Before the Greeks began to influence Roman education, the early Roman educational system was primarily informal and practical. Education was imparted within the family and focused on teaching essential life skills such as farming, cooking, and craftsmanship. This education was tailored to equip individuals with the necessary skills for survival and contributing to their community.

During this period, education was largely limited to the upper echelons of society. The Roman aristocracy saw value in providing their children with a more structured education, which included learning to read, write, and basic arithmetic. These skills were taught by private tutors or slaves known as “pedagogues.” This emphasis on education for the elite aimed to prepare them for roles in leadership, administration, and public life.

The curriculum during this early Roman educational system was primarily practical and oriented towards producing capable citizens. The education of the time didn’t include the philosophical and artistic elements that the Greeks would later bring to Roman education. Instead, the focus was on cultivating virtues like discipline, loyalty, and courage, which were highly valued in Roman society.

In summary, before the Greeks’ influence, the Roman educational system was largely informal, practical, and restricted to the upper classes. The arrival of Greek culture and ideas would significantly impact Roman education, introducing elements of philosophy, literature, and intellectual pursuits that would shape the educational landscape of ancient Rome in the centuries to come.





  1. Informal and Practical: Education in early Rome was informal and practical, focusing on essential life skills such as farming, cooking, and craftsmanship.
  2. Family-Centered: Education was primarily imparted within families, with parents passing down skills and knowledge to their children.
  3. Limited Access: Education was mostly reserved for the upper class and aristocracy, emphasizing their roles in leadership and administration.
  4. Private Tutors: Wealthy families hired private tutors or slaves, known as “pedagogues,” to teach basic skills like reading, writing, and arithmetic.
  5. Life Skills: The curriculum centered around skills that contributed to survival and community life, preparing individuals for practical roles.
  6. Character Building: Education focused on cultivating virtues like discipline, loyalty, and courage, which were essential in Roman society.
  7. Elite Preparation: Education for the aristocracy aimed to groom them for leadership roles, particularly in public and administrative functions.
  8. Lack of Greek Influence: Before the Greeks’ arrival, Roman education lacked the philosophical and artistic elements that would later shape it.
  9. Limited Intellectual Pursuits: The curriculum did not include the philosophical discussions and literary studies that the Greeks would introduce.
  10. Greek Impact: The eventual arrival of Greek culture and ideas would significantly transform Roman education, introducing new intellectual dimensions that would shape the course of Roman history



Also note that

  1. Agrarian Focus: With the Greek influence, Roman education shifted to accommodate the predominantly agrarian society. Boys were primarily educated in farming practices, farm management, and the supervision of slave labor in agricultural activities.
  2. Family-Centered Education: The family remained central in Roman life. Parents, particularly the father, played a crucial role in educating their children, at least until the age of 16 when a boy was considered a man. Both parents participated in education, and the mother’s influence extended beyond the early years.
  3. Ancestral Respect: Unlike Greek education emphasizing chivalry, Roman education highlighted an unquestioned respect for ancestral customs. Given the Roman pantheon of gods, children were taught to respect and learn about ancestral figures. This loyalty extended to the state and great national ancestors, fostering reverence for tradition.
  4. Moral and Virtuous Education: Roman education had a strong moral component, instilling rural virtues, prudent management of one’s heritage, austerity, and frugality. Sons of nobles were taught to lead practical lives rather than extravagant ones, while commoners were taught resourcefulness.
  5. Military Preparedness: Reflecting Rome’s role as a nation of both small farmers and soldiers, physical training played a significant role in education. However, this training wasn’t for self-realization or competitive sports, but for military readiness. Boys were trained in the use of arms and military functions.

These points collectively shed light on how Roman education evolved after the Greek influence, emphasizing agricultural skills, familial roles, ancestral respect, moral values, and military training as integral components of the educational system. This combination of practical skills, cultural reverence, and martial readiness played a crucial role in shaping Roman society during this era.


A set of 30 people were asked how many coins they had in thier pockets and the following results were obtained : No. Of Coins = 0-4, 5-7, 8-10, 11-12. No. Of people = 6, 8, 8, 8. Find the mean of the coins.






Certainly, here are 15 fill-in-the-blank questions based on the provided text:

1. The Roman education system focused on predominantly _______________ lifestyles.
a) aristocratic
b) agrarian
c) artistic

2. Boys in Roman education were primarily trained in _______________ skills.
a) philosophical
b) farming
c) artistic

3. The center of Roman life was the _______________.
a) city
b) family
c) state

4. Parents, particularly the _______________, played a significant role in education.
a) siblings
b) father
c) neighbors

5. Roman education emphasized respect for _______________.
a) foreign customs
b) ancestral customs
c) modern trends

6. The Roman child was taught to respect and learn about _______________.
a) contemporary leaders
b) ancestral figures
c) foreign cultures

7. Roman education aimed to instill loyalty and devotion to the _______________.
a) individual
b) state
c) extended family

8. Education in Roman society had a strong focus on _______________ virtues.
a) urban
b) rural
c) aristocratic

9. Sons of nobles were encouraged to live a _______________ life.
a) extravagant
b) isolated
c) prudent

10. Roman boys were trained in the use of _______________.
a) musical instruments
b) arms
c) farming tools

11. Physical training in Roman education was oriented towards _______________.
a) competitive sports
b) self-realization
c) military preparedness

12. The role of the _______________ extended beyond the early years in Roman education.
a) father
b) mother
c) pedagogue

13. The traditional Romans were worshippers of _______________ gods.
a) a few
b) many
c) no

14. Roman education emphasized an unquestioned respect for _______________.
a) modern customs
b) foreign ideas
c) ancestral customs

15. Roman education aimed to inculcate a sense of _______________ and frugality.
a) extravagance
b) austerity
c) luxury