Breeds of Pigs Agricultural Science JSS 2 Third Term Lesson Notes
There are numerous pig breeds worldwide, each with its own unique characteristics and purposes. Here are some well-known pig breeds:
- Yorkshire: Also known as Large White, Yorkshire pigs are large, white pigs with erect ears. They are known for their excellent meat quality and are widely used in commercial pork production.
- Hampshire: Hampshire pigs have a black body with a white belt around the shoulders and forelimbs. They are renowned for their meat quality, fast growth, and good mothering abilities.
- Duroc: Duroc pigs have a reddish-brown to dark red coat and drooping ears. They are known for their exceptional meat quality, marbling, and efficient feed conversion.
- Berkshire: Berkshire pigs are black with white markings on their face, legs, and tail. They are highly prized for their meat quality, juiciness, and flavor. Berkshire pork is favored by many chefs.
- Landrace: Landrace pigs have a long body, white coat, and large, drooping ears. They are prolific breeders and are often used in crossbreeding programs to improve litter size and mothering abilities.
- Tamworth: Tamworth pigs have a reddish-gold coat, long snout, and erect ears. They are known for their hardiness, foraging ability, and flavorful meat.
- Pietrain: Pietrain pigs have a distinctive piebald pattern with black spots on a white coat. They are known for their muscular build, leanness, and meat quality.
- Gloucestershire Old Spot: Gloucestershire Old Spot pigs have a white coat with black spots. They are a traditional British breed and are valued for their flavorful meat and docile temperament.
- Hampshire-Hampshire: Also known as Hampshire-Yorkshire or HamYork, this crossbreed combines the characteristics of Hampshire and Yorkshire pigs. They are commonly used in commercial pig farming due to their growth rate and meat quality.
- Large Black: Large Black pigs have a solid black coat and large, floppy ears. They are known for their foraging ability, hardiness, and flavorful meat.
Please note that this is not an exhaustive list, and there are many other pig breeds worldwide, each with its own unique qualities and characteristics
Mixed farming refers to the practice of integrating different agricultural activities on a single farm. It involves combining crop cultivation with animal rearing to maximize resource utilization and improve overall farm productivity. Here are three types of mixed farming:
- Crop-Livestock Integration: This type of mixed farming involves combining crop cultivation with livestock rearing. Farmers grow crops for food or cash crops while also raising animals like cattle, sheep, or poultry. The crops provide feed for the animals, and the animal manure can be used as fertilizer for the crops, creating a symbiotic relationship. This integration allows for nutrient cycling, diversification of income, and better utilization of available resources.
- Agroforestry: Agroforestry is a form of mixed farming that involves integrating trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or livestock. Farmers plant trees or establish tree-based systems within their farmland. The trees provide multiple benefits such as shade, windbreaks, timber, fruits, and fodder. They can also help improve soil fertility, prevent erosion, and enhance biodiversity. Agroforestry systems combine the advantages of both agriculture and forestry, promoting sustainability and resilience.
- Dairy Farming with Crop Production: Dairy farming combined with crop production is another type of mixed farming. Farmers rear dairy cattle for milk production and also cultivate crops on their land. The crops can be used as animal feed, including grass, silage, and other forage crops. The dairy cattle produce milk, which can be sold or processed into dairy products like cheese or butter. This type of mixed farming allows farmers to have a diversified income stream from both crop sales and dairy product sales.
These three types of mixed farming demonstrate the integration of different agricultural activities to optimize productivity, enhance sustainability, and maximize the efficient use of available resources