FIRST TERM E-LEARNING NOTE
SUBJECT:CIVIC EDUCATION CLASS: SS 3
SCHEME OF WORK
- Revision/Rights of Citizens
- Constitutional Democracy
- Advantages of Constitutional Democracy
- Human Trafficking
- Government and Individual Effort Geared Towards Combating Human Trafficking
- Women Trafficking and Child Labour Eradication Foundation (WOTCLEF)
- Community Service
- Citizenship Education
- Limitations of Human Rights
- Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3 by Sola Akinyemi.
- Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3 by R.W. Okunloye et al.
- Mind Exploit Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools by B.S. Amao.
RIGHTS OF CITIZENS
The primary function of a state or country is to protect the fundamental human rights of its citizens and as a citizen of Nigeria you have the following rights entitled to you:
- Right to life
- Right to freedom from torture, inhuman or degrading punishment.
- Right to freedom from deprivation of personal liberty.
- Right to freedom from discrimination on the ground of sex, race or tribe
- Right to fair and equal hearing
- Right to private and family life.
- Right to freedom of movement .
- Right to peaceful assembly and association
- Right to freedom of expression and the press.
- Right to freedom from slavery and forced labour.
- Right to freedom from unlawful imprisonment.
- Right to ownership of property.
- Right to vote and be voted for.
- Right to education.
- Mention your fundamental rights as a citizen of Nigeria.
- Explain right to fair hearing.
Types of Laws in Existence in Nigeria:
The following are types of laws in existence in Nigeria.
- Constitution: This is a body of rules and regulations governing the citizens of Nigeria.
- Decrees: Decrees are laws made by the military when they are in power.
- Bye-laws: These are laws made by the local governments, public corporations etc
- Judicial Precedents: These are important judgments passed and decision taken in our law courts like Supreme Court.
- Conventions: These are rules that guide peoples’ behavior which are not written down but people show their disrespect when violated.
- Custom and Norms.
- International laws: International laws such as the ones made by international organizations like the U.N.O.,A.U., O.P.E.C. etc.
- State the types of law in existence in Nigeria.
- Differentiate between bye-laws and conventions.
- State your fundamental rights as a citizen of Nigeria.
- Which constitution is in operation in Nigeria?
- Discuss how the government can protect your right to life.
- Mention five of your duties to Nigeria.
- What is youth empowerment?
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola AkinyemiPgs. 1-6.
- Laws made by military government are called
- constitution B. decrees C. bye-laws
- Laws made by local government in Nigeria are called
- constitution B. decrees C. bye laws
- 3. The head of the executive in Nigeria is the
- President B. Vice President C. Senate President
- The upper house of the National Assembly is called
- House of Senate B. House of Representative C. House of Assembly
- Which organ of government interprets the laws of the country?
- The executive B. The Legislature C. The Judiciary
- Highlight five limitations to your fundamental human right.
- Explain four benefits of these limitations.
Constitutional democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people which is based on the supremacy of the constitution. It can also be explained as a democratic system in which the will of the people prevail, their fundamental human rights recognized and protected, and the principle of rule of law strictly adhered to. It is a form of democracy founded, operated and controlled by the provisions of the constitution.
TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
- DIRECT DEMOCRACY
This is also known as classical democracy. It is a form of democracy in which all adult citizens take active part in the management and political running of the state. This type of democracy was practiced in Athens, the ancient city of Greece.
- INDIRECT DEMOCRACY
This is also called representative democracy. This form of democracy is built on the principle of majority rule because it allows a few elected representatives to make decisions and formulate policies on behalf of the people. In other words, a representative democracy is a type of democracy in which registered and qualified electorates vote during election to determine who will represent their interest in government.
Representative government becomes important and replaces direct democracy as a result of the complexity in the structure and system of the modern state or society which has made the direct form of democracy in-appropriate and ineffective. Virtually all states in the world practicing democracy today operates a representative democracy.
- What is constitutional democracy?
- Explain indirect democracy.
FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
- POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
In a constitutional democracy, the people possess the final political authority in making decisions that relate to public issues. They also have the power to remove any of their representatives that fails to represent their interest in government by not voting for such candidates in subsequent elections. Thus, the citizens’ opinions should be respected in a true democracy.
- MAJORITY RULE
Democracy is a game of number, the candidate who enjoys popular acceptance by getting the highest vote usually wins election. The principle of majority rule further explains that government decisions must reflect popular interests and opinion of the people.
- MINORITY RIGHT
In a true democracy, majority have their way and minority have their say. The interest and opinion of the people who are in the minority group is usually unpopular and as a result they tend to be intimidated. However, constitutional democracy ensures that the minority interest is protected and their opinion listened to. It also ensures that everybody in the state enjoys their fundamental human rights as provided by the constitution.
- RULE OF LAW
Constitutional democracy operates with the principle of rule of law which states that everybody is equal before the law and that the law of a state is supreme.
- PERIODIC ELECTION
Constitutional democracy is characterized by a regular and periodic election. This election must be free and fair, and the electoral body must be allowed to operate independently without interference.
- EQUAL ACCESS TO POLICAL OPPORTUNITIES
In constitutional democracy, everybody has equal rights to vote and contest during election. The voting during election must be one man, one vote. Also, sex and socio-economic status should not be used as a means of political discrimination.
- INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY
The judiciary in a constitutional democracy operates as an independent body which is free from the influence of the executive and legislative arms of government.
- What is democracy?
- State the features of constitutional democracy.
- Define constitutional democracy.
- Explain the features of constitutional democracy
- Give four advantages of this system of government.
- Mention five causes of cultism.
- How can the problem of cultism be solved?
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola Akinyemi.Pg. 89.
- An organization that can present candidates for election is called (a) pressure group (b) political party (c) electoral commission
- The act of choosing a leader by voting is called (a) franchise (b) appointment (c) election
- ___ is a document that contains the name and details of people who are qualified to vote during election (a) ballot paper (b) ballot box (c) voters register
- Which of these forms of government best promote the principle of rule of law? (a) democracy (b) monarchy (c) oligarchy
- Democracy means ___ (a) rule by the rich people (b) rule by a few people (c) rule by the people
- State the types of constitutional democracy.
- Explain four features of constitutional democracy.
ADVANTAGES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
- IT ALLOWS FOR PEACEFUL CHANGE OF GOVERNMENT
In a constitutional democracy, elections are conducted within a regular interval as stipulated by the constitution and this makes it easy to change a government.
- IT ALLOWS THE PEOPLE TO CHOOSE THEIR LEADERS
Democracy gives people the opportunity of voting during elections for candidates of their choice. The candidate with the highest vote wins the election and form government.
- IT PROTECTS THE FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE
There are certain rights or benefits endowed naturally on every individual as citizens of a state, these rights could be economic rights, social rights and political rights. These rights are popularly called fundamental human rights and it is the function of every government to recognize and protect these rights. Constitutional democracy ensures that people enjoy their rights to the maximum.
- IT PROMOTES POPULAR PARTICIPATION
Constitutional democracy encourages peoples’ participation in government through voting and contesting for political post during election. Popular participation also involves peaceful protest or demonstration, criticism of government policy and joining or forming political parties.
- IT PROMOTES GOOD GOVERNANCE
Since elected leaders know that they can easily be voted out of office once they lose popular acceptance or legitimacy, effort is mad by the government to promote the interest of the people who elected them into office by delivering the dividends of democracy. Therefore, government in a constitutional democracy is accountable to the people.
- IT PROMOTES DEVELOPMENT
In a situation where there is free and fair election, good governance is enhanced and those in government feel a sense of responsibility to the electorates who voted them into power. This therefore brings about socio-economic development in the country and improved standard of living.
Explain the advantages of constitutional democracy.
DISADVANTAGES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
Even though democracy is believed to be the best form of government, it has some disadvantages which are as follows:
- IT IS EXPENSIVE TO RUN
A democratic system of government requires periodic election which is very expensive to organize and conduct because it involves registering of voters, provision of electoral materials, recruitment of electoral officials etc.
- DELAY IN POLICY MAKING
In a democratic system of government, there are due process to be followed before policies can be made. At times, it can take the legislative arm of government several months before they pass bills into law and this may not be good for situations or issues that requires urgent attention or for emergency periods.
- MINORITY CANNOT HAVE THEIR WAY IN A DEMOCRACY
It does not matter how brilliant the idea and opinion of the minority is, they can only have their say in a democracy they cannot have their way. This is because democracy is a game of numbers where majority have their way and minority only have their say. Therefore, many quality policies have been swept under the carpet because they originated from the minority group and did not gain popular support and acceptance.
- INABILITY OF THE ELECTORATE TO REMOVE A BAD GOVERNMENT UNTIL ELECTION PERIOD
The electorates may vote a person into power and later discover that he or she is a bad leader. When such situations occur, the electorates can only wait till the next election and then vote the person out of office. Thus, some political leaders take advantage of this to do whatever they like knowing that there is nothing the people can do or the worst they can do is not to be re-elected into office. Hence, they use their period in office to exploit the country’s wealth and resources for their selfish interest.
What are the demerits of constitutional democracy?
- Explain the advantages of constitutional democracy.
- What are the disadvantages of constitutional democracy?
- Define value.
- State the types of value.
- What is citizenship education?
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola Akinyemi.Pg 90.
- Another name for an electorate is a/an ___(a) candidate (b) electoral officer (c) voter
- ___ is a body of law, rules and regulations that guides the governing of a state (a) Constitution (b) Law (c) Customs
- Which of these is not a feature of constitutional democracy? (a) Popular sovereignty (b) Minority rule (c) Supremacy of the constitution
- Which of these is currently an electoral commission in Nigeria? (a) FADECO (b) NEC (c) INEC
- People who assume position of constituted authority are called (a) followers (b) leaders (c) workers
- Identify eight key concepts in a democracy.
- Explain any five of the concepts you have listed above.
Human trafficking is the recruiting, transporting, receiving and harboring of people in exchange for money.
People who are most vulnerable to human trafficking are women and children and they are subjected into forced labour, slavery, servitude and prostitution. The people who engaged in human trafficking business are called human traffickers.
Human trafficking is a violation of human rights and the traffickers use their wealth and power to deceive and force the poor, less privileged, ignorant and vulnerable people in the society into all kinds of human exploitation that violates the fundamental human rights of the people involved.
Human trafficking could be done domestically or at the international level. Most international trafficking activities are targeted towards taking young ladies abroad through illegal means for the purpose of forcing them into prostitution.
Domestic trafficking is targeted towards bringing young boys and girls into cities for force labour as house helps. It is important to know that human trafficking is both a domestic and international crime.
CAUSES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING
Poverty is a state of being poor or lack of basic necessities of live. Poverty can make people vulnerable to human trafficking and child labour. Parents may give up their children to be taken to cities and work as house helps. Some parents may even sell their children totally into slavery while others go to cities or travel abroad to engage in prostitution in order to make money.
People who are not contented with what they have or those who want to accumulate fast wealth may find themselves engaged in human trafficking.
- LOW SELF-ESTEEM
Some people due to low self-esteem or loss of sense of worth and self confidence may fall victim of human traffickers who will promise to help them but what they actually do is to exploit them.
Human traffickers bribe government officials with money and material things so that they can continue to carry out their business without being caught or hindered by government agencies.
Vulnerable members in the society can easily be deceived by human traffickers who will promise them greener pastures and better lifestyles in the cities or abroad and because everybody wants a better and improved life, they innocently follow these traffickers only to discover that their intention was to exploit and use them to make money. Some of these people may even be forced to take oaths not to disclose their secret or try to escape.
During prolonged war, children are forced to join the army and are trained to carry guns and ammunitions. Although this may not be done for money, it is also a form of human trafficking e.g during the second world war, some Africans were trafficked to Europe so as to fight in the war.
- Define human trafficking.
- State the causes of human trafficking.
EFFECTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING
- PHYSICAL OR PSYCOLOGICAL ABUSE
People who are being trafficked are subjected to all form of physical abuse such as rape, beating and torture. Children used as house help are often time beaten and the female ones are raped and sometimes starved of food and other basic needs of life. This affects the psychological growth of such children.
- ABUSE OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS
Human trafficking leads to abuse of fundamental human rights because they are often denied their right to free thought, conscience and decision.
- DELAY IN THEIR EDUCATION AND HUMAN CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
Children who are trafficked and forced into child labour are usually denied their right to education in order to become useful to themselves in the future.
- VULNERABILITY TO SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
Girls who engage in prostitute are prone to being infected with sexually transmitted diseases such as syphyilis, gonorrhea and HIV/AIDS. These diseases are capable of cutting their lives short and can reduce their productive contribution to the society and increase medical expenses.
- UNWANTED PREGNANCY
Victims of human trafficking are mostly faced with unprotected sex which could result into unwanted pregnancies. Some of these girls when they give birth will throw the child away or abandon the child with their parents without adequate care.
People who are trafficked are usually stigmatized especially when they are deported back to the country from abroad.
Some children who are used as house helps are violently beaten to death while some die of ill health because they are not properly taken care of.
What are the effects of human trafficking?
- What is human trafficking?
- Explain the causes of human trafficking
- State the effects of human trafficking.
- What is rule of law?
- Who propounded the principle of rule of law?
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola Akinyemi. Pg 111.
- A person who engages in trafficking business is called ______ (a) controller (b) business expert (c) trafficker
- The following except _______ are causes of human trafficking (a) poverty (b) greed (c) high self- esteem
- Which of these is not a challenge faced in Nigeria in an attempt to stop human trafficking? (a) Increase in prostitution (b) Porosity of our national borders (c) Adequate law on prohibition of human trafficking
- All are consequences of human trafficking except (a) death (b) unsecured future (c) improved health
- Those who are mostly victims of human trafficking are_______ and ______
- Outline five causes of human trafficking.
- Explain five ways of preventing human trafficking in Nigeria.
GOVERNMENT AND INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS GEARED TOWARDS COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING
- Establishment of NAPTIP in year 2003.
- Government pledged in 2009 to annually fund the activities and operations of NAPTIP with over 7 million dollars.
- Government sustained efforts to raise awareness on human trafficking in both rural and urban areas by organizing workshops, seminars and conferences. Also by distributing manuals, textbooks, pamphlets, etc. printed in different languages on human trafficking and ways of preventing it.
- Enactment of trafficking law and administration Act in 2003 that was amended in 2005 to increase penalties and punishment for traffickers and to prohibit human trafficking in all form.
- Government together with international partners provide specialized training to officials of NAPTIP, Police, Custom and Immigration on how to recognize, investigate and prosecute human traffickers.
- The move towards enacting a law to directly address the challenge of Human Trafficking in Nigeria started with a private member bill sent to the National Assembly by WOTCLEF.
Highlight the efforts of government in eradicating human trafficking.
The Trafficking in Persons Law Enforcement and Administration Bill was passed by the National Assembly (House of Senate and House of Representative) on 7th July, 2003. President OlusegunObasanjo gave his assent to the bill on 14th July, 2003 to make it an act. This act was further amended in 2005.
The law prescribed a punishment of five (5) years imprisonment or a fine of 670 Dollars which is about #100,000 for labour trafficking. Ten (10) years to life imprisonment for sex trafficking. Ten (10) years imprisonment for trafficking of children for forced begging and hawking. The law also prescribed similar penalty for offences like rape.
The law empowers NAPTIP, police, immigration and custom officials to arrest human traffickers. Once arrested, human traffickers can be tried in court.
The Child Right Act was enacted in 2003 to make child trafficking a criminal offence. Nigeria constitution however placed child right issues under the jurisdiction of state government.
NATIONAL AGENCY FOR PROHIBITION OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS AND OTHER RELATED OFFENCES NAPTIP came into existence on the 26th August, 2003. This agency was established as a creation of the Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Law Enforcement and Administration Act of July 14th, 2003. The agency was established to address the problem of trafficking in persons in Nigeria. For NAPTIP to perform its functions effectively as the number one agency for prohibiting and prosecuting human trafficking in Nigeria, section 4 of the 2003 human trafficking in person prohibition law enforcement and administration act gave NAPTIP the power to perform the following functions:
- To coordinate all laws on trafficking in persons and other related offences.
- To adopt measures to increase the effectiveness of eradication of trafficking in persons.
- To adopt witness protection measures.
- To enhance effectiveness of law enforcement agents to suppress traffic in persons.
- To establish proper communication channels, conduct research and work on improving international cooperation in the suppression of traffic in person by land, sea and air.
- To supervise, control and coordinate the rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking.
- To investigate and prosecute human traffickers.
DEPARTMENTS OF NAPTIP
- Investigation unit.
- Prosecution unit.
- Counseling and rehabilitation unit.
- Public enlightenment unit.
- INVESTIGATION UNIT
This department receives intelligence information on human trafficking with a view to arrest and array them in court for prosecution.
- PROSECUTION UNIT
This is the department that takes over human traffickers that are detected and being arrested by the investigation unit of the agency. This unit carries out proper and detailed investigation on the trafficker.
- COUNSELLING AND REHABILITATION UNIT
This unit takes over victims of human trafficking by providing shelter, food and counseling for the victims in order to reintegrate them back to the society. It also help them to overcome their psychological and physiological problems.
- PUBLIC ENLIGHTENMENT
This department educates the public on the dangers and consequences of human trafficking.
- State the punishment awarded for people who engage in human trafficking.
- Highlight the various functions of NAPTIP.
- What is the meaning of NAPTIP?
- Explain the roles of NAPTIP in eradicating human trafficking.
- Define constituted authority?
- Mention the types of constituted authority.
- State the ways through which leaders emerge.
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola Akinyemi. Pg. 119.
- NAPTIP was established in year (a) 2000 (b) 2002 (c) 2003
- Which of these Nigerian heads of state signed the trafficking in persons act into law? (a) General AbdulsalamAbubakar (b) DrGoodluck Jonathan(c) Chief OlusegunObasanjo
- The National Assembly passed the bill on trafficking in persons law act on ________ (a) 14th July 2003 (b) 7th July 2003 (c) 7th August 2003
- Which of these units of NAPTIP receives intelligence information on human trafficking activities? (a) public enlightenment unit (b) investigation unit (c) prosecution unit
- NAFDAC means? (a) National Food, Drug Administration and council (b) National Food Drug Administration and Control (c) National Food, Drug Administration and committee
- How can government assist in eradicating human trafficking?
- Highlight five roles of individuals in eradicating human trafficking.
WOMEN TRAFFICKING AND CHILD LABOUR ERADICATION FOUNDATION (WOTCLEF)
WOTCLEF is a non-governmental, non-profit making organization founded by the wife of the former vice president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief (Mrs) TitiAtikuAbubakar in the year 1999.
The aim of this organization is to partner with relevant agencies to restore human dignity by eradicating human trafficking and child labour in Nigeria. This foundation sent a private member bill to the National Assembly on the enactment of law prohibiting human trafficking and child labour in Nigeria. This bill was passed into law and assented/approved by the president of Nigeria on 14th July, 2003 as Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Law Enforcement and Administration Act.
- What is the reason for establishing WOTCLEF?
- When was the bill passed into law?
ACTIVITIES OF WOTCLEF
- PUBLIC SENSITIZATION AND ENLIGHTENMENT
WOTCLEF organizes seminars, workshops, musical concerts, sports, media advocacy and state by state tour to enlighten, educate and sensitize the people on the dangers of human trafficking as well as ways to avoid being victims of human trafficking and child labour.
- YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
WOTCLEF visits schools and youth organization groups to provide their members with essential life skills training and empowerment for the girl child. They also train young people to develop new culture that will help them build competence, and character which will make them better individuals and thereby contribute positively to the progress and development of the society.
- ENLIGHTENMENT ON HIV/AIDS
There is no doubt that HIV/AIDS is directly linked to child labour and human trafficking. It is on this note that WOTCLEF takes HIV/AID campaign to vulnerable members of the society such as the: out of school youths and commercial sex workers with the major aim of enlightening them on HIV/AIDS infection and how they can prevent themselves from being infected with the virus.
- PUBLIC EDUCATION
WOTCLEF uses mediums such as radio, television, magazines, posters, pamphlets and newsletters to circulate information on human trafficking to the members of the public.
- WOTCLEF NYSC COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SCHEME
WOTCLEF partners with the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC). This partnership is done by engaging youth corps members who volunteered to be peer educators in sensitizing people of the communities where they serve on the dangers of human trafficking, HIV/AIDS and child labour. These corps members are adequately equipped with knowledge on human trafficking, HIV/AIDS and child labour through public trainings sponsored by WOTCLEF. The corps members after receiving training go to primary and secondary schools to enlighten the pupils on the effect of human trafficking in the society.
- ASSISTANCE OF VICTIMS
WOTCLEF as part of its activities helps victims of human trafficking by providing them with shelter, clothing, food and counseling. They also help the victims to locate their family members and re-unite them. WOTCLEF also give free training for the acquisition of self-employment skills such as hair dressing, tailoring, barbing, bead making, catering and craft, etc.
State the functions of WOTCLEF.
- What is the full meaning of WOTCLEF?
- Explain the various activities of WOTCLEF.
- State the types of democracy.
- Explain one of the types mentioned above.
- How does democracy helps to promote economic stability.
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola Akinyemi. Pg. 124.
- WOTCLEF was founded by (a) Patience Jonathan (b) TuraiYaradua (c) TitiAtikuAbubakar
- In what year was WOTCLEF founded? (a) 1998 (b) 1999 (c) 2003
- Whose responsibility is it to protect fundamental human right? (a) Citizen (b) Non-government organization (c) Government of a state
- Premarital sex can lead to all the following except (a) high moral standard (b) unwanted pregnancy (c) contraction of HIV/AIDS
- Organizations set up by private individuals to help or assist people freely is known as (a) political organizations (b) business organizations (c) non-governmental organizations
- Explain five (5) roles that individuals can play in creating a stop to human trafficking.
- Highlight four roles of WOTCLEF.
Community Service:This is the service we offer or render at free will. They are activities people engage in to develop their society and thereby make life better for themselves and other members of the society.
Community service which is an act of charity to others can be done individually or in group. A very good means through which the youths are made to engage in community development service in Nigeria is the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC). NYSC was established by decree number 24 on 22nd May, 1973 by the then military head of state General Yakubu Gowon, shortly after the civil war that ended in the year 1970. General Yakubu Gowon established the NYSC as part of his policy of reconstruction, rehabilitation and reconciliation. With the NYSC scheme, corps members are posted to different states in Nigeria and they have participated in community development service through their various community development service (CDS) groups.
- Define community service.
- What was the aim of establishing NYSC?
Community service exists in various forms:
- Beautification of the environment.
- Cleaning of the environment .
- Cleaning drainages and buying waste basket.
- Voluntary work in orphanage homes.
- Tree planting.
- Hospital voluntary work.
- Donating of blood for accident victims.
- Joining vigilante group to provide security in your community.
- Providing assistance for the less privileged such as widows, orphans etc.
- Help the old people and the blind when crossing roads.
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY SERVICE
- It helps to promote national integration.
- It serves as platform to train leaders.
- With community service, a citizen is able to manifest his/her good values towards making other peoples’ life better.
- It improves national growth and development.
- It creates a sense of responsibility in individuals and the society at large.
- What is community service?
- Explain the importance of community service.
- Define community service.
- How can you engage in community services in your environment?
- What is integrity?
- Mention three qualities of a person with integrity.
- Define national integration.
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola Akinyemi.
- National youth service corps was established in the year (a) 1972 (b) 1973 (c) 1974
- The power of a state to govern itself without any form of external control is (a) sovereignty (b) power (c) authority
- ________ is a constitution where all the rules and regulations that govern a state are contained in a single document (a) flexible constitution (b) written constitution (c) unwritten constitution
- What is the meaning of CDS? (a) Community Development Service (b) Community Development Syndrome (c) Community Dedication Control
- The NYSC was established to _______ (a) foster unity (b) eradicate togetherness (c) disintegrate Nigeria
Explain five importance of community service in developing the society.
A citizen is a legally recognized member of a politically organized society known as a state. A citizen is simply defined as a legal member of a state or country.
Citizenship education is the process of impacting information about citizen’s status, rights and duties into citizens with a view of making them understand the level of relationship expected of them in the state. It also involves the process of learning the skills, attitude and knowledge of participating in the affairs of a state or country to which you belong.
- Who is a citizen?
- Define citizenship education.
GOALS OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
- It helps citizens to develop consciousness of their legal status in a state and give them patriotic zeal to serve their state and humanity in general.
- It helps citizens to acquire adequate knowledge about their rights and duties in their society.
- Citizenship education teaches citizens values important to make them better individuals in the society. These values include honesty, selflessness, discipline, tolerance etc.
- It also informs citizens about political matters and affairs of the state they belong.
- It enlightenscitizens on political participation and its importance in sustaining democracy.
- It exposes citizens to the prevailing problems facing the society such as HIV/AIDS, economic meltdown, global warming etc. It also broadens their knowledge on ways of solving these problems.
- It provides citizens with ways of promoting social, cultural, moral and economic development.
- What is citizenship education?
- Explain at least five benefits of citizenship education.
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola Akinyemi. Pgs. 1-6.
- ___ is an individual who is a legal member of a state (a) Alien (b) Foreigner (c) Citizen
- ___ is the highest court in Nigeria (a) Federal high court (b) Magistrate court (c) Supreme court
- ___ is the lower legislative chamber in Nigeria (a) House of common (b) House of senate (c) House of assembly
- Who among these nationalist leaders became the first Prime Minister in Nigeria? (a) Ahmadu Bello (b) TafawaBalewa (c) ObafemiAwolowo
- A child born by Nigerian parent can claim citizenship of United Kingdom if ___ (a) the child travels to United Kingdom (b) the child is born in United Kingdom (c) the parent of the child travels to United Kingdom
- What is nationalism?
- State five roles of government to its citizens.
LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Human rights can be restricted for the overall good of the citizens and the country at large in the following ways:
- A citizen may be denied some of his rights if he is detained by law.
- A citizen’s right to life may be denied if he is condemned to death by the law court as a result of murder, armed robbery etc
- Right to life is also restricted by the law which forbids a citizen from killing himself or herself.
- Right to fair hearing cannot be exercised beyond the highest court which is the Supreme Court in Nigeria.
- Right to private property may be restricted by the right of the state to compulsorily acquire private property for public use.
- Declaration of dusk to dawn curfew in periods of emergency or chaos may limit the right of a citizen such as freedom of movement.
- The police in enforcing law and order can ban public assembly and demonstrations which will deny a citizen his right to freedom of association and assembly.
- A citizen suffering from insanity may be deprived his rights to safeguard the rights of others.
- The court can also restrict the movement of a citizen if he/she has a serious case pending in court.
- Rights to the freedom of expression and press are restricted by the law preventing individuals from saying or publishing statement that could damage the personality of others (laws of slander and libel).
- Some public office holders such as the president, governor, parliamentarians, ambassadors, judges cannot be sued while in office because they enjoy protection of the law called ‘immunity clause’.
- A citizen may be denied his rights if he is detained on medical ground in order not to spread contagious disease if such citizen is suffering from a contagious disease.
- Existence of military rule or an unpopular dictatorial government can lead to restriction of citizens’ rights.
- State five limitations to human rights.
- What are the reasons for these limitations?
- What is power?
- Define authority.
- Explain the organs of government.
Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools Book 3, Sola Akinyemi. Pgs. 1-5.
- Which of the following can limit the freedom of expression? A. Libel law B. Public order law C. Compulsory property acquisition laws D. Customs and tradition
- The right to freedom of speech is limited by the law of
- slander B. speech C. article D. conversation
- Right to free movement can be restricted during all of the following except
- chaos B. war C. curfew D. peaceful protest
- Right to life is limited by the law which forbids a citizen fromA. ownership or properties B. committing suicide C. freedom of association D. personal liberty.
- All rights have limitations. True/False?
- Explain four limitations of human rights.
- State three benefits of the limitations of human rights on the society.