Negotiation 2- (a) factors that influence negotiation
(b) Negotiation and refusal skills techniques
(c) Advantages of negotiation
STIS/HIV/AIDS – (a) meaning
Social issues and problems:
Examination malpractices – (a) meaning
Cultism – (a) meaning
National unity and integration – (a) meaning
Influence of man in the environment
WEEK NINE: Environmental problems
WEEK TEN: Revision
TOPIC: COMMON SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA
(REVISION OF LAST TERM’S WORK)
These are recurrent Problematic behaviors in the society.
Such problems include;
lack of cooperation
Human and drug trafficking
Religious and ethnic conflict e t c
Abstinence is a deliberate decision not to engage in any form of sexual intercourse.
Benefits of abstinence are:
It preserve someone’s virginity
It helps one to be focus in pursuing life goals
It prevent unwanted pregnancy
It prevent HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases
Define Contemporary social problems in Nigeria
Highlight 10 common social problems in Nigeria
What is Abstinence?
What are the benefits of Abstaining from sexual intercourse
Write the full meaning of the following:
State 5 reasons for abstaining from sexual intercourse
TOPIC: NEGOTIATION 1
Negotiation can be defined as a process where two or more people reach an agreement through discussion and compromise.
SITUATION THAT MAY NEEDNEGOTIATION
LACK: Lack of funds to finance the family can lead the head of the family to borrow money either in cooperative or from friends; this will lead to negotiation on how to refund such money
SICKNESS: Chronic disease can lead someone to negotiate
Need to deal with pear pressure
Need to attend spiritual programs in church
Need to pass an examination
Need to participate in team game
STEPS IN SUCCESSFUL NEGOTIATION
State your position: analyze what you want or need
Have a listening hear: always listen to other people’s view or position
Investigate other people’s need or want
Re-state other people’s need or want to be sure you understood
Brainstorm a win-win solution that will work for both of you
Agree on a situation
Get an intermediary who is an adult to intervene when physical force is involved
What are the situation that may needs Negotiation?
Highlight the steps in successful negotiation
Explain with examples 5 situations that may needs negotiation in our Contemporary world (Nigeria)
TOPIC: NEGOTIATION 2
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE NEGOTIATION
Ability to uphold one’s value
Having a good relationship with others
Creating a compromise: taking a stand on one’s agreement
Making use of body language
Empathy: having compassion and feelings for other people.
NEGOTIATION AND REFUSAL SKILLS TECHNIQUES (SWAT)
S – Say no effectively and stand on your decision
W– Why: give a clear reasons for your decision
A– Alternative: suggest an alternative
T – Talk it out: in a clear statement ‘discuss your feelings
ADVANTAGES OF NEGOTIATION
It helps in communicating ones feeling and needs in an honest and appropriate way
It enhances self- respect
It helps in arriving at peaceful agreement
It enhances positive interactions
It promote inter-personal relationship
It provides opportunity for compromise.
What are the factors that influence Negotiation?
State the Negotiation techniques
Highlight 5 advantages of Negotiation
Write out the techniques needed for a successful negotiation and explain in detail
STIS: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
H –Human: it can only infect human being
I –Immuno- Deficiency: the virus weakens the immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infections
V –Virus: A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its hosts
Therefore: the final stage of HIV is AIDS
A– Acquired : AIDS is not inherited but it is acquired after birth either by parents or other means
I – Immuno : Your body immune system includes the organs and cells that works to fight off infections or diseases
D– Deficiency: You acquire AIDS when your immune system is not working the way it should
S – Syndrome : A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs of diseases
CAUSES OF HIV/AIDS
Through blood transfusions, blood products, tissue transplants that are contaminated
Through sexual intercourse with an infected person
Being born by an infected mother: it can be pass from an infected mother to an innocent child during pregnancy, birth or during breastfeeding
Contact between broken skin, or wounds of an infected person
Deep open mouth kissing if the person with HIV has sores or bleeding gums.
Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV infected person, through this infected blood mixed with food while chewing and the virus can be transferred
Sharing of sharp objects such as razor blades, needles, barbing clippers etc with an infected person
EFFECTS OF HIV/AIDS
There will be increase in medical bills
Reduction in manpower need: victim of HIV/AIDS will not be effective in their duties
There will be increase in children drop out in schools: An infected child will not be able to complete his/her education because of constant illness likewise a parent infected with HIV/AIDS will not be effective at work and eventually lost their job
Eventually loss of life
It may lead to divorce: if the wife or husband is infected it can lead to total separation.
It leads to psychological problems due to deep thinking of the victim.
Give the full meaning of the following and explain:
State the causes of HIV/AIDS
Highlight the effects of HIV/AIDS
List 5 symptoms of HIV/AIDS
Is it true that there is vaccine for the total cure of HIV/AIDS?
TOPIC: SOCIAL ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
Social issues and problems are recurrent problematic behavior of our society. Such problems include; Examination malpractices, cultism, electoral- malpractices, drug addict, juvenile delinquency ,HIV/AIDS, religious and ethnic conflict, corruption, prostitution, kidnapping etc.
EXAMINATION MAL- PRACTICES.
EXAMINATION: An examination is a formal way of passing through a written, spoken or practical test in order to acquire a certificate.
MALPRACTICE: This is an illegal, wrong or careless act which is against the normal behavior or practice of a given society.
EXAMINATION MAL-PRACTICE: This can therefore be defined as illegal methods by students to pass examination and acquire certificate.
CAUSES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES.
Love of money
Inadequate facilities in schools
Activities of corrupt school owners.
EFFECT OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE
Fall in standard of education: Most of the people in-charge to implement educational policy is corrupt due to their selfish interest in power and this has a great effect on educational sector because they will not fully dis-charge their duty. Such people include; school owners, administrators, teachers, commissioners for education and other hosts in educational sector.
Incompetence professionals: Teaching profession is of two types; the teachers and the cheaters’ the cheaters are unqualified teachers who through dubious means acquire certificate and not performing as expected of a graduate. More so , a teacher is a well- trained person who pass through educational school and acquire certificate. Likewise we have so many professionals such as Doctors, accountant, Engineers, e t c that cannot perform well in their duty post.
Increase in corruption: the rate at which corruption is increasing every day in Nigeria is alarming
Loss of confidence in public Examination: Certificate are dis-regarded in most organization, they prefer to conduct series of interviews, practical or oral in order to pick an applicant that is competence enough to work in such organization because of lack of confidence in certificate in our society.
It dis-courage diligenceand hard work: when a student discover that there is short cut to obtain a good certificate, they will not follow the right path of diligence and hard work in schools.
Severe punishment for student caught engaging examination malpractices
Responsible and honest people should be appointed as Examination bodies conducting any external examination such as WAEC, NECO, JAMB etc
Schools perpetrating examination malpractices should be sanction and blacklisted(banned)
Diligent and hardworking students should be rewarded
There should be provision of more facilities in schools to aid learning.
What are social issues and problems?
Define Examination mal practices?
What are the causes of examination malpractices?
State the effects of examination malpractices
Highlight the solutions to examination malpractices
Questions related to the topic in Fundamental facts Social Studies work book
A cult is an organized group formed to alleviate some problems which they think the larger society cannot solve.
Secret cults are organization whose objectives are not made public and members are under an oath.
ORIGIN OF CULTISM IN NIGERIA
The origin of cultism is traceable to pirate confraternity founded by Nobel laureate, Prof. Wole Soyinka and other people like; Prof. Olumuyiwa Awe, Ralph Opara , Nathaniel oyelola , Ifegbale Amata and others. The Latin meaning of pirate is ‘Attacker’ .This group was founded at university college Ibadan in 1953. There motive then was patriotic and progressive with a very good intention of ending tribalism and colonialism in Nigeria but now reverse is the case, they are now known for, killing ,rituals, violence, fighting ,attacking nonmembers ( lecturers and students) ,physical torture during initiation of new members e t c.
CAUSES OF CULTISM.
Influence of friends: many students are influenced by intimate friends who they feel they cannot but obey.
Crave for power: many youth in Nigeria join cult for the sake of having some power, they want the lecturers, teachers or students to fear them. Also, they search for power so that nobody will oppress them in any form.
Search for security: To many of the youth, they join cult because they feel it will give them peace and protection from every form of harassment from lecturers and other cult members.
Search for love: many youth join cult because they want to be love by their fellow members
EFFECTS OF CULTISM
Fall in standard of education: Lecturers that are threatened by cult members awards marks freely to cult members in order to save their lives.
It frightens and abusethe right of a weaker person: cult members oppress non-members and deprive them of their rights on campuses(school)
Break down of law andorder: Cultism leads to killing, fighting, chaos e t c whenever a cult member attacks themselves or other students on campus, it disturbs the peace of the school and the lives of innocent students are at risk.
Problems in maintaining discipline: most school authority finds it so difficult to enforce discipline on cult members because of the fear of been attack by various cult members and this encourages all form of lawlessness and indiscipline in schools and campuses.
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEM OF CULTISM IN SCHOOLS
Students should be careful and vigilant of the type of friends they move with because evil communication corrupt good manners
The Government should declare campuses cultism a criminal offence and enact a law with appropriate punishment for offenders.
Parents should give more time to proper up bring of their children at early stage
More enlightenment campaigns on the danger of cultism
Religious groups particularly the Christians and Muslims should organize more programs for youth
Define the following:
Give a detail of the origin of cultism in Nigeria
What are the causes of cultism
State the effect of cultism in Nigeria
Highlight the solutions to Cultist activities in Nigeria
ASSIGNMENT: 1. As a student’s profound 5 solutions to cult activities in
TOPIC: NATIONAL UNITY AND INTEGRATION
National unity and integration can be defined as a situation where every Nigerian works as a team in order to achieve a common goal regardless of the cultural background.
NEEDS FOR NATIONAL UNITY AND INTEGRATION
Multi-ethnic structure of the country: Nigeria as a country has over 300 ethnic groups with different languages. All these ethnic groups can work as a team if there is unity.
Pre –amalgamation experience: The northern and the southern protectorates were amalgamated to form Nigeria in 1914.Before amalgamation, each society that makes up Nigeria had its own method of administration
IMPORTANCE OF NATIONAL UNITY AND INTEGRATION
It promotes peace: A united Nation will experience peace and tranquility and this will put an end to tribalism and nepotism.
It promotes Economic Development: Absence of conflict will produce a peaceful environment which will encourage foreigners and local investors to set up industries in the country. More so, this will lead to creation of more jobs, revenue and increase in per capital income.
It minimizes unemployment: It will be very easy for any Nigerian to secure job in any part of the nation in the face of unity and integration.
It promotes political stability: struggle for power by all tribes in Nigeria will stop if all are united and any leader elected will represent the nation well rather than their tribe or family.
It also prevents all forms of corruption: In a country where there is unity, all forms of social problems like; embezzlement of public funds, bribery, and electoral fraud will disappear.
Define National unity and integration
State the needs for national unity and integration
Give 5 importance of National unity and integration
ASSIGNMENT: questions related to the topic in Fundamental facts Social Studies work book
TOPIC: INFLUENCE OF MAN IN THEENVIRONMENT
An environment comprises of everything within our surroundings
Man environment is divided into two. Namely;
Physical environment are all natural and non-natural things around us that is;
Examples of Natural things (things created by God) are: mountains, hills, oceans, desert, valleys, forest , grassland, rivers e t c
Examples of Non-natural things (man-made) are: roads, police stations, tables, chairs, computer, roads, bridges, schools, hospitals e t c
Social environment are groups of people with different culture an individual interact with in the environment.
Examples are; language, mode of dressing of an individual, norms, political institution, religious institution e t c.
INFLUENCE OF MAN IN THE ENVIRONMENTHE LIVES
Construction activities: Man has been able to construct roads on low lands and bridges on rivers just like the third mainland bridge in ikoyi Lagos state
Reclamation of land: Science and technology has helped man to in turning riverine areas to housing estates. Examples of this is the reclamation of part of victoria island in Lagos from water and Victoria garden City in Ajah to the most beautiful estate in Nigeria.
Irrigation activities: Farmers are now enjoying waters for smooth and efficient work in the desert especially the northerners.
Drainage: man has greatly influence his environment through water movement to canals, and drainage to prevent floods.
Afforestation programmes: man engage in tree planting to eradicate desert encroachment
Define an environment.
List the types of environment.
Explain with examples the types of environment.
State the influence of man in his environment.
ASSIGNMENT: How can man influence his environment? Explain in detail with examples.
TOPIC: ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM
Environmental problem are problem caused by nature and man within our surroundings.
Types of environmental problems
Natural environmental problems
Man-made environmental problem
Natural environmental problem are:
Drought: it means absence of rainfall over a long period of time in a particular place.
Cause of drought
Lack of rainfall
Lack of cloud cover
Low humidity; sudden changes in the climate of a particular place.
Effects of draught
It causes streams or rivers to dry.
It affects human beings and live stock
It causes food shortage.
It also have effect on plants
Earthquake : it refers to a sudden release of energy in earth crust. This cause a great damage to buildings and other infrastructures.
Causes of earthquake
It is caused by volcanic activities
Mine blasts and nuclear tests.
Cyclone: this is a violence rotating windstorm
Hurricane: this is a powerful storm with strong winds and heavy rains.
Tornado: This is a violent and rotating column of air in contact with the ground. It is always in form of a narrow funnel.
Flooding: this is a situation where a large of water settles on dry land meant for human beings.
Causes of flooding
Blockage of drainage and culverts
Erection of building on water channels
Improper urban planning etc.
Effects of flooding
Disruption of economic activities.
Dislocation f people.
Washing away of roads.
Destruction of lives and properties.
Spread of water borne diseases.etc.
Man-made Environmental problems.
Air pollution: this is the release of unwanted and dangerous substances like fumes, smoke, and dust into the atmosphere.
Dust and soot from industries.
Release of mist from coal mining and cement factories
Impaired health likes; lung and skin cancer, eyes irritation
Water pollution: this is the release of pollutants i.e. chemicals into water-rivers ,oceans , seas etc.
Discharge of chemicals into water.
Land pollution: This involves the contamination of land with toxic substances.
Oil spillage on land
Deforestation: This is the indiscriminate felling of trees and clearing of vegetation.
Effects of Environmental Problems.
Loss of lives and properties.
Destruction of animals and plants
Spread of diseases
Low agricultural productivity etc.
Solutions to environmental problems
Education: government should educate the citizen on the effect of man-made environmental problems such as; air pollution.
Sanctions: sanctions should be placed on citizens that violate the law of environmental pollution, this will help in controlling man-made environmental problems.
Tree planting exercise: government should continue tree planting programme and they should also encourage citizen to plant trees.
Localization of industries: industries should be sited in designated areas for easy monitoring of their activities.
Proper disposal of wastes and sewage: government should intensify effort to discourage indiscriminate burning and disposal of wastes. A designated site should be provided at a strategic place for dumping of refuses.
What are environmental problems?
List the types of environmental problems
State and explain natural environmental problems
State and explain man-made environmental problems.
Highlight 5 effects of environmental problems.
Profound 5 solutions to environmental problems.
State two effect of environmental problems and explain.
Profound 3 solutions to environmental problems in Nigeria.