Write briefly on the following terms :
(a) A one-tailed test.
(b) Systematic Sampling
(c) A Two-tailed test
(d) Cluster sampling
(e) accidental/ haphazard sampling
(a) A One-Tailed Test: A one-tailed test, also known as a one-sided test, is a statistical hypothesis test that examines whether a sample’s result falls significantly above or below a specific value. It focuses on only one direction of the distribution. For example, in a one-tailed test, we might be interested in whether a new drug increases test scores, without considering whether it might decrease them.
(b) Systematic Sampling: Systematic sampling is a method of sampling in which every nth item in a population is selected for inclusion in the sample. It involves choosing a random starting point and then selecting every nth item from that point onwards. This technique can be efficient and practical for large populations, as it maintains some randomness while ensuring coverage of the entire population.
(c) A Two-Tailed Test: A two-tailed test, also known as a two-sided test, is a statistical hypothesis test that checks whether a sample’s result falls significantly away from a specific value in either direction of the distribution. It is used when we are interested in detecting differences or effects in either direction, not just one. For example, in testing whether a new treatment affects patient recovery time, we might want to know if it’s both faster and slower, not just faster.
(d) Cluster Sampling: Cluster sampling involves dividing a population into clusters or groups, and then randomly selecting entire clusters to form the sample. This method is useful when it’s difficult or expensive to gather data from every individual in the population. It can provide a representative sample if the clusters are similar to each other within and diverse between.
(e) Accidental/Haphazard Sampling: Accidental or haphazard sampling is a non-random sampling method where individuals who are readily available or easy to reach are selected for the sample. This method can introduce bias, as those who participate might not represent the broader population accurately. It’s not recommended for rigorous research, but it might be used in preliminary investigations.
Explain Educational Statistics
- In a one-tailed test, the focus is on only __________ direction of the distribution. a) Neither b) One c) Both
- Systematic sampling involves selecting every __________ item from a population for inclusion in the sample. a) Random b) Second c) nth
- A two-tailed test examines whether a sample’s result falls significantly away from a specific value in __________ direction(s) of the distribution. a) Only one b) Either direction c) Both directions
- In cluster sampling, the population is divided into __________ and entire clusters are randomly selected for the sample. a) Individuals b) Sub-populations c) Quartiles
- Accidental/haphazard sampling selects individuals based on __________ or availability. a) Randomization b) Proximity c) Convenience
- A one-tailed test is often used when we have a specific __________ about the direction of an effect. a) Hypothesis b) Question c) Assumption
- Systematic sampling maintains some __________ while ensuring coverage of the entire population. a) Bias b) Randomness c) Replication
- A two-tailed test is appropriate when we want to detect differences or effects in __________ directions. a) Only one b) Either direction c) Both directions
- Cluster sampling can be practical when the population is __________ and geographically dispersed. a) Homogeneous b) Small c) Diverse
- Accidental/haphazard sampling can introduce __________ as those who participate might not represent the population accurately. a) Randomness b) Bias c) Validity
- A one-tailed test might be used when we’re interested in whether a new method performs __________ the existing method. a) Similarly to b) Worse than c) Better than
- In systematic sampling, the first item is selected __________ and subsequent items are chosen at regular intervals. a) At random b) Conveniently c) Arbitrarily
- A two-tailed test is essential when we want to remain __________ to the possibility of effects in either direction. a) Open-minded b) Biased c) Confident
- Cluster sampling can be efficient when the clusters are __________ within and diverse between. a) Similar b) Identical c) Different
- Accidental/haphazard sampling is not recommended for rigorous research due to its potential lack of __________. a) Validity b) Replication c) Flexibility
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