1. Resources and Decision Making
  2. Food Nutrients
  3. Food Hygiene and Food preparation
  4. Kitchen and Kitchen Equipment
  5. Purchasing, processing and preservation of foods
  6. Purchasing, processing and preservation of foods
  7. Purchasing, processing, preservation and safety
  8. Opening and Fastening
  9. Garment construction- Hemming, facing, cutting and joining Of Crossway stripes

10 – 11 Revision and Examination






  • Family needs and Resources
  • Meaning and Steps in Decision Making

Factors that influence Decision making

Simple Personal Decisions


Family needs are things that are essential, that is, very important for a particular family. The family members have physical, emotional, mental and social needs.

Types of needs

1. Basic/Primary needs: These are very important things which the family cannot do without. They are those things which every family must have for survival.

The primary needs include:

a)Food: Provision of good quality food is important for good health and survival.

b)Shelter/Housing: Every family requires a good shelter for protection.

c)Clothing: Every family member requires good basic clothing for protection.

d) Health care: It is important that every member of the family should be healthy. Therefore,

every family must provide the health care required.

2. Secondary needs/Wants: These are things the family desires but not as important as the primary needs. The family can therefore exist without the secondary needs. The secondary needs of a family depend on the socio-economic status of the family.

The secondary needs include car, pocket money, recreation, extra clothing, etc.


1. What are family needs?

2. List the types of needs with examples.


Resources are those things which the family can use to meet their needs and reach their goals. There are different types of resources.


1. HUMAN RESOURCES: These are resources which exist within an individual. They are personal qualities of an individual and are differ from individual to another. They include:


– Skills

– Imagination

– Energy

– Time

2. MATERIAL/NON-HUMAN RESOURCES: These are resources which exist outside the family but can be controlled, owned or used by the family. They are things which the family use and control to achieve their goals.

The two types of material resources are:

a) Money: It is used to buy items needed by the family, e.g. house, car, clothing, etc. Money is used to measure the value of family goods. It must be spent wisely.

b) Possessions: These are the things or items owned by the family, which they can use to attain some goals. Family possessions can be grouped into:

– Those possessions that last a long time and are not used up readily. They are durable, e.g. furniture, cars, houses, etc.

– Those possessions that are used up quickly e.g. clothes, food, etc.


1. What are family resources?

2. Mention the two types of resources with examples.

Other resources available to the family are:

  • Community resources: Every community has people, facilities, institutions and organizations. These

Help families to improve their skills, solve their problems, enjoy life, etc.

  • Natural resources: These are air, water, plants, animals and minerals. They are found in our surroundings and can be used to meet family’ needs.


1. UTILITY: This means that resources have value or worth. They are useful and can be used to produce goods and services.

2. ACCESSIBILITY: The resources must be of easy reach or easy to obtain every time to achieve set goals.

3. MANAGEABILITY: This means resources can be controlled for the purpose of achieving goals.

4. INTERCHANGEABILITY: A resource is interchangeable when it can be substituted with another resource in order to reach set goals.


1. Mention two other types of resources available to a family.

2. List and explain three characteristics of resources.


Decision making is the act of making choices. It is the process of a choice from alternative courses of action or things. It is the ability to make up one’s mind as regard a particular issue or issues.Decision-making comes to action only when there are two or more things to choose from.


1. It helps to minimise mistakes.

2. It assists us in taking responsibility for our actions.

3. It helps us to identify our values and stand by it.

4. It helps us to know more about ourselves and others.

5. Decision making also helps us to build self- esteem.


1.Identify the decisions to be made:It includes defining the situation or problem that requires a decision. Know what, where and how to solve the problem at hand.

2. List the alternatives: Alternatives are different ways of doing a thing. List the alternatives means making a list of possible alternatives and getting information on all the alternatives.

3. Choose the best alternative: This involves making the best choice from all the alternatives that will be able to meet your need(s). To do this, you have to think about your values, goals, wants, money available and needs.

4. Act on your decision:Carry out your decision to the best of your ability. This means going to buy or do want you have decided.

5. Evaluate your decision:This means judging the quality of the decision made or how well it worked for you. Sometimes, if the outcome of a decision is not what you expected, or hope for, you make have to make a new decision.


1. Define the meaning of “Decision Making”.

2. List and explain thefive steps in decision making.


1. Family: Family members are usually willing and eager to help other members, especially teenagers to make good decisions.

2. Resources: The human and material resources available will influence ones decision e.g. time, money, knowledge, etc.

3. Friends: Friends have strong influence on each other and can influence each other in decision


4. Needs and wants: The needs and wants of the family will influence their decision. The needs will be considered before the wants.

5. Values: The decisions you make are always based on what you consider important. For example, your value will determine whether you watch a movie or study your books at night.

6. Goals: Goals are what you aim to achieve over a period of time. One should be sure that the decision taking fits into one’s plan and is suitable to help in achieving one’s set goals in future.


Some areas where decisions are made include:

FOOD-RELATED DECISION:This has to do with what to eat,how to eat,when to eat, etc.

CLOTHING-RELATED DECISION:What to wear,how to wear it,with what do I wearit with.

HOUSING-RELATED DECISION: This includes the type of house to build or buy, the types of household articles to buy, etc.

FRIENDS-RELATED DECISION:It has to do with choosing friends to move or associate with.

EDUCATIONAL DECISIONS: It would include which school to attend, books to read,careers to pursue, etc.

As a student,some personal decisions include:

  • Buying of text books.
  • Changing one’s dresses and shoes.
  • Choosing the right time to read, play and visit friends.
  • Choosing a course of study and a career.


1. Explain the term “decision making”

2. List the steps in decision making.

3. Differentiate between needs and wants.

4. List and explain types of resources.

5. List and explain the types of family we have.


Decision making: Home Economics New Concepts book 1 by Popoola O.O. Pages 79-86.

Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 82-89


1. The process of choosing among alternative is called ____ A. actionsB. decision making

C. alternatingD. action taking

2. As a student, ____ is one of your personal decisions. A. housingB. buying of text bookC. feeding the family D. paying school fee

3. Basic needs are important for ____ A. survival B. relaxation C. show D. recreation

4. _____ are used for meeting family needs. A. Standards B. GoalsC. Resources D. Tools

5. Decision making helps us to identify our ____ A. weaknesses B. worth C. friends D.values


1. List and explain three characteristics of resources.

2. List an explain two factors that can influence decision making.




  • Definitionof Food
  • Food Groups
  • Balanced Diets


Food is any edible substance liquid or solid which when eaten and digested provides the body with nourishment, energy, enhances growth and regulates the body processes. It maintains life.


These are the chemical substances in the food we eat. Different foods contain different types of food nutrients.

These are carbohydrates, fats and oil, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water.


It refers to the way the body uses the food we eat. It is the scientific study of the food we eat and how it nourishes the body.


1. Define the word ‘food’.

2. List all the nutrients present in foods.


Carbohydrates a) It provides the body with energy for work.

b) Surplus is stored as body fat.

Yam, cassava, rice, maize, bread, sugar, potatoes, etc. a) Lack of energy

b) Tiredness

Fats and oils a) It provides the body with heat and energy.

b) Surplus is stored as body fat.

Margarine, butter, palm oil, groundnut oil, oily meat and fish Skin may become rough
Proteins a) For growth e.g. in children, adolescents and babies.

b) For building new tissues

c) For repair of worn out or damaged tissue

Meat, fish, eggs, milk, soya bean, peas, beans, etc. a) Poor growth and development.

b) General weakness.

c) Kwashiorkor in children.

Mineralse.g. calcium, iron, iodine, phosphorus, etc. a) For growth e.g. the bones and teeth.

b) For proper working or functioning of the body.

Milk, eggs, green vegetables, meat, liver, beans, sea food, etc. Poor functioning of the body e.g. weak bones and teeth, tiredness, headache, etc.
Vitamins e.g. vit. A, vit. B-complex, vit. D, etc. a) They protect the body from diseases.

b)Help the body use food for energy, growth and repair.

c) Important for vitality.

Fruits, vegetables egg, yolk, milk, meat, butter, fish, kidney, beans, cod-liver oil etc. a) Body will be easily affected by diseases.

b) Weakness and loss of appetite.

Water a) It helps digestion.

b) Important for body tissue and fluids such as saliva, urine, sweat, etc.

c) It also helps to eliminate waste from the body.

Fruits, drinkable water, beverages, fruits and vegetables. a) Normal digestion will be affected.

b) Body will be dehydrated.


1. Define nutrition.

2. State three importance of water in the body.


Foods can be grouped according to the nutrients they contain and the functions they perform in the body. They are generally grouped into three which are:

1. Body Building Foods – These are proteins and they include meat, fish, eggs, milk, beans, etc.

2. Energy Giving Foods – These are carbohydrates and fats. Proteins can supply energy but not as much as carbohydrates and fats. Examples of energy food are starchy foods such as yam, potatoes, cassava, bread, rice, palm oil, etc.

3. Protective Foods –These protect the body from diseases. They are vitamins and mineral sources include vegetable and fruits.

Roughage – This is an important food item. It is indigestible part of foods such as cellulose.

Roughages have the following uses:

  • It increases the bulk of food.
  • It helps digestion and bowel movement.
  • It therefore helps to prevent constipation.


1. List the food groups with the nutrient(s) under each group.

2. State two functions of roughages in the body.


A balanced diet is a meal that contains all the six classes of food nutrients in the right proportion. Different groups of people e.g. children, adolescents, pregnant mothers, invalids, the aged, vegetarian, have different nutritional needs.


1. State any three uses of food in the body.

2. List ten foods commonly eaten in your community. Group them according to their nutrients.

3. What is balance diet?

4. State two important of roughages in body.

5. State five good feeding habits/ table manners.


Food Nutrients: Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 164-166

Home Economics New Concept book 2 by Popoola O.O. Pages118-120


1. Which of the following supply the food with fat and energy?A. Carbohydrate and calcium

B. Carbohydrate and fat C. Mineral and fats D. Oils and vitamins

2. Surplus carbohydrates in the body is stored as body ____ A.fatB. proteinC.starch D.weight

3. One of the following helps in digestion and bowel movement. A. StarchB. Protein C. Roughage


4. Which of the following is not a body builder?A. Soya beans B.MeatsC. MilkD.Cassava

5. The field of study that deals with food we eat and how it nourishes the body is ____A.nutrients

B. food technology C. foods and nutrition D. food engineering


1. Define the following: a) Foods b) Nutrients c) Nutrition

2. List all the nutrients and state their functions.




  • Meaning of Hygiene and food Hygiene
  • Importance of food hygiene
  • Guidelines and rules for food Hygiene


Hygiene simply means cleanliness. It is the act of keeping our food, clothes, body, etc. clean from harmful bacteria.


Food hygiene is referred to as the observance and practice of hygiene or practicing sanitary rules to prevent food contamination, poisoning and spoilage.

It is also referred to the proper handling and caring of food. It is also a means of preventing harmful bacteria from growing in food by keeping the hands, the kitchen, cooking and eating utensil clean and by observing good sanitation.

Importance of Food Hygiene

1. Food hygiene will prevent our food from being contaminated.

2. Food hygiene helps us to consume wholesome food thereby living a healthy live.

3. It will prevent wastage of food and that will also prevent wasting of money.


1. What is food hygiene?

2. State three reasons for food hygiene.


1. Buy food that are wholesome and store them properly.

2. Avoid buying expired foods.

3. Do not buy canned food with dented or swollen can.

4. Cover food during and after cooking to prevent it from being contaminated.

5. Cook with clean water and utensils.

6. Ensure that your hands are clean when you are handling food.

7. Wash cooking utensils, cutting boards and other surfaces thoroughly before and after each use.

8. Wash fresh fruits and vegetables thoroughly.

9. Use clean plates for cooked food. Never use the same plate that held the raw food.

10. Wash the tops of cans such as canned milk, corned beef, salad cream, etc., before opening them.

11. All storage equipment should be kept clean to keep away rats, flies, cockroaches, etc.

12. Wash your hands before and after handling food and use clean kitchen napkin to dry the hands.

13. Cover and store leftover food in the refrigerator.

14. Cover your hair in the kitchen so as to keep the hair out of the food.

15. Food should be provided in dishes with covers to prevent pests from touching them.

16. Dry foods should be stored in containers with tight lids while perishable foods should be kept in the refrigerator.


1. State two importance of food hygiene.

2. State six guidelines for food hygiene.


Food preparation involves the picking of dirt from foods like cereals, peeling the back, picking and cutting of vegetables, etc. before placing them on fire. It refers to all the activities/tasks performed in the kitchen in order to prepare a particular meal.


Cooking is the process of applying heat to make food soft, palatable and to destroy some germs in the food.

Reasons for cooking food

1. Cooking makes food easier to eat.

2. It makes food more appetizing and palatable.

3. It makes food easier to digest.

4. Cooking also destroys many harmful micro-organisms present in food thereby making it safe to eat.

5. It helps to preserve foods.

6. It improves the appearance of food.


1. What is food preparation?

2. State three reasons for cooking foods.


1.BOILING: This is the process of cooking food in boiling water until it is soft and tender e.g. yam, rice, etc. The food comes in direct contact with the water.

Advantages of Boiling

a) It is an easy and quick method of cooking.

b) Boiled foods digest easily.

c) It does not need constant attention.

d) It is a cheap method of cooking.

e) It is suitable for all health condition.

f) Two or more foods can be boiled at the same time.

Disadvantages of Boiling

a) Some food nutrients such as water-soluble vitamins and some minerals can be lost in the boiling water.

b) Boiling does not develop the colour and flavour of food.

c) Food often looks unattractive.

d) It is rather long and slow method of cooking when compare with frying and grilling.

e) It may lead to breakage of food.

2. STEWING: Stewing is a method of cooking food slowly or at low heat in a small quantity of water, in a well-covered pot for a long timee.g. soups, tough cuts of meat, old root vegetables, etc.

Advantages of Stewing

a) It makes tough food tender and digestible.

b) It needs very little attention.

c) Food nutrients are conserved or retained in the stewing liquid.

d) Very little fuel is required during cooking.

Disadvantages of Stewing

a) It is a long and slow method of cooking.

b) The long cooking destroys some of the valuable nutrients in the food.

c) It requires more time and attention than boiling to ensure the food does not burn.

3. STEAMING:It is cooking food in the steam from boiling water e.g. moi-moi, pudding, etc. There is no direct contact between the food and the boiling water.

Advantages of Steaming

a) Steamed food is light and easily digestible.

b) There is no loss of food nutrients in to the water during steaming.

c) It is a conservative method of cooking.

d) There is little risk of over-cooking.

e) It is an economical and labour- saving method of cooking.

Disadvantages of steaming

a) It is a slow method of cooking.

b) Not many types of food can be cooked by steaming.

c) Steamed foods are not as palatable and attractive as foods cooked using other methods.

4. FRYING: Frying is the method of cooking food in hot oil or fat e.g. akara balls, fish, meat, eggs, etc.

Types of Frying

a. Shallow Frying: This is frying with just little amount of oil to cover the surface of the frying pan and to prevent burning. Suitable for frying are pan cakes, omelettes, fish, etc.

b. Deep Or French Frying: This is when a lot of oil or fat is used in cooking foods. The oil is usually poured in a deep pan and is heated to boiling point; then the food is put inside the oil. The oil used must cover the food. Suitable foods for deep frying are chin-chin, doughnut, puff-puff, bean cakes, etc.

c. Dry/Self Frying: This is a method used for foods which already contain fat. The fat melts and runs out of the food. It requires less heat. Bacon, herrings, sausages, etc. can be cooked this way.

Advantages of Frying

a) It is a fast and quick method of cooking.

b) Fried foods are attractive and tasty.

c) Fried foods are very filling and delay the onset of hunger.

Disadvantages of Frying

a) It needs constant attention.

b) Fried foods are not easily digested. So it not a suitable method for preparing foods for infants and children, invalids and convalescent, aged and people with weak digestive systems.

c) Fried foods become greasy andunappetizing when cold.

d) If the fat is too hot, the food may be burnt and not cooked.


1. State three advantages of boiling.

2. List and explain types of frying.

5. BAKING: Baking is cooking foods by dry heat in an enclosed pre-heated space by direct radiation. Baking usually takes place in the oven. Dry heat is applied and the food is surrounded by a current of hot air. The hot air then cooks the foods. It is the method suitable for cakes, pastries, bread, biscuits, etc.

Rules for Baking

a) Always pre-heat oven before putting the food.

b) Use oven gloves to bring out food from the oven.

c) Oven trays should not be overloaded.

d) Avoid frequent opening of the oven door.

e) Do not bang the oven door, but close it gently.

f) Do not bake foods that give out moisture with crispy and dry foods.

Advantages of Baking

a) Baked foods are attractive and appetizing.

b) There is no loss of soluble nutrients.

c) It is economical on fuel as more than one dish can be baked at a time.

Disadvantages of Baking

a) It requires constant attention, otherwise foods may be burnt.

b) It wastes fuel when baking only one dish.

c) It requires a careful temperature control and skills.

6. ROASTING: This is cooking on glowing heat. Roasting can be carried out in the following ways:

a) In hot ash or sand e.g. groundnuts, yam, etc.

b) On a grid over an open fire or heated charcoal e.g. plantain, yam, maize, meat, etc.

c) Roasting a whole carcass on a skewer by direct heat (e.g. radiant heat) with melted fat or vegetable oil used for basting. This is known as spit roasting.

d) Oven can also be used for roasting e.g. chicken, fish, etc.

Advantages of Roasting

a) Roasted foods are attractive.

b) They are usually tasty and appetizing.

c) Roasting retains the full flavour and nutrients of foods.

d) Foods cooked by roasting are less fatty than frying.

Disadvantages of Roasting

a) Roasting requires constant attention.

b) It takes longer time.

c) Foods tend to shrink during roasting.

7. GRILLING: This is a fast method of cooking by radiant heat directly above or below the food. It is also known as broiling. The heat source is a flat frame of metal gird or bars heated by a gas flame, an electric, charcoal or wood in barbecues. An equipment known as salamander grill can also be used for grilling. The food is brushed with fat or oil and grilled for a few minutes on both sides to seal in the nutrients. The major different between roasting and grilling is that roasting is usually used to cook large cuts of foods while grilling is usually used for tender and small cuts.

Foods that can be cooked by grilling include:

  • Small cuts of meat, steak, lamb
  • Sausages, kidneys, liver, bacon
  • Cutlets of large fish and small size of fish, etc.

Advantages of Grilling

a) Grilled foods are tasty and easily digested.

b) Grilling is a quick method of cooking.

c) There is no loss of soluble nutrients.

d) Grilled foods are less fatty than fried foods.

Disadvantages of Grilling

a) It is only suitable for tender cuts of food.

b) It requires constant attention.

c) It also requires special skill to do it well.


1. State three rules for baking.

2. State two advantages of roasting.


1. Plan what is to be cooked. Meals should be balanced.

2. Write a shopping list and buy the necessary ingredients.

3. Arrange the kitchen and make sure that all the utensils and material are available and within easy reach.

4. Clean all the required utensils.

5. Make yourself ready by doing the following;

– Wear clean apron.

– Tie your hair with clean scarf.

– Wash your hands thoroughly.

– Keep your fingernails short and remove all bangles and rings.

– Avoid sneezing into food.

– Wrap any sore in your hand with water proof plaster.

– If you have to visit toilet while cooking, ensure you wash your hands with soap and sponge before touching any food.

6. Cook by the best method in order to have maximum retention of food nutrients.

7. Avoid accidents by adopting safety procedures in the kitchen.

8. Tidy up the kitchen after cooking.

9. Empty the dust bin.

10. Serve meals with clean dishes and cutlery.


1. What do you understand by food hygiene?

2. Mention three guidelines for food hygiene.

3. Outline any three guidelines for successful cooking and serving of simple meals.

4. Mention three good methods suitable for cooking yam.

5. Mention the food groups with examples.


Food hygiene and Food Preparation: Home Economics for JSS 1-3by Anyakoha.Pages 167 &168, 333-339.

Home economics New Concept book 2 by Popoola. Pages 125-127


1. The processes of preventing harmful bacteria from growing in food is food ____ A. preparation

B. hygiene C. service D. cooking

2. Cooking food in oil is ____A. boiling B. frying C. steaming D. baking

3. Cooking food with steam from boiling water is ____A. stewing B. steaming C. boiling D. grilling

4. Which of the following methods is commonly used for making soup? A. stewing B. frying

C. roasting D. steaming

5. Baking is often done in the ____ A. refrigerator B. cooker C. oven D. sink


1. Explain two importance of food hygiene

2. Statethreesfor successful cooking and serving of simple meals.




  • Kitchen Arrangements
  • Kitchen Safety and Hygiene
  • Kitchen Equipment


The kitchen is the workshop in the homewhere preparation and cooking of food take place. It is most important room in the house.


Kitchen arrangements refer to the way and manner kitchen equipment and appliances are arranged inside the kitchen. There are four main kitchen arrangements which many Home Economists call kitchen shapes, plans or layout.


1. THE CORRIDOR TYPE: In this type, the equipment and appliances are fixed against two opposite walls.

2. THE ‘L’ SHAPED TYPE: Here, equipment and appliances are arranged along two adjoining walls.

3. THE ‘U’ SHAPED TYPE: Equipment and appliances are fixed along two opposite walls and one connecting wall.

4. ONE WALL ARRANGEMENT: In this type, equipment and appliances are arranged on one single wall in the kitchen.


1. What is kitchen arrangements?

2. List and explain types of kitchen plans.


1. Lable all container clearly.

2. Do not store dangerous substances such as bleaches in fruit drink or beverage bottles.

3. Arrange equipemnt and utensils properly.

4. Do not obstruct traffic in the kitchen with pieces of equipemnt.

5. Avoid spilling liquid on the floor.

6. Put off the gas after use.

7. Ensure that there is no gas leakage.


1. Do not allow rubbish or refuse to accumulate in the kitchne.

2. Clean the kitchen everyday.

3. Cover all the foods in the kitchen.

4. Keep the kitchen dry and well ventilated always.

5. All cooking utensils should be washed, rinsed and stored.

6. Kitchen dust-bin must be covered every time.


1. State three ways of ensuring safety in the kitchen.

2. State two kitchen hygiene.


Kitchen equipment are the materials used in the kitchen in carrying out food preparation effectively.There are now more efficient gadgets and products available in today’s home.

Some of these are:

  • Refrigerator
  • Freezer
  • Yam pounder
  • Blender
  • Electric cooker/kettle
  • Fruit squeezer
  • Gas cooker
  • Toaster
  • Cake mixer
  • Mortar and pestle
  • Grinding stone, etc.


1. What are kitchen equipment?

2. List six different kitchen equipment that you know.


1. Large Equipment: These are materials which occupy a fairly large space in the kitchen, once they put in a particular place, they are hardly move about. Examples are sink, cookers, cabinets, kitchen table, etc.

2. Small Equipment: These are also referred to as kitchen utensils. They are materials that can easily be moved from one place to another. Examples are cutlery, sieves, bowls, pots and pans, etc.

3. Mechanical Equipment: These are used to simplify work/task in the kitchen. They assist in reducing the time and energy needed to perform a particular task. They are also referred to as labour-saving devices. Examples are blender, food mixer, refrigerator, microwave oven, etc.


1. Consider the money available for the purchase of the kitchen equipment.

2. The equipment should be durable, simple and easy to use.

3. It must be suitable for the right job/task.

4. The available space for storing the equipment must also be considered.

5. Choose equipment that is time, energy and labour saving.

6. If a lid or cover is required for the utensil, it should fit closely.

7. The size of the family also determine the type of kitchen equipment to buy.

8. The needs of the family.


1. Mention types of kitchen.

2. List five kitchen equipment.

3. List and explain kitchen layout.

4. State three safety measures to be observed in a kitchen.

5. Define the term household waste.


Kitche and Kitchen Equipment: Home Economics New concept book 3by Poopola O.O.Pages 93-95

Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 323-328


1. The corridor type of kitchen arrangement makes use of ____________

A. two walls B. three walls C. no wall at all D. one wall

2. In kitchen arrangement the refrigerator should be ____ A. very close to the cooker B. close enough to the cookerC. away from the cooker D. below the cooker

3. Which of the following may not influence the choice of cooking equipment and utensils?

A. Family size B. Height of parents C. Income D. Ease of use

4. The following are large equipment except ____ A. sink B. shelvesC. gas cookerD. colander

5. Rolling pins and chopping boards are commonly made of ____ A. woodB. steelC. glass D. china ware


1. List and explain three types kitchen equipment.

2. State four guidelines in purchasing kitchen equipment.




  • Importance of Buying Good Quality Foodstuff
  • Factors to Consider whenbuying foods
  • Methods of Purchasing Foods
  • Wise Buying Practices


1. Best quality foods usually keeps better and yield a greater number of portions than poor quality foods as a result of this best quality food should be purchased.

2. Good quality food stuffs are fresh, wholesome, attractive and nutritious.

3. They can be stored for a long time.

4. There will be no wastage or contamination by food spoilage organisms.

5. Good quality foods give satisfaction and the nutrients content is still intact.


1. Size of the family: A family of three will definitely requires less food than a family of ten.

2. Quality of food: Buying good quality foodstuff will help to save more money and prevent wastages.

3. Foods in season: They are foodstuffs that are in their harvest time. They are cheaper and at their best.

4. Money available: This determines the quality and quantity of food to buy and where to buy.

5. The family food needs: It is necessary to consider the nutritional needs of the family members, their food preferences, likes and dislikes.

6. Where to buy: Decide in advance where to make purchase from. Food can be bought in open market, supermarket, special stores, etc. Buy where foodstuff is best and cheapest.

7. Food preservation and storage facilities available e.g. refrigerator, cupboards, etc.

8. When to buy: For instance, vegetables and meat are best purchased in the mornings in the open markets.


1. List and explain three factors to consider when purchasing foodstuffs.

2. State two importance of buying good quality food.


There are two methods of purchasing foods.

1. Bulk Purchasing/buying

2. Piece meal purchasing

BULK PURCHASING:This involves buying a large quantity of differentfood stuffs at a time. Buying in bulk will be wise especially when foods are in season.

Advantages of Bulk Buying

a) It is economical and saves money.

b) It saves time and energy.

c) It ensures that food is always in the home.

d) It enables the family to make use of food in season. Foods in season can be bought at a cheaper rate and stored for the time they are scarce and expensive.

Disadvantages of Bulk Buying

a) It can lead to wastage. Some of the food items can go bad or spoil if there is no good storage facility.

b) It can take much of the family income, and prevent purchase of other needed commodities.

c) One kind of food purchased in bulk can become monotonous to the family diet.

d) Some foodstuffs loose taste when kept for too long.

PIECE MEAL:This simply means buying in small quantity at a time.

Advantages of Piece Meal Purchasing

a) It does not require a large sum of money.

b) It does not lead to wastages.

c) It is a good choice for a home maker who lacks storage facilities.

Disadvantages of Piece Meal

a) It wastes time, money and energy.

b) Food is not always available and this may cause some embarrassment in an emergency.

c) It makes the management of family resources inadequate.


1. Differentiate between bulk and piece meal purchasing.

2. State three advantages of bulk purchasing.


1. Make a shopping list and keep to it when buying.

2. Ensure that there are adequate storage facilities for the items to be purchased.

3. Buy foods in season.

4. Judge the quality and values of food before buying.

5. Read labels on packaged food containers.

6. Make bulk purchases whenever possible.

7. Compare values and prices in different stores and with different sellers.

8. Check measurement when buying foodstuffs such as grains, pulses, etc.


1. State three importance of buying good quality foodstuffs.

2. Mention five wise buying practices.

3. List and explain types of buying.

4. State five ways of maintaining food hygiene.

5. List and explain types of kitchen equipment.


Buying of foodstuff: Home economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 316-318


1. Good quality foods yields ____ numbers of portions. A. fewer B. greater C. less D. none of the above.

2. The type of shopping whereby the home maker compare prices and quality is known as ____

A. impulse buying B. comparative shopping D. not buying at all D. buying all in the market

3. Goods should be bought and stored in large quantity when they are in ____ A. in seasonB. out of season C. in dry season D. all of the above.

4. When buying food or other goods, it is necessary to ____A. shop anywhere B. walk around the market C. buy the most expensive product D. compare prices

5. Buying food by merely seeing it and not out of need is called ____ buying. A. impulse

B. unrestricted C. quick D. sight


1. List and explain two methods for purchasing goods.

2. State two factors that influence buying.




  • Food Preservation and Storage
  • Meaning of Food Preservation
  • Reasons for Food Preservation
  • Food Preservation Methods
  • Meaning of Food Storage
  • Types of Food for Storage


Food preservation is the caring for or treating food in such a way that it will keep in good condition for a long period of time.It can also be defined as the practice of keeping food for a long time before it is being used. Thisis done to keep the food as near to the fresh state as possible. A preserved food can be stored for a longer period than a raw food.

Food preservation can be done by:

  • Changing the form of the food to another through processing and keeping them in specially designed container.
  • Adding other substances.


1. To preserve seasonal foods in and out of season especially fruits and vegetables.

2. To prevent scarcity.

3. To prevent food spoilage.

4. To eliminate the purchase of foods when they are most expensive.

5. To have a variety of foods available.


1. What is food preservation?

2. State three reasons for preserving foods.


We have different methods of food preservation based on:

  • The nature of the food to be preserved.
  • The length of preservation period required.
  • The dish to be prepared with the food.

The common ones are:

1. DRYING: This is the process by which water content of food is removed. It is an effective way of preserving some vegetables, maize, beans, cassava chips, etc.

2. SMOKING:Foods like fish, meat, and root crops can be preserved by smoking. In some cases, the smoked food items are later subjected to solar or sun drying.

3. FREEZING: This is the process of keeping food at low temperature below 0ºc in the upper part of refrigerator or in the freezer. Perishable foods are best preserved using this method. The food items get frozen thereby preventing spoilage.

4. CANNING: This is a method of preserving foods by sealing them in an air tight container and applying heat.Foods such as baked beans, sweet corn, etc. are preserved by this method.

5. FERMENTATION: This is the process of decomposing some food components to produce acids. The acids so produced will reduce the pᴴof the food and hence makes the food unfavourable to microorganisms.Examples of such foods are locust bean seed, yoghurts, wine, etc.

6. USE OF CHEMICALS: Some chemicals such as vinegar, salt ,sugar, etc. are added to food to inhibit the action of enzyme, prevent chemical reaction to take place in food all in an attempt to create unfavourable condition for micro- organisms.


1. List and explain any three methods of preservation.

2. State two factors that determine the preservation methods used for a particular food.


Storage of food is the act of keeping processed and unprocessed food at home for future use. It involves keeping preserved or purchased food in safe condition and suitable facility till when needed. Foods that are not properly stored may become useless within short period of time. Therefore it is necessary to store food correctly so that it will last long and remain in good condition.

Importance of Proper Storage of Food

1. It prevents food from spoilage.

2. It prevents loss of food nutrients.

3. It helps the homemakerto save money.

4. It saves time and energy of going to the market always.


1. NON PERISHABLE FOODS/ DRY FOODS:These are foods that can keep well for a reasonable length of time. They do not spoil easily and they contain lesser percentage of moisture. They can be kept for long time without getting spoilt. Examples areflour, beans, sugar, yam, dried maize, etc. Non-perishable foods can be kept in air tight containers.

Important Points on Storage of Non-Perishable Foods

a) Store only foods that are free from weevils and other insects.

b) Store food in dry and well covered containers.

c) Foods such as beans, maize, etc. can be stored for very long periods in air-tight plastic containers.

2. PERISHABLE FOODS: Theseare foods that spoil very fast as a result of the high moisture content. Such foods include tomatoes, fresh fish, fresh meats, fresh fruits, eggs, vegetables, etc. Perishable foods are stored in the refrigerators.

Important points on Storage of Perishable Foods

a) Fresh meat and fish can be stored in the freezer.

b) Fruits and vegetables can be stored at the lowest part of the refrigerator.

c) Prolonged storage of fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator can cause some of them to lose their taste, colours and nutritive values.

d) Perishable foods can also be processed into forms that can store for fairly long periods. For example, vegetables can be dried while fish and meat can be smoked.


1. State three importance of food storage.

2. Differentiate between perishable and non-perishable foods with examples.


1. Plastic container with cover:Wash thoroughly,rinse very well and label correctly.

2. Food rack, shelves, cabinet or cupboard: Clean thoroughly, empty the cupboard and clean according type.

3. Freezer\Refrigerator: Unplug before cleaning.Clean occasionally with drops of vinegar.

4. Food store: Arrange food items and containers properly. Clean the store very thoroughly once every week.


1. State three reasons for preserving foods

2. What is food preservation?

3. Differentiate between perishable and non-perishable foods withfour examples each.

4. What is food storage?

5. Differentiate between food storage and food preservation.


Preservation and Storage of food: Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 318-320.


1. Changing the form of the food to another through processing is another ways of ____ foods.

A. purchasing B. preserving C. storing D. cooking

2. ____ is the process by which water content of food is removed. A. Smoking B.Drying C. Freezing D.Fermentation

3. ____ is the act of keeping processed or unprocessed food at home.A.Food preservation B.Food storage C.Food Safe D.Food keeping

4. Which of the following foods is perishable? A. Rice B. Beans C. Meat D. Flours

5. Maize can be stored for very long periods in ____ plastic containers. A. air-tight B. coloured

C. thickD. light-weight


1. Explain the following: (a) Perishable food(b) Non-perishable food

2. List two food storage facilities and state one way of taken care of each.




  • Meaning and Types of openings
  • Points to consider when making openings
  • Meaning and types of fastenings
  • Uses of fastenings
  • Guidelines for attaching fastenings


Openings are features in garments. They help us to wear and take off a garment.


1.Continuous strip opening: It is also called continuous wrap opening. Continuous strip opening is suitable for:

– Very fine and light material of fabrics.

– Side openings of shorts and skirts.

– Wrist openings on long sleeves.

– Neck openings of blouses and dresses.

Continuous wrap openings can be fastened with hook and eye, button and button holes and press studs.

2.Faced slit opening: A faced slit opening is formed by slitting the opening after it has been stitched to a facing. The opening is not overlapping and can only be fastened with buttons and loops or ribbons, hook and eye and eyelets and cords.

The face slit opening can be used for:

  • Front or back openings.
  • It can also be used for decoration.

3. Bound opening: A bound opening is a slit opening neatened with crossway binding or commercial bias binding. The binding should be narrow, of even width and not twisted. When closed, a bound opening does not overlap and the fastenings are sewn only at the top of the opening and not along either sides of it.

Bound opening is suitable for:

  • The front and the back opening of children’s garments.
  • Transparent materials/fabrics especially when contrasting colours are used.


1. Define the word ‘Openings’.

2. List and explain types of openings.


1. Openings can be used to decorate the garments.

2. Openings allow for easy wearing and removal of garments.

3. Openings are necessary in garment which fit the figure closely at certain part e.g. neck, wrist, waist etc.


1. The opening should be suitable for the position on the garment.

2. It should be suitable for the texture of the fabric e.g. continuous wrap opening for light materials.

3. It should be long enough to serve its purpose.

4. It should be placed in position where it will be easy to fasten.

5. The two sides of the opening should be equal.

6. The opening should lie flat when fastened.

7. The seams of the openings should be strong especially at the base to avoid tear.

8. It should also be as neat and invisible as possible.


1. State three points to consider when making openings.

2. State two uses of opening.


Fastenings are devises or things attached to the openings. They allow garments to be put on and taken off.


1. Buttons and button holes: They can be used on openings with a wrap.

2. Buttons and loops: These are used on openings without a wrap.

3. Press studs: They are used where there is less strain.

4. Hooks and eyes / bars: These are used where there is strain, to prevent gaping. It can also be used to fasten the end of a neck opening or together with zips.

5. Zips: They are used on blouses, dresses, trousers, skirts, etc.

6. Velcro: This is a nylon ‘touch and close’ fastening made up of two strips which cling together because the surface of one is covered with strip of small nylon hooks and another of soft piled nylon. It is mostly used on foot wears but can also be used on dresses to close up openings.

7. Eyelets and cords: These are used to fasten faced slit openings on blouses and children’ dresses.


1. What are fastenings?

2. List and explain three types of fastenings.


1. It allows the garment to be put on and to be taken off like opening.

2. They keep the opening in position whilst the garment is being worn.

3. Fastenings can be used for decoration

4. They protect the openings from stretching.


1. The type of opening to be fastened.

2. The type of fabric, that is whether light or thick.

3. The use of the fastening.

4. The style of the garment, that is, whether to be visible or not.

5. The part of the garment to be fastened.

6. The fastening should match the garment in colour.

7. The fastenings must also be washable and colour-fast.


1. Mention two uses of fastenings.

2. State three points in choosing fastenings.


1. Sew fastenings directly opposite each other, so that opening will be flat when fastened.

2. Attach sufficient number of fastenings, so that opening does not gape open when garment is worn.

3. Sew the fastening after the opening has been finished and pressed.

4. Make fastenings invisible unless they are used as part of the garment decoration.

5. Sew fastening on doubled thickness of material.


1. State two uses each of fastening and openings.

2. State the relationship between the two.

3. Outline three guidelines for attaching fastenings.

4. Define kitchen hygiene.

5. Mention five factors that influence the selection of household linen.


Openings and fastening: Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 292-298

Junior Secondary Home Economics book 3 by Oseni. Pages 37-43

Home Economics New Concepts book 2 by Popoola. Pages 187-197


1. ____ helpsus to put on and take off our clothes. A. Openings B. Hemming C. Stitching D. Hook.

2. ____ is not a type of opening. A. Continuous wrap B. Bound C. Faced slit D. Press stub.

3. ____ is not a type of fastening. A. Button and button hole B. Press stud C. Facedslit D. Hook and eye.

4. Openings are put on a garment to ____ A. neaten the edgeB. make it easy to wearC. enhance the area D. tear the dress’ back

5. The edges of a faced opening ____ A. meetB. overlapC. cross D. extend


1. List six types of fastening.

2. Explain two uses of openings.




  • Seam and Edge finishes
  • Facing
  • Hemming
  • Cross way stripes


Seam finishes are basic sewing processes used to neaten the raw edges of a seam especially the open or plain seam.

Advantages of Seam finishes

1. It prevents the raw edge from fraying.

2. It prolongs the life span of the garment.

3. It makes the garment looks neat and beautiful.

4. It also gives the finished work a professional look.

Seam Finishes Processes

1. Pinking: This is the process of neatening or finishing the seam using pinking shears. It has a zigzag edge and it is good for bulky/thick fabrics.

2. Overcasting: It is suitable for all fabrics. It can be done with either hand or machine.

3. Zigzag: It is made with sewing machine that has zigzag design to neaten the seam. It is suitable for all type of cloth.

4. Bound seam finishing: This involves the use of bias or crossway strips. It is suitable for heavy fabrics that fray easily.


1. Define seam finishes.

2. List and explain three processes of seam finishes.


Edge finishing is the process of neatening the raw edge of articles or garments. Necklines, hems or low edges, waist lines of garments and skirts require different types of finishes.

Uses of Edges Finishing

1. To prevent fraying of fabrics.

2. To protect the edge of the fabric.

3. To neaten the edge of the garment.

4. To beautify the edge by using either bias or flowered material for finishing neckline and armholes.

Types of Edge Finishing

1. Pink finishing

2. Oven casting finishing

3. Bound finishing

4. Edge stitching: This is machine finishing. It is very strong and good for fabrics that fray.

5. Hemming: Hemming is a method of neatening the lower edges of skirts, blouses, gowns, sleeves, etc. by folding the edge of the material to the wrong side twice and sew it up. It is not visible on the right side of the garment.

6. Facing.


1. State three uses of edge stitching.

2. List and explain two types of edge finishing.


1. The type of material or fabric to be finished.

2. The shape of the edge to be finished.

3. The purpose of the finishing.


Facing is the process of covering the raw edge of a garment or finishing it with a piece of fabric. Facing shows on only one side of the garment.

When facings are turned to the wrong side, they are not seen from the right side. This is called inside or inconspicuous facing.

When they are finished on the right side of the garment, they are called conspicuous or decorative facings.

Uses of Facing in Garment Construction

1. For covering the raw edge of a garment.

2. To reinforce the garment edge and retain its shape.

3. To decorate a garment, when it is applied on the right side.


1. Differentiate between conspicuous facing and inside facing.

2. State three points to consider in choosing an edge finishing.


1. Facing should be cut to the same shape as the edge of the garment to be faced.

2. The width of the facing should always be enough to give a neat, flat finish.

3. If facing is to show on the right side, put right side of facing to wrong side of garment.

4. If facing is to appear on the wrong side, place the right side against the right side of the garment.


1. STRAIGHT FACING: This is used on straight hems or front of button-through skirts. Straight facings are cut on the straight line of the fabric with the edge to be faced quite straight.

2. SHAPED FACING: This is used on curved edge. The facing is cut to fit exactly the shape of the edge to be neatened. It is often used for armholes of sleeveless garments, necklines of collarless garments, V-necklines, etc.


1. State three guidelines in attaching facing.

2. List and explain the two types of facing.


Crossway strips are bands of fabrics cut on the diagonal line of a squared fabric at 45º. The cross wise grain is folded on the length wise grain and this forms a true bias. They are used for binding raw edges, facing raw edges, bound button holes, piping, neatening and decorating garments.


1. Fold the material across so that the selvedge threads lie across and parallel to the weft threads.

2. Pin the material together a few inches away from the fold.

3. Firmly hold the material with the left hand and cut along the fold. The cut edges are true cross from which stripes can be cut.

4. To cut the cross way strip measure out the width of the strip required at right angles to the edge. Mark the width with tailors chalk along the length of the strip. Cut along the marked line


1. Lay out the strips side by side

2. Cut the ends parallel to the selvedge edges.

3. Place the selvedge edges together with the right sides facing.

4. Tack and stitch.

5. Remove basting and press open the seam allowance.

6. Trim off the protruding corners.


1. Differentiate between seam finishes and edge finishing.

2. List and explain three methods of finishing seam.

3. List and explain types of seams.

4. State three uses of edge finishing.

5. List and explain five types of fastenings.


Seam and Edge Finishing: Home Economics New Concept Book 2 by Popoola. Pages 151-158.

Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 230-234


1. Seam finishes prevent the raw edge from ____A. tearingB. fraying C. wrinklingD. sagging

2. ___ is usually made by folding the edge of a garment to the wrong side twice and sewing it up.

A. Hem B. Edge C. Facing D. Opening

3. The seam finish that is suitable for heavy fabrics that fray easily is ____ A. zigzag seam finish

B. pinking finish C. bound seam finish D. edge stitching

4. Shaped facings are used on ____ A. straight edges B. neatened edges C. fraying edgesD.curved edges

5. Crossway strips are used for all the following except ____ A. sleeves B. binding C. facing



1. List three ways of neatening the edges of articles.

2. State two uses of facing in garment construction.


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