1. Ancient Sparta is located in modern-day Greece. The ruins of ancient Sparta can be found near the town of Sparti in the southern part of the country, specifically in the region known as the Peloponnese.
2. The rise to glory of Sparta began around the 8th century BC. During this period, Sparta underwent significant social and political changes that transformed it into a powerful militaristic city-state. The exact duration of Sparta’s rise to glory is difficult to determine, but it reached its peak of power and influence in the 5th century BC.
The statement to the Spartan boy reflects the values and principles upheld by Sparta. It highlights the emphasis on discipline, obedience, sacrifice for the state, and the readiness to prioritize the collective interest over personal desires. The Spartan education system aimed to produce loyal and fearless warriors who would serve the state selflessly. The statement also reveals the culture of secrecy, deception, and manipulation when dealing with outsiders, as well as the expectation for Spartans to exhibit cunning and deceit in their interactions with foreigners.
3. Messenia is not as prominently mentioned today because its historical significance has been overshadowed by the dominance of Sparta. After Sparta conquered Messenia in the 8th century BC, the region became absorbed into the Spartan state. The population of Messenia was reduced to helots, a servile class who worked the land for the benefit of Spartan citizens. Over time, the importance of Messenia diminished as it became a part of the Spartan society. Furthermore, the decline of Sparta as a major power in the ancient world contributed to the fading of Messenia’s prominence.
The conquest of Messenia had a significant impact on Sparta. The subjugation of Messenia provided Sparta with a large agricultural labor force, enabling Spartan citizens to focus on military training and warfare. However, the presence of the helot population also created ongoing tension and instability within Sparta, as the helots resented their servitude and periodically rebelled against Spartan rule. The conquest of Messenia and the subsequent control of the helots shaped the social and political dynamics of Spartan society, although its long-term effects also contributed to the eventual decline of Sparta.
1. Education in Sparta began at the age of __________.
2. Girls in Sparta were educated to prepare them for their role as __________.
c) Wives and mothers
3. Sickly or deformed children were eliminated in Sparta because they would not be useful for the type of life that Sparta __________.
4. In the beginning, Sparta encouraged arts, music, and culture, but these aspects of education gave way to a focus on __________.
b) Warrior training
5. Boys in Sparta were enrolled into formations corresponding to successive __________.
a) Birth order
b) Age grade
c) Social class
6. Boys in Sparta were subjected to rigorous discipline and were told to __________ to supplement their rations.
7. The education in Sparta aimed to prepare boys for __________.
b) Military service
c) Political careers
8. Spartan boys were trained to obey blindly the orders of __________.
a) Their peers
b) Their parents
c) Their superiors
9. Spartan boys were sent on nocturnal expeditions to train them in __________.
a) Farming techniques
b) Military tactics
c) Cultural arts
10. Spartan boys were directly apprenticed to the military craft, learning to use __________.
a) Musical instruments
c) Pottery wheels
11. The education system in Sparta aimed to serve the interest of __________.
a) The individual
b) The family
c) The state
12. Spartan children were trained in dissimulation, which means they were taught to __________.
a) Be honest
b) Conceal their true feelings
c) Be empathetic
13. Sparta’s education system enabled it to become the most powerful city in the __________ world.
14. Sparta triumphed over its rival Athens after the __________ War.
15. Over time, the rigor and ferocity of Spartan education __________ even as such behavior became more unnecessary and out of date.
b) Stayed the same