JSS 2 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE BASIC SCIENCE

BASIC SCIENCE 

JSS 2

 

WEEKS                                          TOPICS                                                                                                              

  1.                           LIVING THINGS (HABITAT)
  2.                           ADAPTATION OF LIVING THINGS TO THEIR HABITAT
  3.                           RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIVING ORGANISM S IN THEIR                                                                                        

                                     HABITAT                                                                                                                                                                         

  1.                           UNIQUENESS  OF HUMAN BEINGS             

       5 .                         MEASUREMENT OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 

  1.                         HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 1

       7&8.                      HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 2

  1.                         BODY IMAGE 1
  2.                       BODY IMAGE 2  

 

WEEK       1     

 

HABITAT OF LIVING THINGS

This coral reef in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area is a rich habitat for sea life.

Few creatures make the ice shelves of Antarctica their habitat

What is an Habitat?

A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by human, a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. A place where a living thing lives is its habitat. It is a place where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population.

Living place of plants and animals is called Habitat. Habitat can be big or small example forest or a leaf

Different animals and plants require different living conditions to survive examples. To survive, whales need sea water whereas to survive, goldfish need fresh water. Some animals can survive in more than  one habitat and some can survive in one.

Introduction to different habitats

All animals and plants are adapted to the conditions of the habitats in which they live. Example: A rattlesnake could not live in arctic for very long time whereas a Walrus could not live in dessert.

Different types of Habitats

1) Forest Habitat

2) Desert Habitat

3) Water Habitat{Aquatic Habitat}

4) Grassland Habitat

5) Tundra Habitat

Details of Different Types of Habitats

1.Forest Habitat : It is a type of habitat which covers a large area where many trees, plants and animals live.The plants in forests provide shade and protection to many different types of animals

                            

Different types of forest are

  1. a) Deciduous Forest:   These are forest in cool rainy areas. They can be found in middle of Europe or Eastern half of North America. Animals living in this habitat must adjust to cold winters and hot summers. The trees in the forest provides shelter to them

Examples of animals living in this habitat are

Black bear, Grey squirrel, Turkey, Rat snake

  1. b) Coniferous forest: This habitat is found in Europe,  Canada. The Northern coniferous forests are called Taiga. This is largest type of habitat in world. It has fewer animals as comparison to in deciduous forest cold weather makes life very difficult in these forests.

Examples of animals living in this habitat: Lynx, Moose, Squirrel, Loon, Hawk owl

 

  1. c) Rain Forest: Tropical rain forest occurs in regions that are near to equator. In these the climate is very warm with plenty of rainfall. Most of the animals live on trees.

2.Desert Habitat:

Deserts  are characterized by dry conditions and a wide temperature range. These are defined as regions that has a less than 254 mm of annual rainfall or precipitation.

                                      

Types of Deserts                                

a.Hot and dry Dessert: Most hot and dry deserts are near the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn.

b.Cold Deserts: These are near the Arctic part of world. Cold Deserts have animals like Kangaroo rats, Antelope, Jack Rabbits.

Just as some animals prefer to live on land some need water habitat to survive.

 

3.Aquatic habitat{Water Habitat}
It refers to the region covered with water where plants and animals survive. Aquatic habitat is further divided into freshwater habitat, marine habitat and coastal habitat. Water is the medium for the organisms living in aquatic habitats.

a)Freshwater habitat:  These are the water bodies filled with fresh water. These include rivers, lakes, ponds, streams etc. Water present has very low concentration of salts. Plants growing in water are called as hydrophytes.

b) Marine habitat: Ocean and seas are termed to be marine habitat. These are full with life. Different varieties of organisms exist in marine habitat. Organisms like, corals, shelled animals, sponges, jelly fish, sharks and many others are found in this habitat.

c) Coastal habitat or estuaries: This is the region represented by the place where land meets the sea. Estuaries are formed when the saltwater mixes with freshwater. These habitats are unique Special type of trees called as mangroves are found in this region. Animals are also well adapted to live in these regions.

                                 

4.Grassland Habitat: They are big open spaces of grass.about one quarter of land on earth is in grassland.

                            

The two different types of grasslands are :

a.Temperature grasslands: They are farther from the equator and have both cold winters and hot summers

b.Tropical grasslands: These are closest to the equator and all hot all the year

Since Grassland lack in trees and heavy bushes Hence grasslands are homes to large herds of the grazing animals such as Bison, Giraffe ,Lion, Zebra, Ostrich

5.Tundra Habitat: The 2 major characteristics of tundra are Arctic tundra, Alpine tundra. These are located at high altitudes on mountains around the world. About one fifth of the earth ‘s land is Tundra. The Arctic tundra is frozen for much of the year. The ground  is permanently frozen 10 feet 3 inches down so the trees cannot grow there.

                     

Animals living in tundra are Lions , Snow birds, Mosquitoes, Flies, Polar bear, Wolves, Flat fish.. Animals are also well adapted to live in these regions.

EVALUATION 

1.Habitat is a place where ——– a.plants live b.Animals live c.Man and Animals live d.Plants and Animals live

2.Which of the following is not  an aquatic animals?a.Fish  b.Water lilies  c.Crocodile  d.Birds

 

1.What is an Habitat?

2.State 5 types of Habitat.

3.Give 5 examples of animals found in each of  Habitat.

  1. Describe the characteristics of each of this Habitat.

ASSIGNMENT.

What are Arboreal Animals? Give Examples.

 

 WEEK 2 

   Adaptations

Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat.

 The ability of living organisms to adjust themselves to the surroundings is called as adaptation. Adaptations are the changes in structure or behaviour of an organism that will allow the organism to survive in that habitat. Plants and animals make some natural adjustments in some features to fit themselves into their environment. Different living organisms adapt themselves to their habitats in different ways. Adaptations can be brought about by changes in the body, changes in the behaviour and changes in location. 

Adaptation of animals in aquatic habitat 

Animals which live in aquatic habitat are adapted by structural modification of the structures of their body and also by developing the new structures. Aquatic animals are adapted by modifying the structures present in their bodies which are known as the adaptational structures or adaptational features. The adaptational features of aquatic animals are as follows:
1- Body is stream-lined in shape which helps to minimize water resistance which makes them easy to live in water.
2-Respiratory organs are the gills in perfectly aquatic forms like fishes but in the air breathing forms nostrils are located near the top f the head to enable them t go to surface frequently to inhale air.
3-Locomotary organs are developed as the fins to swim in water easily. There are different types of fins like dorsal fin, ventral fin, caudal fin, pectoral fins and pelvic fins. All the fins help in swimming but the caudal fin helps them to balance the body in water. Sme aquatic forms like amphibians have the thin fold f skin in between the digits f the hind limbs which are called web. Web helps to increase the surface area for swimming. Aquatic animals like turtles have fin like organs called paddles for swimming and whales have the flippers as the swimming organ.
4- Body is covered by scales which make the body soft and slippery so as to escape from the enemies and also helps them to prtect the internal soft organs of the body.
5- Some fishes have got the hydrostatic organ called air bladder for adjusting them in the different  depths of water according to their need by increasing the amount of gas or by decreasing the amount of gas in side the air bladder.

ADAPTATION OF AQUATIC PLANTS

Plant Adaptations

Plants have adaptations to help them survive (live and grow) in different areas. Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat. These adaptations might make it very difficult for the plant to survive in a different place. This explains why certain plants are found in one area, but not in another. For example, you wouldn’t see a cactus living in the Arctic. Nor would you see lots of really tall trees living in grasslands.

 

Plant Adaptations in Water

  • underwater leaves and stems are flexible to move with water currents
  • some plants have air spaces in their stems to help hold the plant up in the water
  • submerged plants lack strong water transport system (in stems); instead water, nutrients, and dissolved gases are absorbed through the leaves directly from the water.
  • roots and root hairs reduced or absent; roots only needed for anchorage, not for absorption of nutrients and water
  • some plants have leaves that float atop the water, exposing themselves to the sunlight
  • in floating plants chlorophyll is restricted to upper surface of leaves (part that the sunlight will hit) and the upper surface is waxy to repel water
  • Some plants produce seeds that can float


  

In floating plants, chlorophyll is restricted to the upper surface.  Note the green color on the top of the leaves and the reddish underside of the overturned leaf. Aquatic plants must be flexible to withstand the pressures of moving water.

 

 


The Desert
The desert is very dry and often hot.  Annual rainfall averages less than 10 inches per year, and that rain often comes all at the same time.  The rest of the year is very dry.  There is a lot of direct sunlight shining on the plants.  The soil is often sandy or rocky and unable to hold much water.  Winds are often strong, and dry out plants.  Plants are exposed to extreme temperatures and drought conditions.  Plants must cope with extensive water loss. 

Desert Plant Adaptations 

  • Some plants, called succulents, store water in their stems or leaves;
  • Some plants have no leaves or small seasonal leaves that only grow after it rains.  The lack of leaves helps reduce water loss during photosynthesis.  Leafless plants conduct photosynthesis in their green stems.
  • Long root systems spread out wide or go deep into the ground to absorb water;
  • Some plants have a short life cycle, germinating in response to rain, growing, flowering, and dying within one year.  These plants can evade drought.
  • Leaves with hair help shade the plant, reducing water loss.  Other plants have leaves that turn throughout the day to expose a minimum surface area to the heat.
  • Spines to discourage animals from eating plants for water;
  • Waxy coating on stems and leaves help reduce water loss.
  • Flowers that open at night lure pollinators who are more likely to be active during the cooler night.
  • Slower growing requires less energy.  The plants don’t have to make as much food and therefore do not lose as much water.
      
This cactus displays several desert adaptations: it has spines rather than leaves and it stores water in its stem. This cactus displays light-colored hair that helps shade the plant. This plant has a waxy coating on its leaves.

The Temperate Grasslands
The temperate grasslands, also called prairie, feature hot summers and cold winters.  Rainfall is uncertain and drought is common.  The temperate grasslands usually receive about 10 to 30 inches of precipitation per year.  The soil is extremely rich in organic material due to the fact that the above-ground portions of grasses die off annually, enriching the soil.  The area is well-suited to agriculture, and few original prairies survive today. 

Temperate Grassland (Prairie) Plant Adaptations 

  • During a fire, while above-ground portions of grasses may perish, the root portions survive to sprout again
  • Some prairie trees have thick bark to resist fire
  • Prairie shrubs readily resprout after fire
  • Roots of prairie grasses extend deep into the ground to absorb as much moisture as they can
  • Extensive root systems prevent grazing animals from pulling roots out of the ground
  • Prairie grasses have narrow leaves which lose less water than broad leaves
  • Grasses grow from near their base, not from tip, thus are not permanently damaged from grazing animals or fire
  • Many grasses take advantage of exposed, windy conditions and are wind pollinated
  • Soft stems enable prairie grasses to bend in the wind


  

Soft stems enable prairie grasses to bend in the wind.  Narrow leaves minimize water loss. Many grasses are wind pollinated and are well-suited to the exposed, windy conditions of the grasslands.

ADAPTATION OF FROGS

All animals adapt to survive in the wild, and frogs are no exception. Here is a list of the top ten physical adaptations that enable frogs to thrive in wetlands.

  1. Legs: Frogs have very powerful back legs and webbed feet that help them swim and jump.

Some frogs even use their legs to dig, or burrow underground for hibernating. Certain frogs can jump up to 20 times their own body length in a single bound.

  1. Skin: Frogs can breathe though their skin so they can stay underwater as long as they want.
  2. Skin: Frogs don’t drink water through their mouths at all, instead they soak it into their bodies through their skin.

 

 

  1. Skin: Frog skin is often camouflaged to hide from predators. Some frogs can change the colour of their skin depending on its surroundings.
  2. Skin: Some frogs secrete poison through their skin. Many of the more easily visible, brightly colored tropical frogs are colored in this way to warn predators that they are poisonous.
  3. Croaks: Frogs attract each other for mating with their croak. Each frog species has a distinct croak. They have vocal sacs, which fill with air, and can amplify the sound up to a mile away.
  4. Tongue: When a frog spots a tasty meal, it flicks out its long, sticky tongue. The tongue wraps around the meal/insect and pulls it back into the frog’s mouth. Unlike humans, a frog’s tongue is not attached to the back of its mouth. Instead it is attached to the front, enabling the frog to stick its tongue out much further.
  5. Teeth: Frogs do have teeth, but they are small and not good for chewing. Instead, frogs use their teeth to hold their prey in their mouths until they are ready to swallow.
  6. Eyes: Frogs swallow using their eyes. Its eyes retract into its head and push the food down its throat. Frog’ eyes are on top of their heads so when they swim close to the surface of the water, only their eyes are exposed. This way, they can quickly spot danger before danger spots them.
  7. Eyes: Frogs can see forwards, sideways and upwards all at the same time and never close their eyes, even when they sleep. They even have a third eyelid which is see-through and protects the frog’s sensitive eyes when it is under water.

 

Acclimatisation:
The ability of an organism to make small adjustments or changes in the body in a short period of time to adjust itself to the surrounding atmosphere is called acclimatisation. People who visit mountain ranges suffer from altitude sickness due to poor oxygen content in the atmosphere at such heights. Their body gets adjusted or acclimatised to changes in the surroundings.


Components of a habitat
The components in a habitat are broadly classified into two types, namely biotic and abiotic components. Biotic components interact with abiotic components to obtain all the necessary conditions.

Biotic components include all the livings organisms in a habitat, i.e. plants, animals and microorganisms.

Abiotic components include all the non-living things in a habitat, i.e. air, soil, water, sunlight and temperature. The favourable conditions for survival of living organisms are provided by abiotic components.


  1. a) Air: Air is essential for all the living organisms on earth. Plants and animals take in oxygen from the air during respiration. Plants take in carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis. Air also provides nitrogen which is fixed to the plants for utilisation. Air is required by organisms to cool their body. Winds help in generating energy. Winds also help in carrying the seeds for distant places.

    b) Soil: Soil is the topmost layer of the earth. Soil is rich in minerals and microorganisms which help in different ways for plant growth. Soil also possess certain spaces which lodge water particles. This water lodged in the spaces is used by plants by the process of absorption.

    c) Water: Three-fourths of our earth is covered with water. Water is essential for life. Water forms a medium for many metabolic reactions taking place inside the body. Water can be fresh water or marine water. Animals living in water are called as aquatic organisms. Plants specially living in water are called as hydrophytes. Humidity and rain are also the forms of water which help the living organisms.

    d) Sunlight: Sun is the ultimate source of energy for all the living organisms on earth. Plants depend on sunlight for synthesising their food by the process of photosynthesis. Animals depend on plants for their food i.e. indirectly they depend on sunlight.

    e) Temperature:Temperature at a place depends on the sunlight available at the particular place. Temperature also influences the humidity of that particular place. Areas may be too hot, moderate or too cool. Some animals hibernate during cool winter and some of them aestivate during hot summer. 

EVALUATION

1.The two factors that affect living organisms are a.Abiotic and amniotic factors  b.Abiotic and Non-abiotic factors  c.Abiotic abd Biotic factors   d.Biotic and biological factors.

2,.Features that help organism to survive in a particular habitat is called ——–a.Homes   b.Adaptation c.Favourites  d.Permanent home.

 

Define the following

1.Biotic factors  ii.Abiotic factors

2.Give Examples

 

WEEK3     

  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LIVING THINGS IN THEIR HABITAT

An Ecological relationship is the relationship between organisms in an ecosystem. All organisms in an ecosystem are connected. Each interaction depends on the one before it. Each population interacts with one another in a complex web of relations. Ecological relationships help better describe how they are connected.

There are six ecological relationships in which two are oppositional and four are symbiotic. The oppositional relationships are predation and competition. The symbiotic relationships are mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, and parasitism.

The ecological relationship an organism has depends on the way the organism adapted to its environmental pressures on evolutionary bases.

Oppositional relationships

Predation

This is where one organism hunts and eats the other organism. The organism hunting is called predator, while the organism being hunted is called prey. Energy received from the sun is transferred from animals when the prey is eaten by the predator. The predator now has its prey’s energy.

A predator is usually a carnivore that hunts, kills and eats other animals. For example, a snake eating a mouse, the snake is considered the predator because it is consuming the mouse. In another example, a striped marlin is a predator. It lives in the Pacific Ocean and preys on sardines, also a Pacific animal. Similarly, various birds eat earthworms.

However, a predator can become the prey of another larger predator. For instance, a snake may become a meal for a hawk.

“In ecology, predation is a mechanism of population control. Thus, when the number of predators is scarce, the number of preys should rise. When this happens, the predators would be able to reproduce more and possibly change their hunting habits. As the number of predators rise, the number of preys decline. This results in food scarcity for predators that can eventually lead to the death of many predators.”

Because of this, predation is called a “positive-negative” relationship.  There is also Cannibalism. It is a more grade of predation. This is where in one population the organisms eats each other because of scarce of the food sources.  Ex. Frogs are known for cannibalism too.

Herbivore/plant predation

The prey does not necessarily have to be an animal, but can also be a plant. When prey is a plant, the relationship would be called an herbivore plant relationship.

A perfect example of this would be,” Galapagos tortoises and cactus plants that grow on the Galapagos Islands.” 

Another example are the koalas. They have a special digestive system that allows them to break down tough eucalyptus leaves and remain unharmed by its poison (National Geographic).

Finally, a squirrel is the herbivore (predator) and the nuts he eats are the plant (prey).

Food Webs 

The species that make up an ecosystem are connected in complex “food webs” of eater and eaten. Food webs show interconnectedness, especially between predators and their prey.

When one species disappears, its predators can no longer eat it and its prey is no longer eaten by it. Changes in these populations affect others.

Energy Pyramids 

An energy pyramid is a way of showing how energy flows through an ecosystem specifically on a certain food chain (predators and their prey).

Energy – The energy for all living things comes from the sun

Producers – Plants that capture the light energy and turn it into chemical energy (stored in sugar)

Consumers – Organisms that can’t make their own food 

Carnivores – Consumers that eat animals 

Example. Lion eat Zebra

Herbivores – Consumers that eat plants (producers) 

Example. Chipmunks and Armadillos

Omnivores – Consumers that eat both animals and plants 

Example. Badgers

Scavengers are consumers that eat dead animals 

Example. Vultures

Decomposers are consumers that eat and/or break down waste products 

Example. Fungus and Mold

 

Competition

Competition is when organisms compete for the same resources. This is a negative relationship because both organisms are harming each other (Campbell).

Intraspecies competition

Organisms competing can be from within the same species for example, two male elk fighting for a female mate. Elephants also fight each other so that the dominant elephant will get to breed with the female.

Another species that shows great competition between each other are the dolphins. Dolphins go along together and play with each other, but when it is time to eat; all dolphins have to compete for a meal.

Interspecies competition

Competition can be also found in two different species. A lizard and a frog can compete for a similar food they eat such as a small insect. This type of competition is only found when two different species share an ecological niche that they must compete over.

Competitive exclusion principle

“Direct competition between different species almost always produces a winner and a loser- and the losing species dies out,” or is forced to migrate to another ecosystem which can support them (Levine, 2010). This is the competitive exclusion principle. This principle says that two species that need the same resources cannot survive together in the same habitat. One organism will eventually die off, thus, called

 

Symbiotic relationships

Mutualism

Mutualism is a relationship in which organisms benefit from each other. This is a positive, positive relationship. 

An example of this would be the bee and flower. Bee gets nectar and honey from flower. The bee contributes back to the flower by spreading the pollen so that the flowers can reproduce.This is a very common contribute to both the flower and the bee, they both rely on each other to survive. 

Another example would be when the ox pecker lands on an impalas back and eats the ticks that are a parasite to the impala. The ox pecker is benefited because it gets a meal from the tick and the impala gets benefited because the tick is no longer on it. Similarly, monkeys pick fleas from other monkeys which benefits both because its like a treat.

There is a mutualistic relationship between spider crabs and algae. The algae live on the crabs’ backs, allowing the spider crab to blend in with its environment, so that predators can’t find them. The algae get a nice place to live, while in turn, the spider crab gets camouflaged. Thus, both organisms are benefited.

The Clownfish and Anemone would also be a good fit for mutualism because the Anemone protects the clownfish while the clownfish protects the Anemone. “The clownfish benefits by having a protected home territory.” 

Finally, there is even a mutualistic relationship within the human body. Bacteria live inside our intestines (getting a good place to live) and help us break down our food and get vitamins.

 

Commensalism

Commensalism is a relationship in which one organism benefits from another organism that is not affected. This is a positive, neutral relationship. 

For example, a small fish called the Pilot Fish follows underneath a shark and when the shark eats something the pilot fish eats the scrap pieces of the shark original kill.(Blue Planet BBC Documentary 2001).

Another example is of a birds nest in a tree. The bird is benefitting because the tree is giving the bird shelter and the tree is not getting anything in return.

Similarly, the transparent shrimp benefits from a reef because it hides within it (camouflaging), but the coral is not affected.

Additionally the relationship between an infectious disease and its carrier, an animal such as a mosquito, could be classified as commensalism because the mosquito is unaffected by the presence of the disease, but the mosquito transfers it to a host in which the disease can reproduce or spread more easily to others.

“Often, the host species provides a home and/or transportation for the other species.) The whale and barnacles are a perfect example of this. “Barnacles are crustaceans that have jointed legs and shells of connected overlapping plates. Instead of crawling after food, they glue themselves to rocks, ships, pillings, abalones, and maybe even whales and wait for food to wash by.. The barnacles attach themselves to the whale. This way, the barnacle can get food faster. This does not affect the whale so he does not take the barnacle off.

Parasitism

Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism (the parasite) benefits while the other(the host) is harmed. This is a positive, negative relationship. 

The parasite usually lives on or inside the other organism.

For example, mosquito is a parasite, feeding on a human while transferring the disease called Malaria. Other examples would be ticks or fleas that live off of many large mammals. Similarly, head lice are an example of parasitism because they feed on blood from the humans head.

In Colorado, the pine bark beetle is a common parasite. The pine beetles lays its eggs in the pine trees, and then when the babies are born, they eat the layers of the tree which stops the tree from growing. 

“Natural Selection favors parasites that are best able to locate hosts and feed on them”’

EVALUATION

1.The following  primary  source of energy for organism ——-a.Moon  b.Star.  c.Carbohydrate  d.Sun

2.The path through which food energy is transferred from one organism to another is called ——-

a.Food Transfer   b.Food path  c.Food Chain  d.Food Web

3.T he organism that feeds directly on plants are called ——-

a.Primary consumer  b.Secondary Consumer   c.Tertiary Consumer   d.University consumer.

.Define the following

Prey, predator, herbivores carnivores ,scavengers, omnivores..

WEEK 4

MAN AS AN INTELLIGENT ANIMAL

  1. The human brain possesses qualities that have no parallel in the animal world. One consequence is man’s explicit mental capabilities.

Man possesses the faculty of speech and his creative communication by means of his vocal system is completely different from those of animals Give orange me give eat orange me eat orange give me eat orange give me you.”

That’s the longest string of words that Nim Chimpsky, a chimpanzee who scientists raised as a human and taught sign language in the 1970s, ever signed. He was the subject of Project Nim, an experiment conducted by cognitive scientists at Columbia University to investigate whether chimps can learn language.

After years of exposing Nim to all things human, the researchers concluded that although he did learn to express demands — the desire for an orange, for instance — and knew 125 words, he couldn’t fully grasp language, at least as they defined it. Language requires not just vocabulary but also syntax, they argued. “Give orange me,” for example, means something different than “give me orange.” From a very young age, humans understand that; we have an innate ability to create new meanings by combining and ordering words in diverse ways. Nim had no such capacity, which is presumably true for all chimps..He has the unique ability to pay attention 2.Only man is able to express emotions (e.g., joy, sadness, hope, laughter, shyness). Some animals seem to have similar abilities, but they cannot be compared with human emotions.

3.Hands: All animals have hands but we can move our thumbs all across the palm to our ring and little fingers. We can also flex the ring and little fingers toward the base of our thumb. This gives humans a powerful grip and exceptional dexterity to hold and manipulate tools with. Monkeys have thumbs on their feet as well as on their hands, which really helps in climbing trees (they can grab with their feet as well as with their hands). The human thumb is proportionately longer than those of apes and man can oppose his thumb to his fingers whereas apes and monkeys cannot. Without this uniquely designed hand, no ape could be competent in using tools. The ape lacks the dexterity that humans enjoy.

 

4.. Only man walks upright in an erect posture. Man can walk comfortably and naturally on two feet. This is his normal posture. Monkeys, apes, bears, chipmunks and other animals may occasionally walk on two feet, but this is not their normal mode of transportation. They usually move on all fours. 

  1. The brain of a human is normally two or three times larger than the brain of the largest ape, which is the gorilla. our brains weigh an average of three pounds, which is enormous for an animal of our body size. By comparison, chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, have brains that are one-third the size of our own, although they are very similar to us in body size. Most of this brain-size difference reflects the evolutionary expansion of the association cortex, a group of regions that supports such sophisticated cognitive functions as language, self-awareness, and problem solving.

The size of the human association cortex is only part of what makes this region unusual in humans. In addition to having more neurons in the association cortex, brain imaging studies comparing the brains of humans to other primates show humans have a greater number of fibers connecting the brain regions involved in such human-specialized functions as language, tool making, reasoning, and social cognition

 

  1. Man’s body is relatively hairless. Monkeys and apes are very hairy. Some evolutionists refer to man as “the naked ape.” However, have you ever seen a naked ape (an ape not covered by hair)? Apes by definition are very hairy. If man is not hairy, then he must not be an ape!

7.The human nose has a prominent bridge and an elongated tip which is lacking in the apes. [God knew that some of us would one day need to wear glasses, and so He formed us in such a way that we would have a place to hang them!] 

  1. Man’s arms are very short in comparison to the arms of monkeys and apes. The arms of apes hang down to the ground and like its legs, are used for transportation. 6. Monkeys have thumbs on their feet as well as on their hands, which really helps in climbing trees (they can grab with their feet as well as with their hands). The human thumb is proportionately longer than those of apes and man can oppose his thumb to his fingers whereas apes and monkeys cannot. Without this uniquely designed hand, no ape could be competent in using tools. The ape lacks the dexterity that humans enjoy.
  2. Human babies are far more helpless and dependent on their parents than any of the infants of apes and monkeys. 
  3. Man’s head is balanced on top of his spinal column. The head of the ape is hinged at the front instead of on top. Instead of having the head balanced on top of the spinal column as in humans, the heads of apes project forward. Also, there is a great difference between men and apes in the way the spine is curved. Men have what is called the “lumbar curve;” apes do not. 
  4. The chromosome count differs between men and apes. The chromosome number of man is 46. The chimpanzee and the gorilla have a count of 48. 

 

EVALUATION

1.Examples of Mammals are the following except—a.Fish   b.Man  c.Giraffe   d.Elephants

2.Human basic intelligence skills include the following except     a.Measurement   b.Interference   c.Inference  d.Reasoning and problem solving.

In what way is man different from animals?

WEEK5        

  Definition of growth and development 

Growth is the progressive increase in the size of a child or parts of a child. Development is progressive acquisition of various skills (abilities) such as head support, speaking, learning, expressing the feelings and relating with other people. Growth and development go together but at different rates. 

Maturity refers to when the body are fully developed.

Importance of assessing growth and development 

The assessment of growth and development is very helpful in finding out the state of health and nutrition of a child. Continuous normal growth and development indicate a good state of health and nutrition of a child. Abnormal growth or growth failure is a symptom of disease. Hence, measurement of growth is an essential component of the physical examination. 

Factors affecting growth and development 

Each child’s path or pattern of growth and development is determined by genetic and environmental factors. The genetic factors determine the potential and limitations of growth and development. If favourable, the environmental factors, such as adequate nutrition, facilitate the achievement of the genetic potential of growth and development. Unfavourable factors, acting singly or in combination, slow or stop growth and development. Some of the unfavourable factors are malnutrition, infections, congenital malformations, hormonal disturbances, disability, lack of emotional support, lack of play, and lack of language training. To promote optimum growth, these environmental factors can be removed or minimized. Once they are removed, there follows a period of catch up growth. During this period the growth rate is greater than normal. This growth rate continues until the previous growth pattern is reached. Then the growth rate is reduced to the normal rate determined by the individual’s genetic factors. A child genetically determined to be tall grows slightly more rapidly than a child genetically determined to be short. Similarly, a child genetically determined to be clever develops their intellect more rapidly than a child genetically determined to be less intelligence. 

Measuring Growth

There are various measurements that are used to measure growth. These are: 

  1. Weight, 
  2. Height, 
  3. Head circumference, 
  4. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC)
  5. The eruption of teeth. 

To be useful, these measurements must be taken accurately using reliable equipment and correct measuring techniques.Measuring weight For measuring the weight, a beam balance or spring balance is used the weighing pants on the hook of the scale. . 

 

Measuring the Head Circumference The head circumference is measured by encircling the head with an unstretchable tape measure, or a piece of string in the absence of a tape measure. This is passed over the most prominent part of the occiput posteriorly and just above the supraorbital ridges anteriorly to obtain the greatest distance around the head. The piece of string used in the absence of a tape measure is then measured with a ruler to obtain the head circumference  

 Measuring the head circumference. 

Measuring the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) The mid upper arm circumference is measured using a tape or string in the absence of a tape. The tape or string is placed around the upper arm, midway between the olecranon and acromion processes. Care is taken not to pull the tape or string too tightly. The measurement is read. The string used in the absence of a tape measures is then measured with a ruler to obtain the mid upper arm circumference.  illustrates how to measure the mid-upper arm circumference. 


Measuring the mid upper arm circumference. The length of a child is measured in the first 3 years and the height is measured after 3 years of age. The length is measured using a horizontal measuring board put on the ground or on a table. The child is laid on his back with the head against the fixed head board. A helper holds the child’s head so that the eye angle- external ear canal line is vertical and also keeps the body straight. With one hand of the health worker, the child’s knees are pressed down to straighten the child’s legs fully while, with the other hand, the sliding foot board is placed to touch the child’s heels firmly. With the foot board in place, the child’s length is read on the metre scale.  illustrates how the length of a child is measured. 

To measure the height, a bare foot child stands with the feet together. The heels, the buttocks and the occiput lightly touch the measuring device. The head is aligned so that that the external eye angle- external ear canal plane is horizontal. The child is told to stand tall and is gently stretched upward by pressure on the mastoid processes with the shoulders relaxed. The sliding head piece is lowered to rest firmly on the head. The height is read and recorded. 

The factors that promote development include good nutrition, emotional support, play and language training. We shall discuss each of them in detail, starting with good nutrition. 

GOOD NUTRITION: Good nutrition is essential for normal growth and development. Unlike most other organs in the body, the brain is not fully developed at birth. Good nutrition in the first 6 months of life is extremely important. Malnutrition in this period may inhibit the growth of the brain. As a result of impaired brain growth, the child may suffer for the rest of life if the child does not get enough good food. A malnourished child is often tired, apathetic and not interested in learning new things that will promote normal development. Nutrition is discussed in detail in Unit 7 

EMOTIONAL SUPPORT: The first 5 years of life are critical for the foundation of the skills which are developed in the following periods of the child’s life. A newborn starts with no knowledge and learns a great deal during his/her first year of life. It is very important to realize that a child is a growing and developing human being right from birth. He ought to be treated very carefully, with love and respect, so that he can develop normally. He needs full emotional support. There are eight basic needs for a healthy emotional development of a child. 

These are: 

Love; 

Security; 

Acceptance an an individual; 

Self-Respect (Self-Esteem); 

Achievement; 

Recognition; 

Independence; 

Authority. 

Let us briefly look at each in detail. 

Love A child needs to feel loved continuously. A child who does not feel loved will not develop properly, and will not learn as quickly as other children. Instead, he becomes sad and lonely and no longer interested in what goes on around him. 

Security A child needs to feel safe. He can only feel safe if his parents show that they love him and take good care of him. He must know that his parents will look after him and help him, that they will feed him when he is hungry, play with him, and keep him happy and comfortable. The love and security a child gets from the mother and family helps him to develop a sense of trust in people, initially the family members and later people outside the family. 

Acceptance as an individual: A child enjoys being accepted as an individual. A child needs to know that his mother and family love him for what he is. They should not compare him with other children and tell him that he is slow to do this or that, or that he is not as good as some other child. They should show him that they respect him as an individual with his own likes and dislikes, and that they realize he is unique, as all children are unique. 

Self respect (self-esteem)

 Children need to feel that they are of great value, they are able to do things by themselves, they can achieve success, and that their success will be recognized. Anything suggesting that a child is inferior is very disturbing to the child. 

Achievements

The child feels the need to achieve. The parents should not do anything that the children can do for themselves. 

Recognition

 A child enjoys recognition by his or her parents. A child needs to know that his parents are happy and pleased when he has learned to do something new. Parents should help a child to do things and encourage him to make achievements. They should also teach the child because they love him and show that they are proud of him. This helps the young child to feel secure and to learn more easily. 

Independence

 A child needs to learn how to make decisions. As the child grows he needs to be allowed to decide more and more things for himself and learn how to be independent. The parents must not unnecessarily limit the child’s independence and exploration by overprotection and over anxiety. 

Authority

 A child needs his parents’ authority mixed with affection. The parents train the child to learn to obey the rules of the home, the neighbourhood, the school and the society. The rules indicate what the child may do and what he may not do. What a child may do is approved and encouraged with rewards. What the child may not do is clearly and firmly disproved and discouraged. The discouragement is achieved by permitting consequences of undesired behaviour. The child thus learns to accept the restrictions that are there in life. 

Play  

Play is an essential factor the development of a child. Play is an irreplaceable source of information, stimulation for the brain, stimulation for the muscles and a lot of fun. All these are necessary for physical, mental and social development. All normal children like to play. If a young child does not play, he may be ill. Encourage playing, even if it may be noisy sometime

 

STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT .

Childhood is the stage  from birth to puberty. It is characterized by light body weight,smallsize,very rapid growth.very active body and restlessness. 

Puberty is the transition stage from childhood to adolescence.It is the period when the body of a school age  child turns into that of a dolescent.It is characterized by very active body,well formedbones,rapid gain in height and weight,development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Adolescence is the stage before adulthood. It is characterized by well formed reproductive system,height and weight still increasing.

Adulthood is the stage of full maturity.It is characterized by no change in height but changes in weight and body sizes,Ageing indicated by appearance of grey hair,gradual decline in body (reproductive capacityand functioning of body organs.

  STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

0 – 6 years – First stage of development 

6 – 12 years – Second stage of development

12 – 18 years – Third stage of development

18 —–> – Fourth stage of development

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EVALUATION

1.——- refers to when the organs in the body are fully developed. A.develpoment  b.Growth  c.Maturity   d.measurement.

2.A stage in  life in which individuals grow into  adults is termed    a.Adult stage   b.Developmental stage   c.Ovulation stage   d.Puberty Stage.

3.All these factors influences growth and development except         a.Environment   b.Genetics   c.Nutrition   d.Enzymes   d.Hormones

4.Changes that occur in an organism which leads to maturity is called   a.Called   b.Maturity   c.Development   d.Growth   e.Growth and Development.

  1.   ————          is an irreversible increase in size   .a.Development   b.Maturity   c.Growth   D.Enlargement.

6.Develpomental stages  include the following  except          a.Childhood   b.Puberty   c.Adolescence   d.Manhood   e.Adulthood.

7.——— is the transferring of genes from parents to offsprings.  A.genetice   b.genetics   c.Heredity   d.Puberty.

 

Define Growth and Development

What are the factors responsible  for growth and development.

State the various stages of Development.

 

WEEK 7

TEMPORARY AND  PERMANENT CHANGES

The developmental changes could be permanent or temporary.permanent changes are irreversible.Examples are the changes that occur during body growth i.e those features associated with the development stages of  child hood,Adolescence and Adulthood are the permanent changes.

Temporary changes may disappear after sometimes.They can be corrected medically or changed by behavior whereas permanent changes remains with the individual through life. Examples of permanent changes are growth of pimples in males and females during Adolescence,malnutrition or kwashiorkor ,fatness and enlargement of stomach after a meal or intake of water,bedwetting,sweating and rise in body temperature.

5- to 7-Year-Olds

General Characteristics

  1. Eager to learn; easily fatigued; short periods of interest. 
  2. Learn best when they are active while learning. 
  3. Self-assertive, boastful; less cooperative, more competitive. 
  4. Physical Characteristics
  5. Very active; need frequent breaks from tasks to do things that are energetic and fun for them. 
  6. Need rest periods—good quiet activities include reading books together or doing simple art projects. 
  7. Large muscles are well developed. Activities involving small muscles (for example, building models that have small pieces) are difficult. 
  8. May tend to be accident-prone. 
  9. Social Characteristics
  10. Enjoy organized games and are very concerned about following rules. 
  11. Can be very competitive—this may lead them to cheat at games. 
  12. Very imaginative and involved in fantasy-playing. 
  13. Self-assertive, aggressive, boastful, want to be first; becoming less cooperative. 
  14. Emotional Characteristics
  15. Alert to feelings of others but unaware of how their own actions affect others. 
  16. Very sensitive to praise and recognition; feelings are easily hurt. 
  17. Inconsistent in level of maturity; regress when tired; often less mature at home than with outsiders 
  18. Mental Characteristics
  19. Very eager to learn. 
  20. Like to talk. 
  21. Can be inflexible about their idea of fairness. 
  22. Difficulty making decisions. 

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8- to 10-Year-Olds

General Characteristics

  1. Interested in people; aware of differences; willing to give more to others but also expect more. 
  2. Busy, active, full of enthusiasm; may try too much; accident prone; interested in money and its value. 
  3. Sensitive to criticism; recognize failure; have capacity for self-evaluation. 
  4. Capable of prolonged interest; may make plans on their own. 
  5. Decisive; dependable; reasonable; strong sense of right and wrong. 
  6. Spend a great deal of time in talk and discussion; often outspoken and critical of adults, although still dependent on adult approval. 

Physical Characteristics

  1. Very active and need frequent breaks from tasks to do things that are energetic and fun for them. 
  2. Early maturers may be upset about their size—as their adult supporter, you can help by listening and explaining. 
  3. May tend to be accident-prone. 
  4. Social Characteristics
  5. Can be very competitive. 
  6. Are choosy about their friends. 
  7. Acceptance by friends becomes very important. 
  8. Team games become popular. 
  9. Often idolize heroes, television stars, and sports figures. 

 

Emotional Characteristics

Very sensitive to praise and recognition; feelings are easily hurt. 

Because friends become very important, can be conflicts between adults’ rules and friends’ rules—your honesty and consistency can be helpful. 

Mental Characteristics

Can be inflexible about their idea of fairness. 

Eager to answer questions. 

Very curious; collectors of everything, but may jump to other objects of interest after a short time. 

Want more independence while knowing they need guidance and support. 

Wide discrepancies in reading ability. 

 

 

11- to 13-Year-Olds

General Characteristics

Testing limits; a “know-it-all” attitude. 

Vulnerable; emotionally insecure; fear of rejection; mood swings. 

Identification with admired adults. 

Bodies going through physical changes that affect personal appearance. 

Physical Characteristics

Good coordination of small muscles; interest in art, crafts, models, and music. 

Early maturers may be upset about their size—as their adult supporter, you can help by listening and explaining. 

Very concerned with their appearance; very self-conscious about their physical changes. 

May have bad diet and sleep habits and, as a result, low energy levels. 

Social Characteristics

Acceptance by friends becomes very important. 

Cliques start to develop. 

Team games become popular. 

Often have “crushes” on other people. 

Friends set the general rules of behavior. 

Feel a strong need to conform; dress and behave like their peers in order to “belong.” 

Very concerned with what others say and think about them. 

Have a tendency to try to manipulate others to get what they want. 

Interested in earning own money. 

Emotional Characteristics

Very sensitive to praise and recognition; feelings are easily hurt. 

Because friends are very important, can be conflicts between adults’ rules and friends’ rules. 

Caught between being a child and being an adult. 

Loud behavior may hide their lack of self-confidence. 

Look at the world more objectively; look at adults more subjectively, and are critical of them. 

 

Mental Characteristics

Tend to be perfectionists; if they try to attempt too much, may feel frustrated. 

Want more independence but know they need guidance and support. 

May have lengthy attention span. 

 

 

14- to 16-Year-Olds

General Characteristics

Testing limits; a “know-it-all” attitude. 

Vulnerable; emotionally insecure; fear of rejection; mood swings. 

Identification with admired adults. 

Bodies going through physical changes that affect personal appearance. 

Physical Characteristics

Very concerned with their appearance; very self-conscious about their physical changes. 

May have bad diet and sleep habits and, as a result, low energy levels. 

Often a rapid weight gain at beginning of adolescence; enormous appetite. 

Social Characteristics

Friends set the general rules of behavior. 

Feel a strong need to conform; dress and behave like their peers in order to “belong.” 

Very concerned with what others say and think about them. 

Have a tendency to try to manipulate others to get what they want. 

Go to extremes; often appear to be unstable emotionally while having a “know-it-all” attitude. 

Fear of ridicule and of being unpopular. 

Strong identification with admired adults. 

Emotional Characteristics

Very sensitive to praise and recognition; feelings are easily hurt. 

Caught between being a child and being an adult. 

Loud behavior may hide their lack of self-confidence. 

 

Mental Characteristics

Understand moral principles. May have lengthy attention span

EVALUATION

Infancy and Adolescent stage are  a.tenporary stages   b.permanent stages  c.temporary and permanent stages   d.Irreversible stages

Differentiate between permanent change and temporary changes.

Give examples

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WEEK  8

HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 2

PUBERTY

Puberty is the transitional biological stage between childhood and adulthood.

It is the stage when the body matures.Puberty involves changes in primary seual characteristics.

It starts when the pituitary gland at the base of the brain produces hormones.Hormones are chemical substances,which control the body’s development and growth.At pub 

Rty,these hormones are secreted to the reproductive organs,thatis,the testes and the ovariesin females and males respectively.The reproductive organs thereafter produce  sex hormones,which causes the changes in the adolescent’s body.

Adolescence begins  withpuberty.Most girls  reach puberty between the ages of 9-13 while boys reach puberty between the age of 12-14.However , children grow at different rates so some may mature laters than others.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES AT PUBERTY

1.Boys:there is a rapid increase in Height.Boys later caught up with Girlsin height and may overcome them.

Girls:there is a rapid increase in Height.Girls tend to be taller thanboys of the same age.

2 .Boys:voice becomes deeper

Girls:Breast develops

  1. Boys :semens discharges during sleep.

Girls:Menstruation begins

4.Boys: Hairs are noticed under the harmpits and on the external parts of the Reproductive organs.

Girls:Hairs are noticed under the armpits and on the external parts of the Reproductive organs.

5.Boys:The shoulder become broader 

Girls:the hip become broader

6.Boys:pimples  sometimes appear on the face but  they usually disappear after a time.

Girls: pimples  sometimes appear on the face but  they usually disappear after a time.

EVALUATION

Describe the changes that takes place in boys and girls during puberty

WEEK 9

HANDLING PUBERTAL CHANGES IN BOYS AND GIRLS

Pubertal changes could be physical ,emotional,social and internal.These changes must be well handled

In Adolescents.

Adolescents often enter puberty with a heightened sense of sexuality accompanied by a great  deal of confusion.At  this stage,they are faced with the challenges of forming an identity,false feelings of independence,uestions about conformity as  well as  confusion about values and views of life.

Hence,pubertal changes must be well handled by applying basic coping strategies or identity.Some strategies of handling pubertal changes are as follows:

a.Personal hygiene and cleanliness

b.Self acceptance.

c.Emotional Development

d.Developing decision making skills which are 

1 . Identifying and defining a problem

2.Gather information about the problem

3.Consider the advantages and the disadvantages

4.Consider  personal and family values in relation to the possible alternatives.

  1. Consider the impact of your decision on other people around you.

6.Choose one option thatwill have the best outcome.

7.Decide and act on the decision cautiously and

  1. Evaluate the outcome of your decision.

How can a teenager  handle pubertal  changes?

 

EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT EVALUATION

 

Emotional changes accompany the physical changes of Adolescence.The ups and downs of being a teenager  can be difficult for both boys and girls.

Hormones affects a young person’s moods and emotions.Aneample is feelings of sadness and depression ,shifting feelings about relationships  with family and friends.

Adolescents need to be assured that all of these changes are a normal part  ofgrowing.As boys and girls enter puberty,their interest in the expression of their sexuality  increases.The attain sexual maturity before achieving emotional or social maturity and economic independence.Beacuse of the health risk involved with premarital sex,youngpeopke’s decisions and experiences during this transition can affect the rest of their lives.

SOME ASPECTS OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS EXPERIENCED DURING ADOLESCENCE

1.Self consciousness

2.Increased desire to be  more independent

3.Feelings of discomfort due to rapid physical development

4.Mood swings

5.Egocentric tendencies

  1. Anger and disillusionment when one’s ideas are unmet.

7.Secrecy: Adolescents become isolated and seek mare privacy

8.Inquisitiness and

9.Struggle for acceptance by peer group.

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EVALUATION

1.Puberty involves changes in   a.Tertiary sexual characteristics    b.sacondary sexual characteristics   c.primary sexual characteristics   d.Normal sexual characteristics.

2.Which of the following is not part of body changes during puberty?  A.voice change   b.body shape change   c.development of breast  d.growth in cheek

 

How can a teenager  handle pubertal  changes?

 

WEEK 10

BODY IMAGE

Meaning of Body Image.

Body image refers to the way a person feels about his or her physical appearance.

People have differences in their physical appearances,some of these are in term of:

1.Height

2.Size or shape  of the body

3.Race or Ethnicity and

4.Colour of the skin,eye and hair.

PHYSICAL FEATURES

Physical features or an individual’s appearance and attributes are inherited

From parentsorgrandparents,this is called HEREDITY.

Examples of traits usually inherited from parents or grandparents are

1.Skin colour

2.Hair

3.Eye colour

4.Shape of the body.

5.Heighte.t.c.

Some of these differences may be valued while others may not.Forexample,a tall person may  feel  bad about  his  body,yet he cannot change his Height.I n some cultures,a person with lighter colour may be given more privileges than someone with darker skin.Someone with a darker skin may try to lighten his or her  skin in order to feel better.

EVALUATION

1.Body image problem is   a.more in girls thanboys   b.more in boys than girls  c.Equal in boys and girls   d.Not real

2.Body image problems involve the following except   a.,need to look perfect   b.desire to have perfect body  c.it affects both boys and girls  d.please with self.

3.Teenager’s body images are strongly affected by what they see on the following EXCEPT A.Television   b.Movies   c.Magazines   d.Religion Centre.

Define body image.

What is Heredity?

State the various traits that can be transmitted from parents to offsprings.