Subject : Agricultural Science
Term : Second Term
Week : Week 8
Class : jss 1, Year 7
Topic : Forms of Farm animals based on functions on the farm, uses or food supply.
Average age : 10, 11 or 12
Référence Book : Agricultural Science for JSS 1 by Are et al.
Behaviour Objectives : At the end of the lesson. Pupils should be able to
a).. State five farm animals that are raised in Nigeria.
b)… Mention four characteristics each of (i) Cattle and (ii) Sheep.
c)… State four features each of (i) goat) and (ii) pig.
Instructional materials : Wall charts, textbooks, pictures on cardboards, flash cards
TOPIC : CHARACTERISTICS/BREEDS OF FARM ANIMALS
CONTENT: (1) Farm animals.
(2) Characteristics of Cattle & Sheep.
(3) Breeds of farm animals
Sub-Topic 1: Farm Animals
Farm animals have certain basic features that make them belong to a particular group .These characteristics help to differentiate them from other forms of animals and also enable some of the animals to adapt to their natural habitat .
Examples of farm animals include: Cattle,Sheep,Goat,Pig,Poultry,Rabbit,Fish,Snails,Guinea-Pig,Grass-Cutter,Donkey & Horse.
CATTLE: Cattle belong to hoofed mammals. Some are humped (Bos indicus) e.g.Sokoto Gudali, Red bororo &White Fulani while others are humpless (Bos Taurus) e.g. Muturu &N’dama. Cattle is raised mainly for meat and milk.
Characteristics of Cattle:
Cattle are ruminant animals. They are large –bodied animals. They have large udder with four glands .They have four pairs of hoofs on each limb .Beef cattle are lighter than the dairy type .Some cattle are used as work animals e.g.Sokoto Gudali,White Fulani ,N’dama e.t.c. Some are resistance to trypanosomiasis e.g. N’dama, Muturu, etc. Gestation period(pregnancy period ) is 283 days.
SHEEP :They originated from Iran or Iraq in Asia .Sheep is raised in all country of the world for meat (mutton) ,milk and wool .They are important in Tropical Africal countries like Northern Nigeria,Ethiopia,Kenya ,Somalia,Sudan and Tanzania.
Characteristics of Sheep:
Sheep are ruminants mostly raised extensively for meat, milk and wool .They are small bodied ruminants ,hollow-horned and even toed .Only male have horns except Ouda The male are heavily manned . Gestation period is 150 days. Examples of sheep are :Balami,TheFulani (Ouda ), Yankasa (Hausa ), West African Dwarf(WAD) Sheep. .
- State five farm animals that are raised in Nigeria.
- Mention four characteristics each of (i) Cattle and (ii) Sheep.
Sub-Topic 2: Characteristics of Goat and Pig.
GOAT: They are important ruminants that can adapt and maintain themselves in very harsh environment. They can withstand diseases, high temperature and can survive where other animals cannot .Goats are raised for meat, milk and skin. They are small bodied animals .Both sexes have horns .Goats are scavengers and very inquisitive .Gestation period is 150 days. Examples of goats are: Red bororo (Maradi),Fulani (Sahel ),Kano brown,Nubian and WAD goat.
PIG: They are most productive of all farm animals . A sow (matured adult female pig) can produce between 8 and 16 litters at a time .Pigs are raised for meat and lard. They are omnivorous animals .They are good converters of feed into meat. They mature early and can breed anytime of the year. Pig production requires small initial capital with high return .Gestation period is 114 days .Examples of pigs are :Landrace ,Large white(Yorkshire),Duroc Jersey ,Large black ,Poland china ,Chester white e.t.c.
- State four features each of (i) goat) and (ii) pig.
- State five breeds of pig we have.
Sub-Topic 3: a. Characteristics of Rabbit.
b. Characteristics of Poultry.
c. Characteristics of Horse.
RABBIT: They are .prolific animals that can produce up to four times in a year. Rabbit are found both in temperate and tropical countries .They are raised for their meat, skin (pelt) and hair (fur). They are easy to house ,handle and manage. They reach maturity weight in about 5-6 months .Rabbit meat is of good quality .They are prone to stress and the rate of cannibalism is high . Examples of rabbit are: California white, California red , Chinchilla, New Zealand white, Flemish giant, Angora Dutch Rabbit, Australia White, West African Rabbit(Giant Rat) etc.
POULTRY: Poultry are birds raised for meat ,eggs or feathers. They are found both in temperate and tropical countries. Types of poultry birds are: Domestic fowl, duck, turkey ,goose ,guinea fowl, pigeon . Fowl is the most popular of all and this makes the discussion on poultry to be centred on domestic fowl .Domestic fowls are grouped into two :Local fowl and Exotic fowl.
The local fowls are light in weight ,hardy ,resistant to diseases ,poor growth rate, low egg production and production of white eggs .
Exotic fowls are grouped into two :Light breeders and heavy breeders
(i) Light Breeders : small sized, body early maturity ,good egg production, production of white shelled eggs e.g. leghorn.
(ii) Heavy breeders: large sized body, slow maturity, poor egg production, production of brown or tainted shelled eggs e.g. Rhode Island Red, Sussex.
HORSE: It is a non-ruminant animal raised mainly for work on the farm , riding for pleasure and sport, transportation of goods and human beings and for traditional ceremonies such as “Durbar festivals” in the Northern states of Nigeria.
- Mention four features of rabbit.
- State five types of domesticated birds that were referred to as poultry.
- Mention three uses of a horse
Sub Topic 3: BREEDS OF FARM ANIMALS
CONTENT: (1) Breeds of Cattle
(2) Breeds of Sheep and Goats
(3) Breeds of Pigs and Rabbits
Sub-Topic 1: Breeds of Cattle
A .Meaning of Breeds: Breeds refer to kind or variety of animals with hereditary qualities that are developed by people in a controlled way.
B. Breeds of cattle: There are many breeds of cattle these, include: White Fulani ,Red bororo, Jet koram, Shuwa Arab, Yola or Adamawa(These can be used for dairy purpose.), N’dama ,Kuri or Lake Chad, Muturu (WAD),Ghana short horn (These can be used for beef production.)
Terms used for Cattle:
Bull: A matured adult male cattle
Cow: A matured adult female cattle.
Calf: Young one of cattle of either sex.
Heifer: A matured young female cattle not yet producing calves.
Bullock: A castrated bull
Calving: The process of giving birth to young ones by cow.
Beef: Meat of matured cattle.
Herd: Group of cattle.
Veal: Meat of young cattle.
Gestation period: This is the period of pregnancy. (283days)
- Define breeds.
- List four breeds of cattle that can serve the following purposes
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