in soil modification and

granulation.

DISADVANTAGES

1. It is very slow method of maintaining soil fertility.

2. If the period for fallow is not enough ,the adequate replacement of lost nutrients will

not be achieved.

3. It can not be used in places where there is high demand on land.

EVALUATION

1. List four methods of maintaining soil fertility

2. Explain the term bush fallowing

3. State two advantages and two disadvantages of bush fallowing

COVER CROPPING: This is the growing of crops purposely to provide a cover for the soil. Crops such as melon, cowpea, groundnut, sweat potatoes can be grown for this purpose. They are grown along side with the main crops to provide a cover for the soil.(pueraria, mucuna, and centrosema can be used in plantation.)

ADVANTAGES

1.They protect the soil against erosion.

2. It reduces evaporation of soil water.

3. It prevent leaching.

4. Cover crops suppress weeds on the farm land.

5. Where legumes are used ,they help to increase the nitrogen content of the soil.

6. Their falling leaves decompose to add organic matter to the soil.

DISADVANTAGES

1. Cover crops compete with the main crops for nutrient and water.

2. They increase the rate of loss of water in the soil through transpiration.

ROTATION CROPPING:This is the growing of crops on a piece of land year after year in a definite order.

ADVANTAGES

1. The method make for continuous use of land without rapid loss of essential nutrients.

2. It is an ideal method to use where land is scarce.

3. It is a labour saving method as the same land is used every year.

4. Weed are effectively checked.

5. It reduces erosion.

DISADVANTAGES

1. Continuous tillage of the surface soil renders it loose and easily eroded.

ORGANIC MANURING: Manures are plants and animals materials that are added to the soil to supply nutrients needed for the growth of crops. There are three types of organic manure, green manure, farm yard manure and compost manure.

GREEN MANURE: These are un-decomposed green plants parts which are turned into the soil. Plants to be used as green manure should be, easily establish, grow quickly, produce abundant succulent shoots and roots in a short time, easily cover the ground and grow on poor soils.

ADVANTAGES

1. It supply plant Nitrogen and other nutrients

2. It protect the soil against erosion.

3. It reduces the loss of nutrients through leaching.

4. It improve the physical condition of the soil.

DISADVANTAGES

1. They may habour diseases and pests of crop plant

2 . It may be expensive to grow green manure plants

FARM YARD MANURE: It is a mixture of animal droppings, urine, food remains and beddings or litter. The materials are heaped under a shed to decompose for sometimes before used.

ADVANTAGES

1. It contain all the required plant nutrients.

2. It is cheap.

3. It has a lasting effect on the soil.

4. It binds loose sandy soil together.

5. It loosens compact clay soil.

6. It enables the soil to absorb and retain moisture easily.

DISADVANTAGES

1. It is very bulky.

2. It can encourages rapid growth of weeds

3. It required much labour during application.

COMPOST MANURE: This is the decayed plant and animal remains in heaps or stacks or pit, used as manure on the farm. The materials needed for compost making include grass cutting, hedge trimmings, weeds, vegetable wastes leaves and other organic wastes from kitchen. Ash, lime or animal dung ,old compost and chemical activators such as sulphate of ammonia are also added. Young succulent plant parts should be used instead of woody and tough parts. This is because decomposition is easier and contains much nutrients for healthy plant growth.

METHODS OF COMPOST MAKING: There are two methods of making compost, pit method and heap (stack) method

The pit method is used in area of low rain fall or in the dry season while the heap method is used in high rainfall areas or during the rainy season. In both method, however, the same processes as well as the materials used remain the same.

PROCESS OF COMPOST MAKING

1. Dig four pit or peg out four areas.

2. Add kitchen wastes, yam peelings, orange skins and pulp, rotten fruits and anything that can rots easily. (starter)

3. Add grass cuttings, hedge trimmings vegetable wastes and compress.

4. Repeat this process until the pit is filled or the desired height is reached

5. Cover the top with soil to prevent the entrance of flies.

6. Insert a stick at one end or at the centre in case of pit method(tester). It detects weather the decomposition is going on or not. The stick will be hot if the there is decomposition after about five days.

7. Turn materials or the content of the pit A or heap A into B after two weeks. Repeat this step until pit or heap D is reached and the desired quantity obtained.

8. Cover the final product with suitable materials until it is needed for use.This will prevent the loss of important nutrients due to strong sun or rain water.

Pit A Pit B Pit C Pit D

ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSE MANURE.

1. It adds nutrients to the soil for increased crop yield.

2. It improves the structure and texture of the soil.

3. It help to maintain equal amounts of acid and base contents of the soil.

4. It help to conserve soil moisture and prevent soil erosion.

5. It provides sources of food to living organisms in the soil. E. g earthworms, termites and microbes.

6. It has a modifying effect on soil temperature.

DISADVANTAGES .

1. It involves much labour in preparation.

2. It could cause scorching if applied when not fully mature.

3. It may introduce disease causing agents.

4. It is time involving and not economical for use in large farms.

APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE(FERTILIZER)

Inorganic manure are chemical substances in form of powder, granules or crystals which are added to the soil to provide nutrients that are deficient. Fertilizers are manufacture in the industry from rocks and other materials.

TYPES OF FERTILIZER

There are two types of fertilizer

1. SINGLE/SIMPLE/STRAIGHT FERTILIZERS: These are fertilizers that contain one of the major plant nutrients in the form plants can use. They contain one primary element such as nitrogen , potassium and phosphorous in their composition.

2. MIXED / COMPOUND/COMPLEX FERTILIZERS: These are fertilizers that contain two or more primary nutrient elements plus filler materials.

METHODS OF APPLYING OF FERTILIZERS

1. Broadcasting : This is where fertilizer is evenly spread on the farm land. It could be done during tillage operation to incorporate it into the soil .

2. Side dressing: This is where small quantity of fertilizer is placed on one or two sides of individual crop.

3. Ring placement: Here a shallow trench is dug round individual crop a few centimetres away from the stem ,fertilizer is then sprinkled in the trench and covered with soil.

4. Row placement: These is where fertilizer is applied in row few centimetres away from the crops. It is suitable when crops are planted in rows.

ADVANTAGES OF FERTILIZERS

1. They help to increase crop yield thus the farmer`s income.

2. They increase productivity of poor soil.

3. They are used on large scale farms.

4. They are ease to handle compared to organic manures.

5. The nutrients in fertilizers are readily available to crops.

Disadvantages of fertilizers:

1. Fertilizers are easily leached in the soil.

2. Some leave acidic residues in the soil.

3. They do not improve the structure of the soil.

4. They are expensive to produce.

5. Some of the nutrients may escape as gases under intense heat of the sun.

EVALUATION:

a) What is the difference between organic manure and inorganic manure?

b) List three methods of applying fertilizer.

c) Explain how to make compost manure.

REFERENCE TEXTS

  1. Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al
  2. New Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E . U Okaro
  3. Prescribed Agricultural science for JSS by S.A. Omoruyi et al
  4. Essentials Of Agricultural Science For JSS And Colleges By Earnest Chukwudi

WEEK 4

DATE:

TOPIC: Soil conservation

Content:

Meaning of soil conservation.

Ways by which soil losses its nutrients.

Effects of soil conservation practices on the environment.

SUB TOPIC 1: MEANING OF SOIL CONSERVATION.

Conservation is regarded as plans used for any natural resources to avoid exploitation and destruction.

Soil conservation is the use of soil without waste so as to sustain higher crop production or yield. OR. The measures the farmer adopts for maintaining the soil and its resources is termed soil conservation.

It is important to conserve soil so as to prevent wastage of soil and depletion of its nutrients.

EVALUATION

1. What is soil conservation?

2. State the importance of soil conservation.

SUB TOPIC 2: WAYS BY WHICH SOIL LOST ITS NUTRIENTS.

Nutrients are usually lost from the soil through leaching, crop removal, burning, erosion, oxidation and reduction and clean clearing.

1. Leaching: This is the washing away of nutrients from the topsoil down through the soil profile by rain water. This can be controlled by either planting of cover crops and addition of manure.

2.Crop removal: Soil nutrients are used by plants for growth and development ,when such crops are harvested the nutrients take up are lost completely from the soil.

3.Bushburning: The burning of vegetation reduces soil fertility. This is because it exposes the surface of the soil to the agents of erosion like water and wind.

4.Oxidation and reduction: Oxidation and reduction reaction in the soil lead to loss of soil nutrients . The oxidized or reduced radical goes into the atmosphere in gaseous form.

5. Erosion: Erosion is the wearing away of the top soil by agents such as water, wind and activities of man. This causes loss of soil nutrients.

TYPES OF EROSION

Types of erosion include, splash erosion , sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion and wind or suspension erosion.

(a) Splash erosion: It is the removal of soil particles by the forces of rain drops.(It is the first stage of soil erosion)

(b) Sheet erosion: The soil particles scattered by raindrops block the soil pores, this will make it difficult for the rain water to enter the soil. This results in water flowing on the surface of the soil. it is common on gentle sloppy area.

(c) Rill erosion: This occurs when rain drops on the soil surface cause gradual removal of soil particles along a narrow channels.(3rd stage)

(d) Gully erosion: This occurs in a place when rainwater does not sink into the soil, it therefore runs off over land. (4th stage)

WAYS OF CONTROLLING EROSION.

  1. Planting of cover crops.
  2. Crop rotation.
  3. Application of organic manure.
  4. Mulching
  5. Preventing bush burning.
  6. Preventing overgrazing

Vii. Establishment of wind breaks

EVALUATION

1. Mention five ways by which nutrient can be loss in the soil.

2. Differentiate between erosion and leaching.

3. What are the types of erosion?

4 State four ways of preventing erosion.

SUB- TOPIC 3:METHODS OF SOIL CONSERVATION

Conservation of soil nutrients entails methods of controlling soil erosion and methods involved in preventing loss of soil water in the soil. This includes

  1. Planting of cover crops.
  2. Crop rotation.
  3. Application of organic manure.
  4. Mulching
  5. Preventing overgrazing
  6. Establishment of wind breaks
  7. Irrigation
  8. Good cultivation methods.
  9. Regular weeding
  10. Preventing bush burning.

EFFECTS OF SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES ON THE ENVIRONMENT.

1. Excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizer results in acidification of the soil.

2. Some fertilizer have harmful effects on soil organisms.

3. Continuous use of some fertilizers lead to unavailability of some essential

plant nutrients.

Irrigation could lead to salt build-up in the soil if the source of irrigation water

is salty.

5. Irrigation can also lead to leaching and erosion when not well handled.

6. Flooding can lead to build up of pests and diseases.

7. Mulching materials could harbor pests and diseases which later attack

the crops

EVALUATION

a) State five methods of conserving nutrients in the soil.

b) What are the effects of conservation practices on our environment.

ASSIGNMENT

  1. What is irrigation?
  2. List the types of irrigation.

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al
  • New Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E . U Okaro
  • Prescribed Agricultural science for JSS by S.A. Omoruyi et al
  • Essentials Of Agricultural Science For JSS And Colleges By Earnest Chukwudi

WEEK: 5

DATE:

TOPIC: FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

CONTENT:

  • Definition of farm structures and buildings
  • Types of farm structures eg silo, cribs, rhombus, barns, fish ponds, etc.
  • Types of farm buildings such as poultry, houses, pens, stores, offices, utility buildings, security post, etc.

SUB-TOPIC: 1 DEFINITION OF FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

Farm structures are very simple buildings designed to serve specific purposes on the farm so that farm operations are more easily carried out eg barns, cribs, silos, etc, while farm buildings are buildings needed in the farm to carry out certain aspects of production. Eg buildings for storing fertilizers, farm tools, harvested crops, etc.

EVALUATION

Define the following terms and give three examples of each

  • Farm structures
  • Farm buildings

SUB-TOPIC: TYPES OF FARM STRUCTURES

Farm structures are classified into three, based on their uses

  • Production structures e.g. poultry battery cages, grazing paddocks, poultry range shelters, fish pods, rabbit hutches, potting sheds for seedlings (nurseries), irrigation systems and dams.
  • Processing structures e.g. grinding machine sheds, oil palm press, rice mill
  • Storage structures e.g. silos, cribs, rhumbus, barns, fences, , irrigation dams, compost pits, waste disposal pits, feed mills, canal and tanks, water tanks, animal dips, etc

SILO: is a tall circular or rectangular farm structure made of mud, concrete or stainless steel. Silos can used for storing harvested grains like maize, cowpea, sorghum, millet and even for storing grass to feed animals.

CRIBS: Is simple grain storage structures made of wood and wire gauze on the sides and floor with a thatch or zinc roof. Cribs are used for drying maize which are still on the cob

RHUMBUS: these are round structures made from mud with a grass or thatch roof. They are very common in the northern parts of Nigeria where they are used for storing grains such as millet, maize, cowpea, sorghum and ground nut.

FEED MILLS: In farms where livestock are kept, it is economical to manufacture their feeds on the farm. Therefore, feed mills are constructed to make animal feeds.

BARNS: A barn is temporary structure that can be constructed with sticks, muds and thatch. Barns are used for storing things like yam, cassava, grass or hay.

EVALUATION

  • Define the term farm structure
  • Name and describe four farm structures commonly used by farmers in your state.

Sub-topic 3: Types of farm buildings

Farm buildings are mainly of two types.

  • Temporary farm buildings
  • Permanent farm buildings

Temporary farm buildings

These are buildings constructed from cheap or locally available materials from the farm. They are abandoned soon after the farmer has completed using them. Temporary buildings include storage sheds for keeping machines, equipment and tools, nurseries, animal pens, construction sheds, etc.

Permanent farm buildings

These are solid buildings normally constructed to last for a very long time. The walls and floors are usually constructed from cement, sand, stones and gravel, wood, corrugated iron sheets or aluminum is used for the roof. Examples of permanent farm buildings are farm offices, workshops, living quarters for workers, stores for farm supplies and harvests, animal houses, generator houses and water storage tanks.

EVALUATION

List the major differences between temporary and permanent buildings.

Weekend Assignment

List five examples each of the following

  • Farm structures
  • Temporary farm buildings
  • Permanent farm buildings

Reading Assignment

Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools by Anthony Youdeowei et al

Pages 22-27

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools by Anthony Youdeowei et al

2. Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro

3. Comprehensive Agricultural Science by G.M Nwabuisi et al

WEEK: 6

TOPIC: FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

CONTENT:

1 .Uses of farm structures and buildings

2. Maintenance of farm structures and buildings

3. Factors guiding: I siting (location) of farm ii. Layout of farm structures and buildings.

iii. Importance of good siting of farm structures and buildings

SUB-TOPIC1: USES OF FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

The following are some farm structures and their uses:

  • Silo: is used for storing harvested grains like maize, cowpea, sorghum, millet and grasses to feed animals.
  • Cribs: Cribs are used for drying maize which is still on the cob.
  • Rhumbus: is used for storing grains such as millet, maize, cowpea, sorghum and ground nut.
  • Feed mill: are used to manufacture animal feeds.
  • Barns: are used for storing things like yam, cassava, grass or hay.
  • Animal dips: they are used as bath for farm animals to prevent them from parasites such lice, ticks, etc

The following are some farm buildings and their uses:

  • Farm office: it is used for the administration of all facets of the farm business
  • Living (quarters) houses: to provide accommodation for the farm and his workers
  • Storage sheds for keeping machines, equipment and tools
  • Nurseries: for raising seedlings.

v Animal pens: for housing farm animals etc.

EVALUATION

State the uses of the following:

i.Silos ii .barns iii. Cribs iv. Feed mill

v Farm office vi. Nurseries vi. Storage sheds

SUB-TOPIC: 2 . MAINTENANCE OF FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS.

Here are some ways to maintain farm buildings and structures:

  • Farm structures and buildings made of metals should be painted with oil paint to prevent rust.
  • The buildings made of wood or timber should be painted with coal tar or solignum to protect the wood from damage from termites, beetles and fungi.
  • The walls of buildings should be painted.
  • Silos should be coated with aluminum paint to prevent rust and to reflect light.
  • Use insulators for roofing poultry houses to prevent heat escape.
  • Feeding and drinking troughs should be cleaned regularly.
  • Roofs should be checked for leakages, any found should be repaired immediately.
  • The floor spaces of farm buildings should be swept often, where beddings are used, these should be changed occasionally.

EVALUATION

Describe some methods of maintaining three named structures and buildings.

SUB-TOPIC 3: FACTORS GUIDING SITING (LOCATION) OF FARM

The success of a farm depends partly on the characteristics of the site on which the farm is located. Therefore, when choosing the site for a farm, a farmer considers the following important factors

  • AVAILABILITY OF LAND: the size of the farm depends on the amount of land available.
  • WATER SUPPLY: it is necessary to site a farm near a river or stream to make water available for the farm crops and animals.
  • GOOD SOIL: the farm should be located on loose, fertile and well-drained soil.
  • SLOPE OF THE LAND: the land should not be hilly or steep to prevent soil erosion
  • ACCESSIBILITY: there should be good roads to the farm for ease of transportation of goods and labour.
  • SECURITY: the farm should located in a safe place
  • Nearness to a village or town: to make it easy to transport produce to the market for sale.

FACTORS GUIDING LAYOUT OF FARM OF FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

  • Buildings should be sited on elevated grounds to guard against flood and drainage problem
  • Livestock pens should not be sited close to living houses to prevent offensive odours.
  • Farm structures and buildings should be close to the store for farm inputs to minimize the journey from the store to the particular structure

IMPORTANCE OF GOOD SITING OF FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

  • It makes production more efficient.
  • It saves time, since they are closely located to one another.
  • It helps to guard against flood problem
  • It protects the environment from offensive odour resulting from the animal pens and compost pits.
  • It facilitates operations

EVALUATION

  • State the factors guiding the layout of farm structures and buildings.
  • State the factors that guide one in choosing a site for the school farm

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools by Anthony Youdeowei et al

Workbook, Chapter 3

READING ASSIGNMENT

Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools by Anthony Youdeowei et al

Pages 29-38

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools by Anthony Youdeowei et al

2. Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro

3. Comprehensive Agricultural Science by G.M Nwabuisi et al

READING ASSIGNMENT

Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools by Anthony Youdeowei et al

Pages 29-38

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools by Anthony Youdeowei et al

2. Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro

3. Comprehensive Agricultural Science by G.M Nwabuisi et al

WEEK 7

TOPIC: FARM MACHINES.

Content: – Definition of farm machines

-Types of farm machines

Sub-topic 1

Definition: Farm machines are the machines which are collectively used in carrying out farm activities. Farm machinery make farm work easier and faster.

TYPES OF FARM MACHINES

The following are types of machines and their uses.

1. Tractor: For pulling Farm implements and machines such as plough, harrows and planters For driving other farm machinery.

2. Bulldozer: For clearing and uprooting of big trees. Also, for leveling of land.

3. Tillage machines

(i) Plough

(ii) Harrows

(iii) Ridgers

(iv) Cultivators

(v) Rotavator

4. Planters: For planting seeds.

5. Lathes: For holding and turning wood or metals into shapes

6. Sprayers: For spraying chemicals on crops.

7. Motor- saws: For felling big trees

8. Harvesters : For harvesting grain crops and grasses

9. Seed drill: For planting seeds.

Sub-topic 2 : TRACTORS

TRACTORS: A Tractor is a machine with many components used for a lot of farm works.

The diagram below shows the parts of a tractor

 

TYPES OF TRACTOR

1. Two-wheeled Tractors

2. General Purpose Tractors

3. Heavy wheeled Tractors

4. Track-laying Tractors

The Two-wheeled Tractors are sometimes called horticultural tractors. They are mainly used for light cultivation such as harrowing. They usually pushed from behind

The General Purpose Tractors are the most common type of tractors. They are used to pull heavy machines.

The Heavy Wheeled Tractors are large tractors. They are used for heavy work such as ploughing and ridging and can be used for stumping felled trees.

Track- Laying Tractors are commonly known as caterpillars or bulldozers. They do not have wheels and tyres. They move with heavy chains on the track. They are used for clearing bush felling trees.

EVALUATION:

1. Define farm machines

2. Name 10 types of farm machineries

3. Write 4 types of tractors

REFERENCE TEXTS: –Essentials of Agricultural sc. By Earnest Chukwudi Anie

-Junior Sec. Agric. For Nigerian Schs. By Athony Youdeowei

-Prescribed Agric. Sc. For JSS. By Omoruyi S.A. et al

-New Intensive Agric.Sc.For UBE. By E.U. Okaro

 

WEEK 8:

TOPIC: FARM MACHINES (CONTD)

Content — Tractor coupled implements

Sprayers and maintenance of farm machines

Sub-topic 1

TRACTOR COUPLED IMPLEMENTS: These are farm implements that are attached to the tractor while using them to work. They include plough, ridgers, harrows, planters, harvesters, sprayers, cultivator.

PLOUGHS : They are primary tillage implements used for cutting the soil and turning it over during land preparation. The two types of ploughs are the mould board and the disc ploughs.

MOULD BOARD PLOUGH: They are used where the farm land is free of obstacles like stones and stumps. They suitably used in grassland areas.

DISC PLOUGH: They are used in areas where there are stones or tree stumps that could damage the mould board ploughs.

HARROWS: They are secondary tillage implements. They are generally used to brake down soil lumps and to level the surface before planting. The types of harrows includes (i) disc harrow, (ii) spike-toothed harrow (iii) spring-toothed harrow (iv) Tandem disc harrow

RIDGERS: Ridgers are used for making ridges. They are pulled by the tractor while working. The types of ridgers includes (i) disc ridger and (ii) mould board ridger

PLANTERS: They are used for planting seeds. They can also be used spread fertilizers on the soil. Seed drill is a planting machine that drills and plant specific numbers of seeds per hole

Planters are also pulled by the tractor while planting.

HARVESTERS: They are generally used for harvesting grain crops and forage crops.

The types of harvesters includes:

(a) Mowers

(b) Balers

(c) Forage harvesters

(d) Combined harvesters

(e) Root crop harvesters

(f) Corn pickers

(g) Cotton scrippers

Sub-topic 2

SPRAYERS: They are machines used for spraying chemicals(herbicides or pesticides) as well as fertilizers on the crops. They can also be used for sprinkling water on crops.

Types of sprayers includes

  1. Low volume sprayers. It uses battery. It holds little litres of chemicals and it is used for a small area of land.
  2. High volume sprayers. They hold large litres of chemicals and they used for large area of

land. Among these include :

(i) The simple knapsack sprayer

(ii) The tractor mounted sprayer: the sprayer is operated by the tractor

Power Take- off (P.T.O.)

(iii) The knapsack engine operated sprayer

CULTIVATOR: It is a tractor coupled implement used for tilling the soil.

MAINTENANCE OF FARM MACHINES

Farm machines can be maintained in the following ways.

1. Check and gage the fuel and oil levels of the machines

2. Store machines in the appropriate places.

3. Wash and clean machines after being used

4. Apply oil or grease on the metal parts of the machines to avoid rusting

5. Keep farm machines under shed for protection from sun and rain

6. Sharpen blunt edges of implements after being used

7. Tighten loosed bolts and nuts of the machines

8. Regular and periodic servicing of the machines

9. Lubricant or grease should be applied to wheels and bearings

10. Worn-out parts of the machines should be replaced

EVALUATION:

1. Name 2 types of ploughs and 3 types of harrows

2. Mention 4 types of harvesters

3. What is the meaning of P.T.O in the use of tractors

4. State 6 ways by which farm machines can be maintained.

REFERENCE TEXTS: Essentials of Agricultural sc. By Earnest Chukwudi Anie

-Junior Sec. Agric. For Nigerian Schs. By Athony Youdeowei

-Prescribed Agric. Sc. For JSS. By Omoruyi S.A. et al

-New Intensive Agric. Sc. For UBE. By E.U. Okaro

 

WEEK 9

CROP PROPAGATION.

Contents: -Meaning and types of crop propagation

-Methods of crop propagation

-Advantages and disadvantages of crop propagation

SUB-TOPIC 1: MEANING AND METHODS OF CROP PROPAGATION

Crop propagation simply means the multiplication of crops through reproduction. For instance, 1 seed of maize if it undergoes propagation can multiply and yield up to 100 seeds.

TYPES OF PROPAGATION

There are two types of propagation. These are

1. Sexual propagation

2. Asexual propagation

SEXUAL PROPAGATION: It is the use of seeds for planting. Crops that can be propagated by seeds include maize, rice ,wheat, sorghum, millet, soyabeans , groundnut, tomatoes, pepper, okra, mango, pear, guava, kola, oil-palm, cotton, cocoa, rubber, apple etc

Quality of good seeds:

-Matured and well filled

-Free from pests and diseases

-Healthy

-Highly viable

Some seeds can be planted directly on the soil while others are sown first in the nursery and they are later transplanted into the permanent field.

ADVANTAGES OF SEXUAL PROPAGATION

(i) Very easy to practice

(ii) Well stored seeds remains viable for a long time

(iii) Crop improvement can be practiced with the use of seeds

(iv) Crops are easily multiplied

(v) Transmission of disease can be avoided.

DISADVANTAGES OF SEXUAL PROPAGATION

(I) Some seeds are eaten up by animals like rats, birds and termites

(II) Seedless crops can not be propagated by this method

(III) Some crops that are planted with seeds take long time to mature. E.g. orange

Sub-topic 2

ASEXUAL OR VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION: It is the production of new plants from parent plants using vegetative parts ( roots, stem, and leaves). Examples of crops that are propagated asexually includes cassava, yam, cocoyam, sugarcane, plantain, banana, pineapple, ginger, bitter leaves, potato.

METHODS OF ASEXUAL PROPAGATION

1. Cutting: The use of matured stem for planting. E.g Cassava cutting

2. Mar-cutting: A branch of plant growing roots is cut off and planted into the soil

3. Budding : A bud from a plant is inserted into another plant of the same type of plant. The top of the plant where the bud is inserted is cut off to allow the bud to grow into maturity. The budding knife normally used to make a “T” shape cut on the stem where the bud is placed

4. Grafting: The process involves two plants of the same type . The top of plant “A” is cut off. The top of plant “B” (known as the scion) is cut and attached to the stock of plant “A” and tied together with a grafting celotape . The tied region is covered with wax to prevent air from entering. The grafted plant gradually grows into maturity. Cocoa, Citrus, Avocado pear and kola can be propagated through budding.

5. Layering: A branch of a plant is bent and fixed to the soil with pegs and tied to stake (support). The part that enters the soil begins to grow roots. It is then cut off from the parent plant and planted elsewhere. It grows and develops into maturity. Cocoa and kola can be propagated by this method

6. The use of suckers: They are young growing pants detached from the side of matured plantain, banana or pineapple plant. The detached suckers when planted elsewhere grows into matured plant.

ADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL PROPAGATION

(i) Plants mature very early

(ii) Plants with uniform growth rate and quality is produced

(iii) Plants produced show more resistance to disease and pests

(iv) The new plants produce resemble their parent plants

(v) Plant produced can withstand adverse soil and weather conditions

(vi) They are used to bring good qualities of two plants together

DISADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL PROPAGATION

(i) Planting materials are bulky and difficult to transport

(ii) Diseases are easily transferred from parent to offspring

(iii) Vegetative parts of plant cannot be stored for a long time for planting

(iv) Crop improvement cannot be carried with these method

EVALUATION:

1. Define propagation and name the two types

2. Name 15 crops that can be propagated by seeds.

3. List 10 crops that can be propagated by vegetative methods.

4. Write 5 methods of propagating crops asexually

5. Write 4 advantages of seed propagation and 4 advantages of vegetative propagation.

REFERENCE TEXTS:

1. Essentials of Agricultural sc. By Earnest Chukwudi Anie

2. Junior Sec. Agric. For Nigerian Schools. By Anthony Youdeowei

3. Prescribed Agric. Sc. For JSS. By Omoruyi S.A. et al

4. New Intensive Agric. Sci. For UBE. By E.U Okaro

 

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