THIRD TERM SS 1 SCHEME OF WORK ENGLISH LANGUAGE

THIRD TERM SSI SCHEME OF WORK ENGLISH LANGUAGE

WEEK 1 REVISION OF LAST TERM’S EXAM
WEEK 2 Vocabulary and Oracy skill Development; Words Associated with Profession 1. Advertising 2. Some Selected Consonant sounds Class Exercise 1. Sentence Stress 2. Consonants followed by /J/ 55/113
WEEK 3 Words Associated with Advertising Selected Consonant sounds Speech writing Class exercise Sentence stress
WEEK 4 Selected consonant sounds Words Associated with stock exchange Types and functions of subordinate clauses Class exercise Consonants followed by K + W
WEEK 5 First Continuous Assessment
WEEK 6 Words commonly miss pelt Stress Articles Class Articles
WEEK 7 Reading comprehension Stress of words of two syllables Consonants followed by l
WEEK 8 Summary Writing Stress of Words of three syllables Sentence stress
WEEK 9 Stress of Words of three syllables and above Emphatic stress Summary Writing Class exercise
WEEK 10 Syllabic consonants / L / Syllabic consonants / n / Class exercise
WEEK 11 REVISION

TOPICS

Speech Work:  Introduction to Speech Sound (Organs of Speech)

Comprehension: Argungu Cultural Festival

Vocabulary Development: (Registers on Family)

Structure: Nouns: (Introduction: Definition and Kinds of Nouns)

Writing Skills: Narrative: Introduction to Narrative Essay

 

ASPECT: Speech Work

TOPIC: Introduction to Speech Sound (Organs of Speech)

 

Introduction to Pronunciation

The vast majority of speech sounds are produced by creating a stream of air which flows from the lungs through the mouth or nose. We use this stream of air to form specific sounds with our vocal folds and/or by changing the configuration of our mouths.

What are Speech Organs? Speech organs or articulators are various organs which are involved in the production of speech sounds. Organs used for speech include the lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum (soft palate), uvula, glottis and various parts of the tongue. They can be divided into two types: Passive articulators and Active articulators. The passive articulators include: the upper lip, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate, uvula, and pharynx. The active articulators include the tongue, lower lip. The most important active articulator is the tongue as it is involved in the production of the majority of sounds Active articulators move relative to passive articulators, which remain still, to produce various speech sounds, in particular manners of articulation.

ORGANS OF SPEECH

CONSONANT SOUNDS

Consonant sounds are produced as a result of obstruction of the air-flow that comes from the lungs. The obstruction can be partial or total. There are twenty-four (24) consonant sounds in English language. They are:

/p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ /Ө/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /∫/ /Ӡ/ /h///t∫/ /ʤ/ /l/ /r//w//j/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/

/p/—–pay, peace, pat, pot, peg, pit, push, wrapper, pass, place, happen, party, etc.

/b/—- bell, about, bet, book, boom, boost, bay, baby, rob, bad, bat, back, abort, etc.

/ʈ/—–Thomas, ten, tap, tomb, table, take, tack, track, etc.

/d/—- den, dust, cord, draft, powder, advert, kid, deep, dam, divide, diary, dark, middle, etc.

/k/—– kid, kiss, cock, fix, six, choir, chord, require, back, calculate, kit, etc.

/g/ —– goose, goggle, got, gum, gay, guy, example, get, rogue, girl, grow, etc.

/ʧ/ —-church, match, fetch, rich, reach, nature, pasture, patch, chain, choice, children, etc.

/ʤ/ —- gin, joy, edge, badge, jaw, jest, jeep, gem, general, gentle, page, judge, jam, etc.

/f/——tough, fall, phone, elephant, photo, food, fleet, fault, etc.

/v/ —–vote, of, value, vice, voice, van, view, prove, visible, etc.

/Ө/ —-thin, think, three, threw, thought, length, breath, theatre, theme, thick, thicket, etc.

/ð/ —-the, father, mother, them, that, bathe, then, rather, this, there, etc.

/s/ —-science, class, fast, slow, city, pass, dress, psychology, lace, face, pastor, etc.

/z/ ——zoo, zoom, lazy, zigzag, zinc, close, rose, represent, reason, candies, laze, raise, etc.

/∫/ —— chalet, chateau, charade, machine, education, social, mission, short, sure, etc.

/Ӡ/—— garage, measure, treasure, leisure, television, vision, confusion, decision, etc.

/h/ —– house, home, harrow, harassment, etc.

/Ɩ/——- look, late, life, lake, lift, later, letter, local, lion, low, love, lame, lie, etc.

/r/—— robe, right, reflex, run, carry, merry, bright, story, bury, rite, wrong, wrote, radio, etc.

/j/——– you, yawn, yellow, yam, union, use, yes, university, etc.

/w/—— one, wine, when, suite, quit, work, what, where, which, wife, etc.

/m/—— flame, hammer, man, malt, make, come, mother, magic, etc.

/n/——– know, night, knight, knowledge, banner, etc.

/ŋ/——- bang, uncle, bank, sing, long, king, zinc, single, thank, etc.

 

THE CONSONANT CHART

Place of
Articulation
Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palato-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Voiced (+)
Voiceless (-)
-v     +v -v     +v -v     +v -v     +v -v     +v -v     +v -v    +v -v     +v
Stop(Plosive) p     b f     v t     d k     g
Fricative θ     ð s     z ʃ     ʒ h
Affricative ʧ     ʤ
Nasals m n ŋ
Lateral r
Approximant w l j

There are three ways of describing a consonant sounds. These are:

  1. Manner of articulation
  2. Place of articulation
  3. State of glottis

 

MANNER OF ARTICULATION

This is the way a sound is pronounced or articulated. For instance, the sound /p/ is described as plosive because the air-flow from the lungs comes to a complete stop because the upper and lower lips are involved. The pressure of air forces the lips open which results in production of sound in form of explosion. Examples: pen, pay, price, pure, purse, etc.

PLACE OF ARTICULATION

This refers to the actual place where the sound is articulated. For example for sound b the two lips are involved, hence it is called a bilabial. This is so because the sound is produced with the use of both lower and upper lips.

STATE OF GLOTTIS

The state of glottis can be described as the position of glottis when the sound is pronounced. It is either open or close. The glottis is the space between the vocal cords and the larynx (Adam’s apple).If the state of glottis is opened the sound produced will be voiceless. But if it is closed, there will be vibration in the vocal cord; therefore, the sound that will be produced will be voiced.

EXAMPLES OF DESCRIPTION OF SOUND

  1. /p/

Place of articulation – bilabial

Manner of articulation – plosive

State of glottis –  voiceless

  1. /n/

Place of articulation – alveolar

Manner of articulation – nasal

State of glottis – voiced

EVALUATION

Choose the word that has the same sound with the one underlined below:

  1. shows    (a) house        (b) reason     (c) loss         (d) horse
  2. clothe     (a)  they          (b) three       (c) mouth      (d) Thomas
  3. English (a) edge          (b) thin         (c) end           (d)  think
  4. bushes     (a) rapes         (b) shoes      (c) church      (d) rakes
  5. character (a) church       (b) arch        (c) unique      (d) charade
  6. buzz   (a) exact          (b) bus         (c) beige         (d) vision
  7. chairman (a) sheer          (b) posture   (c) charade     (d) ocean
  8. long  (a) gnash         (b) manager  (c) benign      (d) hanger
  9. beef  (a) diaphragm  (b) of            (c) vulcanize  (d) vice
  10. king          (a) knit             (b) know       (c) account    (d) knock

 

ASPECT: COMPREHENSION

TEXT: New Oxford Secondary English Course for Senior Secondary School Bk 1. Pages 2-3

TITLE: Argungu Cultural Festival

The Argungu Fishing Festival is an annual four-day festival in the State of Kebbi, in the North-western part of Northern Nigeria. The festival usually takes place in Argungu, the capital city of Argungu Emirate Council.

CLASS ACTIVITY

The passage should be read carefully, before the students attempt the questions on it.

 

ASPECT: Vocabulary Development

TOPIC: Words Associated with Home And Family Life.

The words below are associated with Home and Family Life.

Family Relations Things in the home Activities within the
Family
Other related words
Ancestor Kitchen ware Courtship Protection
Siblings Hearth Marriage Companionship
Distant relatives Utensils Divorce Acceptance
Next of kin Upholstery Burial Understanding
Monogamy Rug Family life Love
Polygamy Wardrobe Naming ceremony Security/safety
Nuclear family Sitting-room Wedding anniversary Satisfaction
Extended family Parlour Violence
In-laws Store Medicare
Grandparents Pantry Fairness
Grandmother Lobby Relaxation
Stepmother Foyer Health asset

 

CLASS ACTIVITY: The students should master the spellings of the above words. Use the dictionary to find the meaning of difficult words.

EVALUATION

List other ten words relating to home and family life and make sentences with each of them.

 

ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Nouns: (Introduction: Definition and Kinds of Nouns)

 

NOUN

A noun can be defined as a naming word. It can also be defined as names of people, places, objects, abstract ideas, actions and qualities. Nouns can be used as the object of a preposition as well as the subject or object of a verb. Examples: Mary, man, instructor, sky, sun, town, flock, flower, soul, feeling, sense, motion, behaviour, etc.

 

TYPES OF NOUNS

(a) Proper Nouns: These are specific names of people, places, publications, days of the week, months of the year, special events, river, mountain, institution, etc.

NOTE: It must start with capital letter. Examples: Bola, Ngozi, Adamu, Lagos, England, Monday, January, River Nile, Christianity, Lake Chad, Deeper Life High School. etc.

(b) Common Nouns: These are general names of things Examples: chair, book, tree, road, sofa, axe, telephone, etc.

(i) These common nouns are words for things: ruler, chair, hammer, bicycle, pen, table, etc.

(ii) These common nouns are words for animals. Notice that special names for young animals are included.

Animal Its young
dog puppy
cat kitten
cow calf
horse foal
sheep lamb
goat kid
frog tadpole

(iii) These common nouns are words for places: bank, airport, hotel, library, park, museum farm, zoo, theater factory, etc.

(iv) These common nouns are words for people who do certain things: singer, manager sailor, gardener, secretary, pilot, police officer, artist, teacher, driver, plumber, etc.

(c) Abstract Nouns: These are names of things which cannot be seen or touch. They are the names of quality, action or state. Examples:  truth, love, honesty, joy, beauty, corruption, thirst, liberty, childhood, admission, etc.

(d) Collective Nouns: These are names of collection or group of people, things or animals Examples: crowd, choir, cast, team, committee, crew, staff, mob, class, block, etc.

(e) Concrete Nouns: These are names of things that can be touched or seen. Examples: room, chair, girl, table, pencil, stick, etc.

(f) Countable Nouns: These are names of things that can be counted or divided into singular or plural. Examples:  people, chair, book, town, student, studio, pen, writer, etc.

(g) Uncountable Nouns: These are names of things that cannot be counted or divided into singular or plural. Examples: water, salt, sand, air, milk, rice, iron, butter, etc.

(h) Material Nouns: A material noun is the name of a material or substance out of which things are made. Examples: gold, silver, iron, clay, money, water, copper, steel, etc.

 

EVALUATION

(a) Find out nouns in the following sentences.

  1. Lions and ostriches are found in Africa.
  2. John and Joseph drove the horses to the pasture.
  3. Pinks and roses are blooming in the garden.
  4. Care sorrow, and discontent destroy happiness.
  5. Apples, peaches, melons, corn and potatoes are brought to market
  6. Nigeria has a large population.
  7. Freedom is our birthright.
  8. Mother Theresa was a social worker.
  9. He returned from Lagos last week.
  10. Knowledge is powerful.

 

(b) Underline the common nouns and circle the proper nouns in these sentences.

  1. I told Uncle John about my accident.
  2. Kim and Stephanie wore masks on Halloween.
  3. The lawnmower is broken.
  4. We’re going to the movies tomorrow.
  5. The lion is playing with one of its cubs.
  6. My sister’s favourite soccer player is David Beckham.
  7. I’m watching a videotape about the Sahara Desert.
  8. The tourists visited Rome and saw the Colosseum.
  9. Does this bus go to the stadium?
  10. We’re reading a story about a boy called Harry Potter

 

ASPECT: Continuous Writing

TOPIC:  Introduction to Narrative Essay

A narrative essay is an essay that tells a story of past events. The past tense verb is predominantly used throughout the narrative essay. Ensure that your story flows smoothly from beginning to the end. You need to develop each point clearly in different paragraphs that are properly linked together.

These are some of the topics under narrative essay:

My First Day at School.

A Day I Will Never Forget in My Life.

My First Journey to Lagos.

How I Spent My Christmas Holiday.

 

Qualities of a Good Narrative Essay

The following are some of the qualities of a good narrative essay

  1. It must contains a clear, and interesting introduction.
  2. It must have a well-developed middle section where events are narrated sequentially and in well- laid out paragraphs.
  3. It must have interesting characters.
  4. The language used should be in the past tense, as events usually narrated are past.
  5. It must have a brief and satisfying conclusion.

 

Tips on how to write a Narrative Essay

  1. What is your story about? (Title boldly written)
  2. What action took place in your story?
  3. Who were responsible for these actions?
  4. When did the actions take place?
  5. How did the actions take place?
  6. What were the consequences of the actions?
  7. You can draw your conclusions by stating your feeling about these. It may be positive or negative.

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is a narrative essay?
  2. List five topics under narrative essay.

TOPICS

Speech Work: Monophthongs (Introduction)

Comprehension/Summary (Introduction to Summary)

Vocabulary Development (Words Associated with Agriculture)

Structure: Nouns: Countable and Uncountable Nouns (Regular and Irregular Plurals)

Writing Skills: Narrative: Linking Paragraphs

 

ASPECT: Speech Work

TOPIC: Monophthongs

Monophthongs can be defined as pure vowel sounds. They are part of vowel sounds which are produced without any obstruction in the oral or nasal cavity. There are twelve (12) pure vowel sounds (Monophthongs) in English language. It can further be divided into two parts (long and short vowels.)

EXAMPLES OF MONOPHTHONGS

/i: / e.g. beat, seat, neat, feet, tea, sheep, quay, leave, seen, dean, etc.

/i/ e.g. bit, sit nymph, village, kid, kit, lip, skip, tip, ship, etc.

/e/ e.g. bed, bread, said, bury, many, any, net, belt, etc.

/æ/ e.g. cat, lack, pack, rat, mad, lad, mat, bat, etc.

/a: / e.g. car, dart, calm, heart, sharp, mark, farther, far, etc.

/ɒ/ e.g. pot, what, gone, wash, cot, cod, etc.

/ↄ:/ e.g. war, pork, saw, bought, four, fall, hall, more, glory, etc.

/u/ e.g. put, foot, book, could, should, pull, look, wood, etc.

/u: / e.g. pool, blue, screw, shoe, two, too, ewe, juice, pool, etc.

/ ʌ / e.g. cut, come, blood, country, money, honey, love, etc.

/ З: / e.g. first, purse, earn, bird, burn, shirt, work, learn, turn, etc.

/∂/ e.g. about, baker, sailor, teacher, doctor, labour, etc.

Short vowel Long vowel
/i/ /i: /
/e/ /ȝ:/
/æ/ / a: /
/ɒ/ /ↄ:/
/u/ /u: /
/ʌ /
/ /

The Pure Vowels (Chart)

EVALUATION

From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that has the same vowel sound(s) as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

  1. rich    (a)  reach   (b)  heed       (c) seat    (d) knit.
  2. head (a)  set  (b)  neat   (c)eat  (d)seat.
  3. hot   (a)  dark    (b) hart          (c) stock   (d)cord.
  4. cool (a) wood  (b) would(c) rude  (d) blood
  5. buy(a) chilly      (b) bully (c)built   (d) mild

 

ASPECT:  COMPREHENSION

TEXT:Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book 1 Ibadan: University Press PLC.

TOPIC: Summary (Introduction) NOSEC. Pages 5-6

Summary writing is a process of expressing ones thought in a brief and clear manner. In other words, it is a way of expressing in a few words as possible what has been said in very many words.  It is the ability to read, digest and produce some relevant facts as required by the examiner in a very clear and brief manner.

The first step in writing a good summary is to identify the topic sentence in a given passage. This deals with what a given passage is about.

To write a good summary, the students should take note of the following:

  1. Avoid the use of examples.
  2. Avoid the use of illustrations.
  3. Do not use analogy.
  4. Do not use repetition.
  5. Avoid the use of flowery language.
  6. Do not use link words or connectives.
  7. The summary should be in a simple sentence.

CLASS ACTIVITY

A short passage should be read used to illustrate and explain the points listed above.

Vocabulary Development (Words associated with Agriculture)

The following words listed below are associated with agriculture:

Cash crop Food crop Plantation Fish pond Ruminant
Cereal Cultivate Seedling Husbandry Cropping
Feed Erosion Nursery Cultivation Tillage
Grain Plough Seasonal Weeds Staples
Arable Livestock Perennial Seasonal Bumper
Fertilizer Piggery Veterinary Family Yam seeds
Irrigation Grazing Tractor Implements Irrigation
Grafting Irrigation Harrowing Bush burning Annual

CLASS ACTIVITY

The students should read the passage on page 15 of NOSEC. SS BK1 and identify additional registers on agriculture.

 

ASPECT: STRUCTURE

TOPIC: NOUNS: COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS (REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PLURALS)

Noun is a naming word. It is used to refer to a person, an animal, a thing or a quality.

Nouns are a very common feature of language and they are categorized into various classifications as

  1. Common and Proper nouns
  2. Concrete and Abstract nouns
  3. Countable and Uncountable nouns
  4. Collective and Material nouns

A countable noun, also known as a count noun, is a noun that can be preceded by the word ‘a’ and can exist in a plural form. When the plural form is used it is not usually preceded by a determiner, but is used alone. Most concrete nouns are countable. The following are examples of countable nouns:

city (plural cities),

gate (plural gates),

foot (plural feet),

lady (plural ladies),

monkey (plural monkeys),

 mouse (plural mice),

taxi (plural taxis),

 

In the following sentences the underlined words, either in the singular or plural form, are countable nouns:

I’ve just bought a flat there.

I prefer cities to the countryside.

Open the door please.

The child believes in fairies.

The church is over there.

There are mice in the house.

 

An uncountable noun, also known as anon-count noun, is a noun that cannot usually be preceded by the word ‘a’ or ‘an’ and does not usually exist in a plural form. Abstract nouns tend to be uncountable. The following are examples of uncountable nouns:

They lived in poverty.

Our luggage went missing.

We are waiting for vital information.

You should put sugar in this pudding.

Education is an obsession with her.

I put some petrol in the car yesterday.

I’ll have a kilo of flour, please.

Could I have a slice of bread?

 

NOUN: SINGULAR AND PLURAL FORMS

Most English nouns have a different ending for ‘one’ of something (called the singular form) than they do for ‘more than one’ (called the plural form). In the case of the majority of nouns the plural is formed regularly simply by adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the singular, as in bat/bats, monkey/monkeys, church/churches.

In cases where the singular noun ends in a consonant followed by ‘y’ then the plural form regularly becomes ies, as in fairy/fairies.

 

Regular plural forms of nouns

The following is a list of common nouns with their regular plural forms:

banana/bananas

berry/berries

bush/bushes

kiss/kisses

lady/ladies

march/marches

 

Irregular plural forms of nouns

Some nouns do not form their plural in the above regular ways. Instead their plural forms are said to be irregular.

Some irregular plurals are formed, not by adding an ending to the singular form, but by changing the vowel in the singular forms, as in man/men, or by having a completely different form from the singular, as in mouse/mice.

The following are examples of nouns with their irregular plural forms:

foot/feet

goose/geese

tooth/teeth

woman/women.

A few irregular plural forms are formed by adding ‘en’ to the singular form, as in ox/oxen. In the case of the word child the letter r is added before the ‘en’.

Some nouns ending in ‘f’ form irregular plurals ending in ‘ves’, as in loaf/loaves. The following is a list of such nouns with their plural forms:

half/halves

leaf/leaves

scarf/scarves

wife/wives

 

Foreign plural forms of nouns

Some nouns in English have a plural form that follows the spelling rules of the foreign language from which they are derived, as in stimulus (stimuli). The following are examples of such words with the plural form in their original foreign language:

bacterium/bacteria

bacillus/bacilli

criterion/criteria

larva/larvae

phenomenon/phenomena.

datum/data

index/indices or indexes

oasis/oases

memorandum/memoranda

 

COMPOUND NOUNS

A compound noun is a fixed expression that is made up of more than one word and functions as a noun in a sentence or clause.

Examples: bank account, cover-up, pen- friend, air conditioning, bank account, blood pressure, coffee jug, doorstep, fairy tale, frying pan, health centre, housewife, income tax, letter-box, make-up, musical instrument, nail varnish, passer-by, police station, seaweed, swimming pool, teapot, washing machine.

 

Plural forms of compound nouns

The plural forms of compound nouns vary according to the type of words they are made up of. If the final word of a compound noun is a countable noun, the plural form of the countable noun is used when the compound noun is made plural, as in swimming pools, police stations, letter-boxes and coffee jugs.

Compound nouns that are directly derived fromphrasal verbsusually have a plural form ending in s, as in cover-up/cover-ups and show-off/ show-offs.

In the case of compound nouns which consist of a count noun and an adverb the plural form of the noun is used before the adverb when the compound noun is in the plural form, as in passers-by and lookers-on.

Singular Plural
Commander-in-chief Commander-in-chiefs
Son-in-law Sons-in-law
Armful Armfuls
Maid-servant Maid-servants
Man-of-war Men-of-war

 

CLASS ACTIVITY

Group the following words into regular and irregular nouns: lady, balloon, goose, army, life, wolf, calf, and fox.

 

EVALUATION

In tabular form, indicate whether the following are countable or uncountable nouns:

happiness, source, discretion, fence, lawn, misery, cooker, information, beach, location, luggage, bottle, forest, poem, inspiration, jewel, milk, suitcase, poetry, essay, literature, choir, legislation, cookery, knowledge.

 

ASPECT: CONTINUOUS WRITING

TOPIC: NARRATIVE ESSAY: LINKING PARAGRAPHS

What is a paragraph?

A paragraph is a group of sentences about a single topic. All the sentences of the paragraph explain the writer’s main idea (most important idea) about the topic. A paragraph is often between five to ten sentences but it can be longer or shorter, depending on the topic. Here is an example of one-paragraph narrative essay titled “Mrs. Robinson”

Mrs. Robinson

My first grade teacher was an important person in my life. Her name was Mrs. Robinson. In the schools in my country, children usually learn to print before they learn to write. Mrs. Robinson didn’t believe in printing. She thought it was a waste of time. She taught us to write in cursive script (like handwriting) from the first day. At first it was hard. She made us practice a lot. I remember filling entire pages just with capital Os. At the end of the year, we felt very grown up because we could write in cursive. Mrs. Robinson was important in my life because she taught me a valuable lesson. I can achieve anything by working hard.

 

PARAGRAPH ORGANIZATION

A paragraph has three basic parts:

  1. The topic sentence: This is the main idea of the paragraph. It is usually the first sentence of the paragraph.
  2. The supporting sentences: These are sentences that talk about or explain the topic sentence. They are more detailed ideas that follow the topic sentence.
  3. The concluding sentence: This may be found as the last sentence of a paragraph. It can finish a paragraph by repeating the main idea or just a final comment about the topic.

 

PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT/LINKING PARAGRAPHS

After you have chosen a topic and a topic sentence, you develop your main idea by adding more information to explain what your essay is about. This is possible through the following ways: giving details, giving explanations, and giving examples. In addition, developing paragraphs in narrative essay entails using transitional words or phrases, otherwise called cohesive devices. These transitional words or phrases include: in the middle, here, further, on this side, wherever, here and there,at the present time, henceforth, eventually,at the same time, meanwhile, all of a sudden, now, immediately, formerly, instantly, suddenly, presently, finally, shortly, occasionally, however, more so, despite, in fact, etc.

 

EVALUATION

What is a paragraph?

CONTENT

Speech Work: Vowel Sounds /i/, /i:/, /æ/, /a:/

Comprehension: Mac

Vocabulary Development: Words associated with Agriculture (Fishing).

Structure: Nouns: Nouns and Determiners/Articles

Writing Skills: Narrative (Writing Introductory Paragraph)

 

 

ASPECT: SPEECH WORK

TOPIC:  Vowels   /i/,/i:/; /æ/,/a:/

Sub – Topic: Vowels: /i/ and /i: /

 

Introduction:

The vowels /i/ and /i: / are monophthongs. Monophthongs are single vowel sounds. They are used in contrast with the word diphthong, which literally means a “double sound” in Ancient Greek. Another term for monophthong is pure vowel.

 

Description of the vowel: /i:/ This is a long, front, close, spread vowel sound. It si produced by keeping the front of the tongue for some time at a height very close to the hard palate and the same time keeping the lips loosely spread.

 

Features of vowel /i: /

The phonetic symbol of the sound represents the sound of the following underlined letters in their respective words.

e ee ea ie ei eo ey ae oe i
complete bleed steaeam field ceiling people key aether croesus machine
mete bee weak siege deceit feoff geyser caesure phoebe police
these see teach achieve conceive turnkey orthorpaedic subpoena marine
rebate heel reach believe perceive anaemia phoenix latrine
regent feel wheat thief being aethology amoeba margarine
Jesus agree peace brief caffeine aesthetic foetus automobile
comedian meet season apiece receive caesar fatigue
she geese eager shield deceive mediaeval vaseline

Other features ‘uay’ —– quay, etc.

 

Description of the vowel /i/: This is a short, front, half close, spread vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the front of the tongue briefly at a position midway towards the close region and by keeping the lips loosely spread.

Features of vowel /i/

a ai ay e ee ei ey i o
homage certain Monday television coffee forfeit donkey village women
courage chaplain Tuesday telegraph toffee foreign monkey rich
adage portrait Wednesday receipt levee surfeit chimney fish
linkage captain Thursday elevate yankee hockey milk
plumage fountain Friday houses Geoffrey trim
dosage mountain Saturday deposit turkey pit
village plantain Sunday elegy lit

Other features include:

ie u ui y ed et eb ec eff
ladies minutes built city wicked eternity ebullient eclair efficient
carries busy guild pity naked etiologic ecology effectual
babies business guitar body shouted etcetera eccentric effusion
bodies lettuce guilty larynx melted eternal eclipse effusive
cowries build myth wanted economy effete
auntie quito mystic divided effect
sieve mosquito symbol reported effective

More features:

el ej em ep eq er es eth ev
elapse eject employ epistle equator erase eschew ethos evolve
elastic ejaculate emaciate ephemeral equip erect estate ethereal evince
elect embark epistolary equation erotic espy evasion
elope embalm epitome equal erosion escort evade
elude emit erupt esteem evoke
elide emphatic erosive escape evasive
electron embed erection espouse eviction

Contrast of /i:/ and /i/

                       /I:/                      /i/
seat sit
peat pit
heat hit
read rid
feat, feet fit
bead bid
deed did
leap lip
beat bit
keats kit
neat nit
seek sick
reach rich
leap lip
peak pick

 

SUB-TOPIC: Vowels: /æ/, /a: /        

CONTENT: 

  1. Description of vowels /æ/, /a: /
  2. Features of the vowels
  3. Contrast of the sounds.

Introduction:  Vowels /æ/, /a: / are pure vowels.

Description of the vowel /æ/: This is a short, front, half open, spread vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the front of the tongue briefly at a position midway towards the open region and by keeping the lips spread.

 

Features of vowel /æ/

The phonetic symbol of the sound represents the sound of the following identified letter(s) in their respective words:

a ai ei i
bad plait reveille spinach
track plaid impasse
rat meringue
catch
mass
sand
trap
accent

Activity: Use your dictionary and fill the blank spaces in the table above with words that have those features as /æ/

Description of the vowel /a: /

This is a long, back, open, neutral vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the back of the tongue for some time at the bottom of the mouth (open region) and keeping the lips neutral.

Features of the vowel /a: /

a al ar are au ear
ask almond part are laugh hearken
branch embalm star bizarre draughts heart
class psalm ark caviare aunt hearten
grant calm remark hearth
staff qualm bark
fast calf martial
bath half bar

More examples:

er oir eois ois ua eur
derby reservoir bourgeois chamois guava coiffeur
clerk repertoire guano
sergeant abattoir guard
Berkshire memoir guardian
escritoire

Contrast between /æ/, /a:/

/æ/ /a: /
pack part
back bark
mack mark
hat heart
cat cart
pat part
mat mart

 

EVALUATION

  1. Describe the articulation of /a: /.
  2. Mention the difference between /æ/, /a: /

 

ASPECT: COMPREHENSION/VOCABULARY DEVOLOPMENT   

TOPIC: MAC

The passage should be read carefully, before the students attempt the questions on it.

EVALUATION: NOSEC SSBK1 Page 10 (Questions a-g).

 

VOCABULARY BUILDING: Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Fishing)

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding, and the raising of livestock. The words listed below are associated with fishing:

fisherman longline scup pilchard
fishery trapping surfperch haddock
sport fishing fiske purse seining trawl
anglers halibut striped seine
vessel whaling clamming herring
smashing lobster billfish bait

EVALUATION:  Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the words listed above. Use them and construct your own sentences. Show your work to your educator.

 

ASPECT: STRUCTURES

TOPIC: Nouns: Nouns and Determiners /Articles 

CONTENT:

  1. Definition of Determiners
  2. Types of Determiners
  3. The use of Articles (Definite and Indefinite Articles)

What is a determiner?

A determiner is a word that is used in front of a noun or pronoun to give some information about it.

Types of Determiners

  1. Articles (definite and indefinite articles): a, an, the.
  2. Demonstrative determiners: this, that, these, those.
  3. Possessive determiners: my, your, its, her,
  4. Indefinite determiners: each, both, neither, few, several, some, little,
  5. Number determiners: one, two, three … first, second, fourth, fifth,

 

Definite Article: The definite article is ‘the’. It is used to refer to a particular person or thing.

The Use of Definite Article

It can be used in a sentence to refer back to a person or thing that has already been mentioned or identified. Examples:

  1. Mrs Brown gave birth to a boy and the boy was called John.
  2. I was asked to choose a restaurant and the restaurant I chose was The Olive Tree.
  3. Father bought a new dog and the dog is a Labrador.

The definite article can also be used to identify someone or something as the only one of its kind. Examples:

  1. He is reading the Bible.
  2. Tourists often visit the Tower of London.
  3. He has been declared the new Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

The definite article is used to refer to a whole class or group of things or people.

Examples:

  1. Lions belong to the big cats.
  2. She really does not like the English.
  3. Because of a long-lasting family feud the Smiths did not speak to the Simpsons at John and Jane’s wedding.

The definite article can be used to indicate the unique quality of someone or something. Examples:

  1. In the sixties it was the restaurant to go to in London.
  2. It is currently the city venue for fashionable wedding receptions.
  3. The musical is the show to see this Christmas.

 

Indefinite Article: An indefinite article does not refer to any particular person or thing. The form of the indefinite article is either ‘a’ or ‘an’. The form ‘a’ is used before words that begin with a consonant sound such as a box, a garden, a road, a star, a wall. The form ‘an’ is used before words that begin with an initial vowel sound such as an apple, an egg, an igloo, an ostrich, an uncle.

The Use of the Indefinite article (a/an)

The indefinite article can also be used in the following ways:

It can be used in the same way as the adjective one. Examples:

  1. The town is exactly a mile away.
  2. We waited an hour for the bus to come.
  3. A year ago we were happy, but things have changed.

The indefinite article is also used to refer to or single out a specific person or thing. Examples:

  1. Jim married a girl called Mary from the next village.
  2. The family had a black cat called Sooty.
  3. Sue is going out with a young man called Tom.

The indefinite article is also used with an indefinite meaning, in the same way that any is.

Examples:

  1. He was as big as a house.
  2. An island is a piece of land entirely surrounded by water.
  3. A paediatrician is a doctor who specializes in children’s illnesses.

The indefinite article is also used in the following way, with the word ‘for’ implied but omitted before it: Examples:

  1. The grapes are £3 a kilo.
  2. The gardener will charge you £12 an hour.
  3. The cake is £2 a slice.

 

ASPECT: CONTINOUS WRITING

TOPIC: Narrative (Writing Introductory Paragraph)

 

CONTENT:

  1. Definition of Narrative Essay
  2. Guidelines to Introductory Paragraphs
  3. Examples of Introductory Paragraphs

The term “narrative” refers to a type of essay, a short story or a novel.  In narrative writing, the introductory paragraph has an important impact on the readers. The opening sentence of a narrative should grab the readers’ attention. Thus, understanding the components of the first paragraph, as well as narrative writing in general, will help to create an effective opening to the story.

Guideline to Introductory Paragraphs

The following guidelines will help to write an interesting and catchy introductory paragraph in narrative essay.

  1. You must ensure your opening sentence grab the readers’ attention. This depends on your personal style of writing and the story you tell in your work. For example, you may have a first line that appears as:

“The moment my sister got married, I was on the other side of the world.”

This type of statement will raise questions that encourage your reader to continue reading your paper.

In a nutshell, you must use vivid language and build tension from the beginning that sets the tone for the rest of the story makes your reader stay connected.

  1. You should know the purpose of your story and create a theme which runs through the story. Your characters, setting and plot help develop the theme throughout the story.
  2. After your opening sentence, you begin setting up the narrative essay. You can build off the first sentence and start giving your readers some background information before you dive into telling the story. For example:

“The moment my sister got married, I was on the other side of the world. We hadn’t spoken in three years, and no one bothered to tell me Susan was planning on walking down the aisle for the seventh time in as many years.”

  1. Also, your first paragraph should introduce the main character and what lies at the heart of the story as in:

“The moment my sister got married, I was on the other side of the world.”

 

Examples of Introductory Paragraph

  1. My eyes were red and burning as blood slowly ran down my forehead. My cramped and trembling fingers hovered over the keyboard like it was an Ouija board. I closed my eyes and, when I opened them again, the blog post was finished. It was like nothing I had written before…
  2. The moment my sister got married, I was on the other side of the world. We hadn’t spoken in three years, and no one bothered to tell me Susan was planning on walking down the aisle for the seventh time in as many years…
  3. I have never looked through the windows of my bedroom without feeling like a captive…
  4. I nearly lost my life. Father and I had gone in a lorry to convey his planks home, he being a planks-seller…

EVALUATION

  1. Define a narrative essay?
  2. Identify four basic guidelines to a catchy introductory paragraph.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

(a) Underline each plural noun in the sentences below and indicate if it is regular (REG) or irregular (IRREG) in terms of how it is pluralized.

Example: The women (IRREG) received their education at some exclusive schools (REG)

  1. The doctor treated most of the patients who were waiting.
  2. The geese crossed the road near my car.
  3. She set a trap to catch the mice that had invaded her kitchen.
  4. You will have to feed the oxen most afternoons.
  5. Whenever I travel to the countryside, I see many sheep, ducks, deer, and cows.
  6. Those husbands and wives lead interesting lives.
  7. Her feet have grown since last year.
  8. The back window of my apartment overlooks about a dozen roofs.
  9. The salesmen surrounded me in the showroom.
  10. Kenneth had to buy two bottles of disinfectant to get rid of the lice in his bathroom.

 

(b) Which of the following are countable nouns and which are uncountable nouns?

happiness, saucer, source, discretion, fence, lawn, misery, cooker, information, beach, location, luggage, bottle, forest, poem, inspiration, jewel, milk, suitcase, music, poetry, essay, literature, choir, legislation, beauty, cookery, knowledge.

 

ASSIGNMENT:

Write an essay not less than 250 on the topic: ‘How I spent my last holiday’

ify the three basic parts of a paragraph.

CONTENT

Speech Work: Vowel sounds /ͻ/,/ͻ:/,/u/,/u:/

Comprehension/Summary: Identifying the topic sentence in a passage

Vocabulary Development (Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Livestock)

Structure: Noun: The Structure of Noun Phrase.

Writing Skills: Letter Writing: Informal Letter (Introduction).

 

ASPECT:  SPEECH WORK

TOPIC:  Vowels /ͻ/, /ͻ:/

Introduction: The vowels: /ͻ/ and /ͻ:/ are pure vowels.  The difference between them is that /ͻ/ is short in its manner of articulation whereas /ͻ:/ is long. However, both sounds are back vowels realised with the vocal organ (lips) rounded.

Description of the Vowel /ͻ/: This is a short, back, open rounded vowel sound.  It is produced by keeping the back of the tongue briefly at the bottom of the mouth and by keeping the lips rounded.

Features of the vowel /ͻ/

ua a au e o ou ow
quality was laurel en masse cock cough knowledge
squander want sausage en route cloth
squash sallet austerity rendezvous moth
squat swallow because entr’acte doll
quantity swamp austria entrepreneur dog

 

Description of the vowel :/: This is a long, back, half open, rounded vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the back of the tongue for some time at a position mid-way, towards the open region and by keeping the lips rounded.

Features of the vowel :/

a ar au augh aw
salt war fraud haughty yawn
chalk ward gaul caught draw
paltry warm fault daughter flaw
call thwart clause naught saw
install swarm audible taught hawk

More Examples:

o oa or oor ore ough our uar
glory roar more floor ore thought court quarter
story oar cord door sore sought pour
oral boar lord before nought
glorify broad fork gored
coarse mentor ignore

Contrasts

/ͻ/ /ͻ:/
pot port
cot court
hot halt
got gord
pock pork

 

EVALUATION: Transcribe the following words to phonetic symbols.

  • taught
  • slaughter
  • drawer
  •  norm
  •  course

 

TOPIC: Vowel sounds / u / and /u: /

Content:

  1. Description of the vowels / u / and /u: /
  2. Features of the vowels
  3. Contrast of the sounds

 

Introduction: Both / u / and /u: / are back rounded vowels. In the same vein they are pure vowels.

Description of the vowel /u /: This is a short, back, half- close rounded vowel sound.  It is produced by keeping the back of the tongue briefly at a position mid-way towards the close region and by keeping the lips rounded

Occurrence of the sound in words

o oo ou u
wolf took courier cuckoo
woman cook could sugar
bosom foot should pudding
wood would

Description of the vowel /u:/: This is a long, back, close, rounded vowel sound.  It is produced by keeping at the back of the tongue for some time at a position very close to the hard palate and by keeping the lips rounded.

Occurrence of the sound in words

eau eu ew iew ieu o wo uo
beautify feud drew view adieu lose two fluor
neutral threw womb
pneumatic crew tomb
pseudonym new do
rheum stew

More Examples

oe eu oo ou ough u ue ui
shoe manoeuvre boot rouge through tune revenue cruise
whoed soon coup truth queue suitable
canoe smooth stoup flute glue lawsuit
zoo troup educate value altruism
broom wound use virtue bruise

Contrasts

/u/ /u:/
foot food
pull pool
hook hoot
full fool

 

ACTIVITY: Do a phonetic transcription of the following words

  1. couper
  2. mushroom
  3. cushion
  4. plywood
  5. threw

 

ASPECT: Comprehension/Summary

TOPIC: Identifying the topic sentence in a passage

CONTENT:

  1. Definition of Summary
  2. Keys to summary writing
  3. How to determine the topic sentence

What is a summary?

Summary writing is an act of expressing ones thought in a brief and clear manner. It tests the ability to read, digest and produce some relevant facts as required by the examiner.

Key to summary writing

One finds it easier to handle a passage if one understands how the passage is organized. Every passage has a particular pattern, an order in which ideas are organized to help the reader to understand easily.

Summary passages can take any of the following patterns:

  1. Topic Sentence Pattern
  2. Section-Based Pattern
  3. Listing Pattern
  4. Mixed Pattern
  5. Suggestive Pattern

 

How to determine the topic sentence

What is a topic sentence?

Topic sentence is the sentence in a summary passage which contains the main point the writer is marking in a particular paragraph. All other sentences in the paragraph either explain the point in the topic sentence or give examples.

A topic sentence can either be in form of question or statement. Ability to recognise the topic sentence depends on the understanding that it serves the main point in the paragraph while other sentences either explain the point in the topic sentence or give examples.

Example

Let us consider the following paragraph

Sprains are injuries to the ligaments which hold the joints together. Sprains occur when the ligaments are overstretched. The joints most frequently sprained are the wrists and ankles.

The passage above centres on a specific type of injury called ‘sprains’. Thus, the topic of the passage is ‘sprains’

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is a topic sentence?
  2. Briefly explain how to identify a topic sentence in a given passage.

 

ASPECT: Vocabulary Development

TOPIC: Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Livestock)

Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fibre, and labour.  The term is often used to refer solely to those raised for food, and sometimes only farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goat.

The words listed below are related to livestock farming:

grazing breeding rearing pen cattle pen
forage methane feral rooster stable
rodeo nomad raiding tinned cage
pasture wool tending rinderpest encage
manure ranch nomadic cowherd raise
dairy bovine pastoral buck milkmaid
rancher hoof annuity feed mill feed
herder veal fodder tame shepherd

EVALUATION

  1. What is livestock?
  2. With the use of dictionary, find the meaning of the following words: bovine, ranch, rinderpest, stable, annuity, rodeo, forage, fodder, feral and wool.

 

ASPECT: STRUCTURE

TOPIC: Noun: The Structure of Noun Phrase

CONTENT:

  1. Definition of Noun and functions
  2. Definition of Noun Phrase
  3. The structures of Noun Phrase
  4. The Functions of Noun Phrase

 

What is a noun?

A noun is a naming word. It is used to refer to a person, thing or quality.

 

FUNCTIONS OF NOUNS

  1. Subject of the verb. The subject performs the action of the verb and comes before the verb. Examples: Olu ate banana yesterday.
  2. Direct Object of a verb .The direct object receives the action of the verb. Example: The driver drove a car.
  3. Indirect Object of the verb. The indirect object always answers the question ‘for/to whom’. Example: The driver drove the car to Lagos.
  4. Subject Complement. The noun here completes the first noun earlier mentioned in the same sentence. Example: Jane is my friend.
  5. Object Complement: The object complement completes the object in the sentence it is the same object. Example: They declared him a winner.
  6. Complement of a Preposition .This is required to form prepositional phrase. Example: She put the food on the table.
  7. Qualifier of another noun .In this area noun functions like an adjective. Example: I will travel during Christmas holiday
  8. Appositive: This is when a noun stands beside another noun to mean the same thing or the same person. Example: The President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is here.

 

What is a Phrase?

A phrase is a group of words which does not have a finite verb and does not make complete sense. A finite verb has subject, shows agreement and tense.

Types of phrases: The following are types of phrases:

  1. Noun phrase (headed by a noun) Examples: a boy, the student, some people, etc.
  2. Verb phrase (headed by a verb) Examples: smokes heavily, to come, would visit, etc.
  3. Adverb phrase (headed by adverb) Examples: in time, in vain, on purpose, by all means, etc.
  4. Preposition phrases (governed by preposition) Examples: in the garden, from the moon, by him, etc.
  5. Infinitive phrase (formed by placing “to” before the root verb Examples: to come, to play, to visit, etc.

 

Definition of Noun Phrase

A noun phrase, also called a nominal phrase, is a group of related words in which the main word is a noun and which functions like a noun in a sentence or clause. It is a noun or a group of words headed by a noun that can substitute for a noun in a sentence.

Examples: a blue car…

the principal…

the most dreadful road accident…

a terrible storm…

1. Determiner
Those
+ Noun
books
(Det + N)
those books
2. Pre-modifier
Popular
+ Noun
books
(Pre-mod + N
popular books
3. Determiner
Some
+ Pre-modifier
popular
+ Noun
books
(Det + Pre-mod + N)
some
popular books
4. Noun
Books
+ Post-modifier
on English
language
(N + Post-mod)
books on
English language
5. Determiner
Some
+ Noun
books
+ Post-modifier
on English
language
(Det + N + Post-mod)
some books on
English language
6. Pre-modifier
Popular
language
+ Noun
books
Post-modifier
on English
language
(Pre-mod + N
+ Post-mod)
popular books
on English
language
7. Determiner
Some
+ pre-modifier
popular
+       Noun       +
books
Post-modifier
on English
Language
(Det + Pre-mod +
N + Post-mod)
[Some popular books
on English Language]

 

EVALUATION:

  1. Define noun phrase.
  2. State these structures of noun phrase in words:

(i) Det + N

(ii) Det + N + post-mod

(iii) Pre-mod + N + post-mod

 

Functions of Noun Phrase

Noun phrase performs the following functions in the sentence:

(1). Noun Phrase as Subject: This occurs when a noun or noun phrase precedes the verb, and in some situations, is tied to the verb by an agreement of form.

Examples:

  1. A good boy deserves favour.
  2. The most dreadful road accident has happened.
  3. A terrible storm is forecast.

(2). Noun Phrase as direct object (DO): A noun phrase follows a transitive verb.

Examples:

  1. Okoro bought the book.
  2. We have some interesting new neighbours.
  3. I met a very charming woman at the party.

(3). Noun Phrase as indirect object (IO): If two nouns follow a transitive verb, one denoting the receiver and the other what was received. The first receiver is an indirect object.

Examples:

  1. He told Olu Brown the story.
  2. He gave the committee the report.

(4). Noun phrase as object complement: If a transitive verb is followed by two nouns one indicating what was affected or altered and the other indicating the result of the alteration, it is an object complement.

Examples:

  1. We elected Femi a prefect.
  2. Many of us considered her the best.

 

(5). Noun phrase as Subject complement: A single noun occurring to the right of the verb and referring to the person or thing as the subject is the subject complement.

Examples:

  1. Haruna is
  2. Odo became a doctor.

(6). Noun phrase object of preposition: A single noun ‘linked’ to some other element in a sentence by means of a preposition (for example in, on, to from, by of ,under), and immediately following the preposition, is the object of that preposition.

Examples:

  1. The trader brought his money to the bank.
  2. The box of chocolate is intended for your children.

(7). Noun phrase as appositives: If two nouns occur together and the second could substitute for the first, the second is called an appositive.

Examples:

  1. Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, the president visits Enugu.
  2. Okon, the driver is reliable.

 

EVALUATION:

  1. What is a noun phrase?
  2. State five functions of noun phrase in a sentence.

 

ASPECT: Writing Skills

SUB-TOPIC: Letter Writing – Informal Letter (Introduction)

Content:

  1. Meaning of Informal Letter
  2. Features of an Informal Letter
  3. Format for informal Letter
  4. Example of Informal Letter.

 

Meaning of Informal Letter

The informal letter is a personal or private letter.  It is a letter written to a brother, friend, sister, parent, or any close relation.  There is some familiarity and intimacy in the language. This means that the writer can employ:

  1. Conversational method.
  2. Contraction of words.
  3. Colloquial expression,
  4. Proverbs

Whatever expression that will create intimacy is permitted in informal letter.

 

Features of Informal Letter

Informal letter features include:

(a) Address written at the top right corner of the writing pad.

(b) The Date: This is written immediately below the address. Avoid writing your date in any of the following forms.

  1. 11/2/2017
  2. 11/2/17
  3. 11-2-2017
  4. 11th of January, 2017.
  5. 11th January, 2017.

The date has to be properly written as: 11th March, 2017.

(c) Salutation: This comes on the left hand corner immediately after the date.  The form depends on whom you are writing to. However, whosoever you may be writing to, the salutation should be: ‘Dear + First name’ (Dear Earnest) or ‘My dear + Dan’, ‘Dear Uncle Dan’

Avoid writing your salutation in this form:

  • ‘Dear uncle’, instead write ‘Dear Uncle’
  • ‘My dear uncle’ instead write “My dear Uncle’
  • ‘Dear father’, instead write ‘Dear Father’
  • ‘Dear Friend’ is not acceptable. It should be ‘Dear’ plus the first name of your friend.

(d) The Body of the Letter: This part should be broken into paragraphs according to the intent of the letter. The opening paragraph should reflect the intimacy between the writer and the receiver. The subsequent paragraphs should discuss the subject matter properly.

(e) Subscript or closing or complimentary close: There are different ways of writing the subscript. The most acceptable type is “Yours sincerely”

(f) Signature: Actually informal letter does not require signature per se; however, to sign off the informal letter, all that is needed is the writer’s first name.

 

INFORMAL LETTER FORMAT

Alvina’s High School,
GRA, Effurun,
Delta State
18th May, 2018.
Dear Jane,
                Body of the Letter
Yours sincerely,
John.

 

EVALUATION:

  1. What is informal Letter?
  2. State a typical example of address.

GENERAL EVALUATION

Identify the noun phrases in the following sentences and state their grammatical function

  1. I hope to win the first prize.
  2. My sister tried to solve the puzzle.
  3. The young boy wants to go home.
  4. The accused refused to answer the question.
  5. The notorious criminal has been apprehended by the police.

CONTENT

Speech Work: Vowel sounds /е/, /ʌ/, /ɜ:/, /ə/

Comprehension: Sickle Cell Disease

Vocabulary Development (Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Poultry)

Structure: Phrase: Verb Phrases.

Writing Skills: Letter Writing: Informal Letter (Formats).

 

ASPECT: Speech Work
TOPIC:  Vowel sounds: /е/, /ʌ/, /ɜ: /, /ə/

The Vowel Sound /e/:

This is a short, front, half close, spread vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the front of the tongue briefly at a position mid-way towards the close region and by keeping the lips spread. The phonetic symbol of the sound represents the sound in the table below in their respective words.

a as in the following any, many, Thames, ate, etc.
ai as in said, etc.
e as in beg, tennis, better, met, red, set, bell, peg, pen, net, etc.
ea as in zealot, dead, instead, measure, already, breath, etc.
ei as in leisure, heifer, Leicester, etc.
eo as in leopard, jeopardy, Leonard, Geoffrey, etc.
ie as in friend, etc.
ieu as in Lieutenant, etc.
u as in bury, Lansbury, etc.
ue as in guess, guest, guerrilla, etc.

Vowel /ʌ/,

This is a short central, half open, neutral vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the centre of the tongue briefly in apposition mid-way and by keeping the lips neutral. The phonetic symbol of the sound are listed in the table below with their respective word examples.

a as in Qatar, etc.
o as in colour, thorough, ton, one, love, oven, son, etc.
oe as in does, etc.
oo as in flood, blood, etc.
ou as in young, enough, touch, trouble, tough, etc.
u as in such, rub, nut, run, judge, must, punish, sun, etc.

Vowel /ɜ: /

This is a long, central, half close, neutral vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the centre of the tongue at a position mid-way toward the close region and keeping the lips neutral. The phonetic symbol of the sound are listed in the table below with their respective word examples.

ear as in learn, early, earn, dearth, pearl, earth, search, etc.
er/err as in tertiary, ergo, herb, insert, mercury, verb, her, perch, term, verb, termite, etc.
eur as in poseur, connoisseur, masseur, longueur, etc.
ere as in were, etc.
ir as in stir, dirt, firm, swirl, sir, birth, irk, virgin, etc.
or as in worse, worst, worth, worsted, world, worm, etc.
our as in journal, scourge, courtesy, courteous, journey, etc.
ur/urr as in curb, turn, blur, gurgle, burp, spur, turkey, etc
yr as in myrtle, myrmidon, etc.

Vowel /ǝ/:

This is a short, central, half open, neutral vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the centre of the tongue briefly at a position between the half close and half open levels and by keeping the lips neutral. This vowel sound is referred to as the ‘schwa’ (pronounced /ʃwa :/).  The following are the spelling symbols:

a” as in       ago
o” as in       of  (weak form)
e” as in       student
u” as in       but  (weak form)
or” as in     doctor
er” as in      mother
re” as in      centre

 

EVALUATION:

  1. Give five phonetic denotations of each of the sounds and their word examples.
  2. Write five word examples on each of the sounds.

 

ASPECT: Comprehension:

TOPIC: “Sickle Cell Disease”.

TEXT: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book1 Ibadan: University Press PLC.

Class Activity: Students should be made to read the passage before answering questions on it.

 

ASPECT: Vocabulary Development

TOPIC: Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Poultry)

What is Poultry?

A place where poultry are reared and kept; an extensive establishment for the breeding and fattening of poultry and the commercial production of eggs.

The following are lists of words related to poultry:

CLASS ACTIVITY: Students should be made to find the meanings of these words with the aid of their dictionaries.

EVALUATION: Write ten sentences using any ten from the list of the registered words.

 

liveability hatch of fertile embryo gizzard
hover cuticle cannibalism deep litter
flighty breed incubator growers
addled intensive system aviary system free range housing
stubbing deep litter coccidiostat crossbred
feed hopper cull hatchability brooding
chalazae broiler cockerel albumen
broody beak trimming dead-in-shell flighty

 

ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Phrase: Verb Phrase                               

CONTENT:

  1. Definition of verb phrase
  2. The structures of  verb phrase
  3. The Functions of verb phrase

 

Definition of Verb Phrase:

The verb phrase (VP) consists of a verb as the head, accompanied by its adjunct or auxiliary. Examples of verb phrase: ‘may do’, ‘has done’, ‘is doing’, ‘may have done’, ‘may be doing’, ‘may have been doing’.

The structure of verb phrase

The typical structure of the verb phrase consists of a main verb preceded optionally by a maximum of auxiliary verbs.  Examples:

aux 1 aux 2 aux 3 aux 4 (passive) main verb
might be studying
could have been injured
may have been being blackmailed

Forms of Verbs: Irregular Verbs

Base form (v) 3rd person (v-s) Past v-ed1 Part. v-ed2 Pres part. v-ing
eat eats ate eaten eating
hit hits hit hit hitting
take takes took taken taking
speak speaks spoke spoken speaking
teach teaches taught taught teaching
write writes wrote written writing
feed feeds fed fed feeding

Regular Verbs

Base form (v) 3rd person (v-s) Past v-ed1 Part. v-ed2 Pres part. ving
work works worked worked working
move moves moved moved moving
stay stays stayed stayed staying
add adds added added adding
walk walks walked walked walking
remain remains remained remained remaining
jump jumps jumped jumped jumping

Special Verbs

Base form (v) 3rd person (v-s) Past v-ed1 Part. v-ed2 Pres part. ving
be am, is, are was, were been being
do does did done doing
have has had had having
go goes went gone going

Note that regular verbs add‘d’ or ‘-ed’ to their unchanged based to form the past tense but irregular verbs do not.

 

Functions of verb phrase

The verb phrase (VP) has the function of a predicate in the sentence. The predicate may be defined as part of the sentence which ascribes an action, a state, or a quality to the subject. The predicate necessarily includes a verb in a finites (personal) mood.

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is verb phrase?
  2. What is the function of verb phrase in a sentence?
  3. What is the difference between regular and irregular verbs?

 

ASPECT: Writing Skills:

TOPIC: Letter writing-Informal letter (Formats)

CONTENT: Informal letter

An informal letter is a friendly and personal letter. Informal letters are usually sent to:

  1. A friend
  2. A colleague at work;
  3. A pen friend;
  4. A well-wisher; and
  5. Family members within the same age bracket.

 

Features of an informal letter

A good informal letter must have the following features:

(1). Address: A good informal letter must have a well- written address. The address is written in small letters and in a block form. An address must contain a date. Any of the following addresses could be used:

  1. Home address;
  2. School address, and
  3. Postal address.

Examples:

  Home address: 15, John Mohammed Street,
Kesting Housing Estate,
Ikeja,
Lagos State.
28th May, 2018.
School address: Jenny Schools,
No. 1 Jenny Street,
Warri,
Delta State.
2nd June, 2018.
Postal address: P.O. Box 1053,
Japo Post Office,
Kaduna,
Kaduna State.

(2). Salutation: After the address comes the salutation. The salutation is always ‘Dear ‘plus the first name of the person you are writing to. For example:

Dear Abiodun,
My dearest Ochuko,
Lola dear,

NOTE: “Dear friend” is not acceptable.

(3).  Introduction: The introduction comes after the salutation. In this section, you introduce what you are writing on. It is in this section that the recipient will know what you are writing on. The introduction can be in form of a reference to a previous letter written or received by the writer. It is in the introduction that you set the pace for what you want to write. Your introduction should not be more than one paragraph.

(4). Body: The body of the letter begins in the second paragraph. This is where you discuss extensively what you are writing on. This is the heart of your letter and it must be well- written. You are to determine the number of paragraphs. This depends on what you are asked to write on.

(5). Conclusion: This section is where you summarize what you have written in the body of the letter. It should not be more than one paragraph.

(6). Subscript: For an informal letter, the appropriate subscript is:

Yours sincerely,
The subscript is followed by a comma and the writer’s first name only.

 

NOTE: There is no apostrophe before the ‘s’ or after the ‘s’ in the subscript.

Language and tone of an informal letter:

  1. The language and tone of an informal letter is relaxed and flexible because it is a friendly letter.
  2. The grammatical rules are relaxed and the writers are free to play with words. However, good English must be written.
  3. An informal letter must be conversational. So, the following abbreviations or short forms are allowed: I’ll, I’ve, we’ve, you’ve, etc.
  4. Slang and colloquial expressions are tolerated.
  5. Generally, the tone must be friendly.

 

INFORMAL LETTER FORMAT

Jenny Schools,
No. 1 Jenny Street,
Warri,
Delta State. (Address)
2nd June, 2018. (Date)
  Dear Jane, (Salutation)
        Quite an age….. (Introductory Paragraph)
I’m……………
        I learnt………..
As they………(Body of the letter in paragraphs)
She left……..
        Really, we…….
When………..
        My regards to………. (Conclusion)
Yours sincerely, (Subscript)
James. (First name only)

 

EVALUATION:

  1. What is an informal letter?
  2. Write the format of an informal letter.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

Underline the verb phrase in each of the following sentences

  1. He has been waiting for you since yesterday.
  2. Sola is writing a book.
  3. Having been scolded before, he became more cautious
  4. We will be stopping halfway on the journey to the city.
  5. The book had been written before the advent of technology.
  6. Our projects have been developing quite slowly because of lack of funding.
  7. Shops will have started their sales by next week.
  8. It was clear that she had been contemplating leaving.
  9. He shall be punished for this, if there’s any justice.
  10. The dog is sleeping in the cage.

CONTENT

Speech work: /p/, /b/, /t/ and /d/

Comprehension/Summary: Summarising in specific number of sentences

Vocabulary Development: (words associated with Traditional Religion)

Structure: Nominalization of Adjectives

Writing Skills:: Letter Writing: Semi-Formal Letters (Introduction)

 

ASPECT: Speech Work

TOPIC: Consonants /p/, /b/, /t/ and /d/

Consonant /p/:

This is a voiceless, bilabial, oral, plosive consonant sound. It is produced by raising the soft palate so that the flow of air does not go out of the nose and by closing the two lips firmly to trap the air for a short time in the mouth. The phonetic symbol of the sound represents the sound of the following underlined letter(s) in their respective words.

p…..as in the following words: plot, peak, port, pay, pull, push, parrot, pride, soap, rope, uphold, etc.

pp… as in upper, supper, mopped, happy, schnapps, cripple, apply, ripple, disappear, appoint, etc.

ph…. as in the following words: shepherd, etc.

gh… as in the following words: hiccough, etc.

NOTE: Written letter ‘p’ is silent in the following words: cupboard, Psalter, ptomaine, psychic, raspberry, psyche, pneumonia, pseudonym, psychology, psychosis, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, pneumatic, palm, receipt, coup, corps, etc.

Consonant /b/: This is a voiced, biblical, oral, plosive consonant sound. It is produced by raising the soft palate so that the flow of air does not go out of the nose and by closing the two lips firmly to trap the air for a short time in the mouth. The phonetic symbol of the sound represents the sound of the following underlined letter(s) in their respective words.

b as in the following words: bad, beat, boy, slab, crumble, crab, rib, box, bat, husband, but, etc.

bb as in the following words: rabbit, jabber, rabble, rabbi, dabble, bubble, gabble, robber, etc.

NOTES:

  1. When letter ‘b’ is followed by the letter ‘t’ at the end of a word or syllable, it is silent as in the following words: debt, subtle, doubt, debtor, etc.
  2. When letter ‘b’ is preceded by the letter ‘m’ at the end of a word or syllable it is silent as in the following words: lamb, tomb, comb, thumb, womb, limb, climb, plumb, plumber, dumb, bomber, numb, crumb, rhomb, succumb, bomb-shell, numbskull, numbly, etc.

EXCEPTION: the following words are exception to the above rule: slumber, limber, timber, December etc.

Consonant /t/: This is a voiceless, alveolar, oral, plosive consonant sound. It is produced by raising the soft palate so that the flow of air does not go out of the nose and by pressing the tip of the tongue firmly against the alveolar to trap the air behind them for a short time. The phonetic symbol of the sound represents the sound of the following underlined letter(s) in their respective words.

d as in the following words: width, apartheid, breadth, etc.

t as in the following words: top, team, meat, set, tea, tell, lent, bit, bet, talk, technique, etc

tt as in the following words: betting, letter, kettle, putting, rotten, battalion, mattress, cigarette, buttocks, ghetto, etc.

th (in some proper nouns) as in the following words: Thomas, Thames, Anthony, Thyme, Theresa, Thompson, Thailand, etc.

-ed  (past tense marker preceded by any of the following voiceless sounds /p/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, or /Ɵ/, as in the following words: slapped, tasked, drenched, capped, raced, developed, bluffed, clinched, asked, looked, kicked, jumped, worked, laughed, cursed, hissed, etc.

Consonant /d/: This is a voiced, alveolar, oral, plosive consonant sound. It is produced by raising the soft palate to cover the naval cavity so that the flow of air does not go out of the nose and by pressing the tip of the tongue firmly against the alveolar to trap the air behind them for a short time. The phonetic symbol of the sound represents the sound of the following underlined letter(s) in their respective words.

d as in the following words: deep, hard, rider, code, dig, friend, dog, seed, dull, bad, amend, etc.

dd as in the following words: pudding, Buddha, daddy, riddle, adding, muddle, wedding, saddle, etc.

-ed (past tense marker preceded by a vowel sound or any of the following consonant sounds /t/, /d/, /b/, /g/, /v/, /ð/, /z/, /ӡ/, /dӡ/, /m/, /n/, /ɳ/, /l/ as in the following words: completed, excluded, judged, begged, wedded, warned, feared, warmed, cheated, nabbed, etc.

 

ASPECT: Comprehension/Summary

TOPIC: Summarizing in specified number of sentences

Reference Book: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book1 Ibadan: University Press PLC. Pages 53-54

 

Class Activities: Students are instructed to read the short passage and answer the question on it. The educator leads them to answer the summary question correctly.

ASPECT: Vocabulary Development

TOPIC: Exercise on Agriculture Register (Unit 9 page 67).

Reference Book: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book1 Ibadan: University Press PLC. Page 67

Class Activities: Students are to fill the missing gaps in the passage with the right words from the options.

ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Nominalization of adjectives

What is nominalization in the first place?  Nominalization is the term used to describe the change of a verb or an adjective into a noun. Therefore, nominalization of adjectives is changing a word in the adjective form to noun that is, turning it to a noun. It is the grammatical process of changing from one form class to another. Examples:

Adjectives Noun
Wise Wisdom
Long Length
Broad Breadth
Deep Depth
Beautiful Beauty
Angry Anger
Attractive Attraction
Sweet Sweetness
Safe Safety
Dark Darkness

 

Adjectives are often used as nouns in various ways. Examples are:

  1. As plural nouns denoting some abstract quality; as

The cautious (=cautious persons) are not always cowards.
The rich (=rich people) know not how the poor (=poor people) live.

The wicked (=wicked people) flee when no man pursues, but the righteous (=righteous people) are as bold as lion.

Blessed are the meek (=meek person).

  1. As singular nouns denoting some abstract quality; as,

The future (futurity) is unknown to us.

He is a lover of the beautiful (=beauty in general).

  1. Some adjectives actually become nouns, and are hence used in both numbers:-

(a) Those derived from proper nouns; as, Australians, Canadians, and Italians etc.

(b) Some denoting persons; as, juniors, seniors, mortals, inferiors, superiors, nobles, criminals, savages, elders, minors, etc.

(c) A few denoting things generally; as, secrets, totals, liquids, solids, valuables.

  1. In certain phrases; as, in general; in future; in short; in secret; before long; at present; for good; at best; through thick and thin; for better or for worse; in black and white; right or wrong; from bad to worse; the long and the short; etc.

 

EVALUATION:

  1. Form adjectives from the following nouns: courage, terror, victory, fool, wonder, gold, harm, wood, justice, and favour.
  2. Use the nominalized words above in sentences.

 

ASPECT: Writing

TOPIC: Semi-formal letter

A semi-formal letter is not totally formal, neither is it completely informal. The receiver of the letter here is known to the writer yet occupies a position of authority. The examples of semi-formal letters are: Letters to the writer’s school Principal, teachers, Chairman of Parent-Teacher Association, President of old Students’ Association, Church Pastor, Imam, family friend(his father’s or mother’s friend), etc.

There are two approaches to writing a semi-formal letter. They are:

Method 1

(a) Two addresses- the writer’s address plus the date, the designation (e.g. the Principal, etc.) and full address of the receiver.

(b) (i) Salutation- Sir or Dear Sir (for a school Principal, Pastor, P.T.A. Chairman, President old students’ association).
(ii) Dear Mr/Mrs Olanrewaju (for one’s teacher, father’s or mother’s friend, etc.).
(iii) Dear Imam, Dear Pastor, etc.

(c) Next is a suitable title.

(d) Introductory paragraph.

(e) Body/contents of the letter (in good paragraphs).

(f) Conclusion

(g) Ending-Yours faithfully, signature of the writer and his first name and surname

Method 2

(a) One’s address- the writer’s address and date.

(b) Salutation (as above).

(c) No title here

(d) Introductory paragraph

(e) Body/contents well-paragraphed

(f) Conclusion

(g) Ending: either of the two below will do here.

Yours sincerely,

Akinyinka Omoniyi.

 

EVALUATION:

  1. What is a semi-formal letter?
  2. Mention the steps in writing semi-formal letters and explain.

 

ASSIGNMENT

Letter Writing: You are about to leave school after spending six years as a student. Write a letter to the principal, expressing your candid views on the strengths and weakness of the school and giving suggestions for improvement. (S.S.C.E., June 1994)

CONTENT                                                           

Speech Work: Consonants /k/, /g/, /s/, /z/

Comprehension: Oliha’s Embarrassment

Vocabulary Development (words associated with Home and Family)

Structure: Nominalization of Verbs

Writing Skills: Letter writing- Semi-Formal letters (Language).

 

ASPECT: Speech Work

TOPIC: Consonants /k/,/g/,/s/,/z/

/k/ – This consonant, which is a voiceless velar plosive, has many spelling symbols as shown below:

‘k’ – king, keep, kit.

‘c’ – cat, cap, catch.

‘cc’ – account, accuse, accost.

‘ch’ – chemical, chemistry, school.

‘q’ – queen, liquor, quack.

‘ck’ – back, lack, peck.

‘x’ – anxious, six, axe.

The sound can occur at the initial, medial and final position as shown below:

Initial Medial Final
cholera occasion neck
kettle succumb hook
chemical accuse bark
chemist occupy break
quick acquit stomach
chaos acquire thick
chemistry local lack
Christ market black
king liquid lick
key aquarium peck

The ‘k’ is usually not pronounced before ‘n’ at the beginning of words like ‘know’, ‘knot’, ‘knock’, ‘know’, ‘knight’, ‘knee’, ‘knowledge’, ‘knit’.

/g/ – This consonant, a voiced velar plosive, has the following spelling symbols:

‘g’ – get, gum, gut, dog, leg, sag, tug, mug.

‘gg’ – begger, digger, trigger.

‘gh’ – ghost, ghastly, afghan, aghast, ghetto.

The sound can occur at the initial, medial and final position as shown below:

Initial Medial Final
ghee legal big
goggle August pig
giggle language dog
Ghana anguish brag
gate lagging rug
guava struggle plug
goat begin league
goal forgive rig
guest tiger vague
good eager log
  /k/ /g/
 cane gain
call gall
could good
cold gold
kilt guilt
pick pig
peck peg
lack lag
duck dug
leak league

 

/s/ – This consonant, a voiceless alveolar fricative, has the following spelling symbols as it occurs at the initial and final positions:

‘s’ – sit, seat, song, some.

‘sc’ – science, scissors, obscene, muscle.

‘c’ – cease, cinema, civilian, civilize.

‘ss’ – kiss, miss, piss, press.

‘x’ – axe, six, xmas, x-ray.

‘ce ’- race, pace, peace, advice.

‘se’ – loose, decease.

The sound can occur at the initial, medial and final position as shown below:

Initial Medial Final
cede beside fence
city precedent force
scarce precede vice
ceiling presence rice
cease assail dress
sailor massive kiss
seal assault hiss
seed professor across
Sunday assimilate mess
sawn assign progress

This‘s’ is usually silent in the following words: aisle, isle, island, demesne, debris, viscount, viscounts, corps, rendezvous, précis, fracas, etc.

 

/z/ – This consonant, a voiced alveolar fricative sound, has the following spelling symbols:

‘z’ – zip, zoom, zombie, zero, zebra, fez, ooze.

‘s’ – fees, nose, kings, bees, has, busy, music.

‘zz’ – buzz, muzzle, fuzz, fuzzy.

‘x’ – exact, example, examination, anxiety.

‘se’ – muse, cruise, tease, please, lose, advise.

The sound can occur at the initial, medial and final positions as shown below:

Initial Medial Final
zeal husband sins
zinc pleasant wins
zero easy pigs
zoom prison digs
zonal disease rooms
zealous thousand has
zenith nozzle buzz
zebra blizzard jazz
zip buzzard seize
xerox Jesus breeze

The following pairs of words show the contrast between /s/ and /z/:

  /s/ /z/
sip zip
said zed
seal zeal
soon zoon
sink zinc
use (noun) use (verb)
house (noun) house (verb)
place plays
loose lose
hence hens

 

ASPECT: COMPREHENSION/VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

TOPIC: Oliha’s Embarrassment

TEXT: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book 1  Ibadan: University Press PLC.

Class Activities: Students should be made to read the passage before answering questions on it.

EVALUATION: NOSEC. SSBK1 Exercise 1 (Questions a-g) Pages 26-27

 

ASPECT: Vocabulary Development

TOPIC: Words associated with Home and Family (NOSEC. Pg.75)

Reference Book: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book1 Ibadan: University Press PLC. Page 75

Class Activities: Students are to fill the missing gaps in the passage with the right words from the options.

EVALUATION:

  1. What is a family?
  2. Say the meaning of the underlined words in the above passage.

 

ASSIGNMENT: Find the meaning of the following words and use each of them in sentences:  monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, kinship, bigamy and polygyny

 

ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Nominalisation of Verbs

In English language, nominalisation occurs when we form noun from adjectives, verbs and even other nouns.

What are the processes involved in nominalising words from other word classes? When you add a letter or a group of letters called suffixes to the end of a word, the status of the word will change.

A group of letters added to words is referred to generally as affixes. The ones added at the front of a word are known as prefixes, while suffixes are the ones added at the end of the word.

Another word for affixes (suffixes and prefixes) is ‘bound morphemes’. Morphemes refer to words, and ‘bound’ means they cannot stand alone.

Here is a list of suffixes we can use to form nouns from verbs with sentences examples in the table below:

Suffix Verb Noun
-al Propose Proposal
He presented what he proposed. He gave them his proposal.
-age Wreck Wreckage
The rioters also wrecked
many stalls in the market.
The wreckage caused by
the rioters involved many
stalls.
-ure Mix Mixture
The maid will mix what the
baby will drink.
The maid will give the
baby her mixture to drink.
-ment Punish Punishment
The principal does not want
to punish the homework defaulters.
The principal does not want
to give the homework defaulters
any punishment.
-tion Mobilise Mobilisation
The exercise was needed
to mobilise the staff.
It was a mobilisation
exercise meant for the staff.
-ce Offend Offence
He did not offend his friend. He did not commit any
offence.
-ry Injure Injury
Roy was injured seriously
during the match.
Roy’s injury was serious
during the match.
-nce Tolerate Tolerance
They could not tolerate the
noise very much.
Their tolerance for the
noise was not very much.
-our Behave Behaviour
Teachers were impressed with
the way he behaved.
His behaviour impressed
the teachers.
-ster Trick Trickster
He is now known because of
how he tricks people.
He is now known as
a trickster.

EVALUATION

Change the following verbs to nouns and provide two sentences for each – one with the verb and the other with the noun.

  1. tolerate
  2. perform
  3. behave
  4. mock
  5. interview
  6. oblige
  7. serve
  8. fail
  9. trick
  10. pass

 

ASPECT: Writing Skill

TOPIC: Letter Writing – Semi-Formal Letter

Semi-formal letters are letters we write to our adult relations or adults of good social standing known to us. Semi-formal letters are neither too formal nor too informal. They are in-between the two types, bearing some features of each.

Features of Semi-formal letter

  1. A semi-formal letter has a respectful tone.
  2. Colloquialism is used to the barest minimum.
  3. The language is direct.

AN EXAMPLE OF A SEMI-FORMAL LETTER

You are about to leave school after spending six years as a student. Write a letter to the principal, expressing your candid views on the strengths and weaknesses of the school and giving suggestions for improvement. (S.S.C.E., June 1994)

Outline

Paragraph 1: Introductory paragraph.

Remark: Two of the strengths/areas of achievements or progress of the school.

Paragraph 2: Good performances in extra-curricular activities, e.g. sports and competitions.

Paragraph 3: Adequate human and material resources available.

Remark: Two areas of weaknesses or failures of the school:

Paragraph 4: Indiscipline among the students.

Paragraph 5: Students’ poor academic performances.

Paragraph 6: Conclusion – suggestions for improvement.

EVALUATION:  Using the outline given above, write an essay of about 450 words on the above question.

GENERAL EVALUATION

Identify five words related to animal husbandry, use your dictionary to find their meaning and use them in sentences of your own.

 

ASSIGNMENT: The poor state of facilities in your campus is causing the students great concern. As the Senior Prefect, write a letter to the Chairman of the National Education Committee highlighting the problems and requesting him to come to the aid of the school.

CONTENT

Speech Work: Consonant Sounds /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /θ/,/ð/

Comprehension/Summary: More about Identifying the Topic Sentence in a Passage

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Religion (Christianity)

Structure: Introduction to Irregular Verbs

Writing Skills: Record Keeping (Introduction).

 

ASPECT: Speech Work

TOPIC: Consonants /ʃ/,/ʒ/,//θ/,/ð/ /

 

/ʃ/ – This consonant, a voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, has many spelling symbols.

‘sh’ – shop, sharp, push, dish.

‘s’ – sugar, sure, pretension.

‘sc’ – conscience.

‘c’ – ocean, special, official.

‘ch’ – machine, moustache, champagne, chagrin.

‘ti’ – patience, mention, question.

‘ss’ – mission, passion, pressure.

The sound can occur at the initial, medial and final positions as shown below:

Initial Medial Final
chef passion cash
chivalry Russian push
chevron crucial bash
chagrin nation squash
chalet edition polish
shoe tissue fish
short Asia wash
sugar fashion creche
shop mission Irish
shore education rubbish

/ʒ/ – This consonant, a voiced palato-alveolar fricative sound, occurs at the medial position. It has the following spelling symbols:

‘s’ – usual, leisure, measure, treasure, casual.

‘z’ – seizure.

‘si’ – vision, cohesion, erosion, evasion, decision.

‘ge’ – prestige, beige, genre, rouge, camouflage.

It is important to note that /ʒ/ does not usually occur at the beginning or end of a word except in a few words of French origin. Examples of such words are given below:

Initial Final
gigolo barrage
genre garage
gigue camouflage

All these are English words but are borrowed from French.

The following words are where / occurs at the medial position:

usual, measure, seizure, cohesion, erosion, vision, leisure, evasion, decision, confusion.

The following words show the contrast between /ʃ/ and /ʒ/:

/ʃ/ /ʒ/
mission vision
mention erosion
fashion fusion
ensure leisure
digression diffusion
confession confusion
marshal casual

 

/θ/ – This consonant, a voiceless dental fricative, has ‘th’ as the only spelling symbol. It occurs at the initial, medial and final positions in words as shown below:

Initial Medial Final
thank everything pith
thorn anything path
through Catholic oath
thick author earth
think Ethel cloth
thin Martha moth
thief Agatha north
third Arthur both
thought earthy wrath
theme method breath

Note that ‘th’ is silent in asthma and isthmus.

 

/ – This consonant, a voiced dental fricative sound, has only ‘th’ as spelling symbol, e.g. than, that, this, those, thee, bathe, writhe, loathe, soothe, clothe.

It occurs at the initial, medial and final positions in words as shown below:

Initial Medial Final
they rather bequeath
the further with
thus wither booth
then mother smooth
thy father seethe
those brother soothe
these neither loathe
though worthy swathe
their leather breathe
there soothing bathe

The following words show the contrast between /θ/ and /ð/:

/θ/ /ð/
anthem either
lengthy worthy
author father
method mother
ether further
growth loather
tooth smooth
bath bathe
breath breathe
cloth clothe

 

ASPECT: Comprehension/Summary

TOPIC: Summarizing in specified number of sentences

Reference Book: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book 1 Ibadan: University Press PLC. Pages 53-54

 

Class Activities: Students are instructed to read the short passage and answer the question on it. The educator leads them to answer the summary question correctly.

EVALUATION: Find the meaning of the following words and use each of them in sentences: cathedral, vestry, sacred, desecrate, clergy and sanctify.

ASSIGNMENT: NOSEC. SSBK1 (Exercise 2, page 39.)

ASPECT: Vocabulary Development

TOPIC: Words associated with Religion (Christianity) (NOSEC. Pg.82)

Reference Book: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book 1 Ibadan: University Press PLC. Page 81-82

Class Activities: Students are to fill the missing gaps in the passage with the right words from the options.

EVALUATION:

  1. Define the word, ‘Christianity’
  2. Say the meaning of the underlined words in the above passage.
  3. Find the meaning of the following words and use each of them in sentences:  monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, kinship, bigamy and polygyny

 

ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Introduction to Irregular Verbs

Verbs can be regular or irregular. A regular verb always takes –ed inflection in both their simple past and –ed participle forms.

Irregular verbs do not obey the rules which apply to regular verbs. They deviate from the pattern of adding -ed or -d to the infinitive form to form the past tense and past participle forms.

Categories of Irregular Verbs

  1. Those that have the same form as the infinitive form in the past tense and past participle forms. Examples: bet, cut, put, burst,
  2. Another category includes those irregular verbs which have two past tenses and two past participles, the past tenses having the same forms as the past participles. Examples: spoil, learn, dwell,
  3. There are some irregular verbs which have past tenses that never end in -ed and which have the same form as that of the past participles. Examples: bend, build, dig, feel, etc.
  4. Another category includes irregular verbs which have regular past tense forms ending in -ed or -d and two possible past participles, one of which is regular and the same as the past tense. Examples: mow, prove, sew,
  5. Some irregular verbs have past tenses and past participles which are different from each other and different from the infinitive. Examples: bear, begin, bite,

 

Examples of irregular verbs are given in the table below:

Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
Bet Bet Bet
Burst Burst Burst
Split Split Split
Bend Bent Bent
Lay Laid Laid
Leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped
wind Wound wound
Bite Bit Bitten
choose chose Chosen
freeze froze Frozen

Examples:

  1. He has drunk liquor.
  2. The iron has melted.
  3. The clock has struck five.
  4. The ship has sunk.
  5. The iron has melted.

 

ASPECT: Writing Skill

TOPIC: Introduction to Record Keeping

A record is simply a written account, or an electronically captured account of a happening or an event that is preserved for future reference.

Types of Records

Records are documents that can be kept in three ways. The type or form a record takes depends on a number of factors such as time, size and purpose of keeping it. The three types are:

  1. Graphic Records: These are records kept in written or printed form. Examples include most historical documents, constitutions, legal documents, medical records, photographs and official documents such as minutes and reports.
  2. Audio Records: These are electronically captured speeches. By this means, we can still listen to great personalities like Chief Obafemi Awolowo, Dr Nnamdi Azikwe and Alhaji Tafawa Balewa who died many years ago.
  3. Audio-visual Records: These records keep both the speeches and actions of the event recorded. Usually, journalists with television stations keep such records. Weddings, naming ceremonies, burials, convocations, swearing-in-ceremonies, etc.are nowadays kept as audio-visual records.

 

Importance of Records and Record Keeping

Records are very important documents. Below are some reasons why we need to keep records:

  1. We obtain information about the past events from such records.
  2. They guide us in understanding the present
  3. They provide useful evidence in the settling of disputes.
  4. They enable us to plan for the future.
  5. They give us helpful hints about how to prevent or manage crises.

Personal and Official Records

Records can be further divided into personal and official records. Personal records consist of documents such as a person’s birth certificate, a personal diary an autobiography, a marriage certificate, receipts of purchases, counterfoils of financial transactions, an international passport, utility bills, letters of admission, employment and promotion, as well as academic and professional certificates.

Official records are documents belonging to the government, organisations or societies. They are corporate documents. They include certificates of registration, registers, scheme of work, minutes, reports, log books, school diary, bulletin, gazette, etc.

Language of Records

Records are to be written in a simple, easy-to-understand language. Their choice of words, clarity of expression and style must be precise and consistent. Records are to be as accurate as possible, without adding to or subtracting from the event recorded. If a record contains a false account or exaggerated claims, it s not a reliable record.

 

EVALUATION

  1. How were records kept before the invention of writing and electronic gadgets? Mention two of them.
  2. Which of the three modern ways of documenting events do you consider to be the best, and why?
  3. Write a record of important events that took place in your school last week.

 

Speech Work: Consonants /j/ /w/ and /l/

Structure: Regular Verbs

Comprehension: The Yam Festival

Writing Skills: Record Keeping

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Religion (Islam)

 

 

ASPECT: Speech Work

TOPIC: Consonants /j/, /w/ and /l/

/l/

This consonant is an alveolar lateral. This implies that the tip of the tongue must articulate with the alveolar ridge for its production. This consonant occurs as follows:-

Initial Middle End
late mellow spittle
laughter afflict heal
love yellow fall
lust allow call
lime select seal
least uplift deal
loquacious inlet

/w/

This is an bilabial approximant sound.  This means that the two lips are involved in its articulation. It occurs in three ways: ‘w’ as in ‘wet’, ‘wh’ as in ‘wheat’ and ‘qu’ as in ‘quiet’. Study the following examples:

Initial Middle End
wallow inwardly allow
Wet disquiet disallow
War swear how
when swell cow
Wit dwell bow
waste dwarf

/j/

Like /w/ this sound is also a bilabial approximant–the two lips are involved in its production. Also together with /w/ it is a ‘glide’ because the tongue assumes a peculiar position in its articulation. It is seen in the following sounds:

yeast new
year queue
yarn fuse
yard yet
yoghurt young
huge human

EVALUATION:

(1) Identify and underline the place where any of the three consonants you have studied occurs in the following.

  1. belittle
  2. attune
  3. humid
  4. squeal
  5. squelch
  6. swim
  7. pool
  8. oral

(2) Briefly describe how the three consonant sounds are produced.

 

ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Regular Verbs

Verbs are classified into regular and irregular verbs. Most verbs are said to be regular because they are formed according to grammatical rules of word formation.Regular verbs, are occasionally known as weak verbs. They are described as regular because they obey certain rules, especially regarding the forming of tenses. Regular verbs obey the following such rules:

  1. Regular verbs add the ending -s to the base or infinitive form of the verb, as in walk, play and look, to form the third person singular of the present tense, as in:

he walks, it plays, she looks, etc.

While the rest of the present tense is formed by using just the base or infinitive form, as in:

I walk, you play, they look, etc.

The present participle of regular verbs is formed by adding the ending -ing to the base form, as in: walking, playing, looking, etc.

If the base form ends in –e the e is usually omitted before the -ing ending is added, as in:

hating, loving, loathing, etc.

  1. Regular verbs add the ending -ed to the base (or the ending -d if the base form already ends in –e) to form the past tense. This applies to all persons, as in:

(i) I walked.

(ii) They played.

(iii) You killed.

(iv) He worked.

(v) She loved.

(vi) They hated.

In the following sentences the underlined words all form examples of regular verbs:

  1. You rarely smile.
  2. She walked slowly.
  3. You all seemed so sad.
  4. We laugh a lot.
  5. They look happy.
  6. He plays tennis.
  7. She reads crime fiction.
  8. She is looking pale.
  9. It rains every day.
  10. She loathed her boss.
  11. He looked at the view from the window.

EVALUATION:

  1. Why are some verbs said to be regular?
  2. Indicate the past tense of the following and use them in sentences (i) look (ii) clap (iii) jump (iv) save (v) plot

 

ASPECT: COMPREHENSION

TOPIC: Comprehension: The Yam Festival

Class Activity: The educator should lead the class in the reading of this passage. He/she should distribute the reading among various students and emphasis/look out for the following:

  1. Pronunciation
  2. Comportment
  3. Recognition of key words
  4. Meanings of key words
  5. Understanding of the passage
  6. Appreciation
  7. Ability to answer the test or assigned questions

EVALUATION – NOSEC. SSBK1 (Exercise a-f. Pages 33-34)

 

ASPECT: Writing Skills

TOPIC: Record Keeping

A record is a written account of the proceedings of an event (like a campus inter-house sports competition, a court proceeding). It is also a collection of related items of information treated as a unit. Records are kept for accuracy and reference sake. Such records must be devoid of irrelevant details and must be stored in such a way that retrieval (recovery)is easy when needed. Examples of records are:

  1. Diaries
  2. Registers
  3. Visitors Book
  4. Scheme of Work
  5. Log Book
  6. Record of events

However, the emphasis here should be on events/things with which students are familiar. Students should be encouraged to keep diaries detailing personal, familiar, school or even family events and should be called upon to write from the facts therein once in a while.

The students should be guided on how to narrate such events and put them into writing, following an approved format or detail.

EVALUATION:

The class should embark on an excursion or trip together. Thereafter, the students will be required to write on such visits from their diaries. Guidelines on length and language should be given.

 

ASPECT: Vocabulary Development

TOPIC: Words Associated with Religion (Islam)

Reference Book: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book1 Ibadan: University Press PLC. Pages 82 and 98

Class Activities: Students are to fill the missing gaps in the passage with the right words from the options.

 

EVALUATION:

  1. Define the word, ‘Islam’
  2. Attempt the objective questions on pg. 98

The educator should discuss the meanings of these words with the class. The children should come to class with their dictionaries.

GENERAL EVALUATION:

  1. State five examples of regular verbs with their past tense and past participle aspects.
  2. Write two examples each of words containing the three consonant sounds you studied this week.

 

 

 

 

error: Content is protected !!