Micro-Teaching Techniques in Social Studies Subject Methods (Social Studies) PDE 715



Micro teaching techniques constitute an area whereby teachers in training learning to acquire the rudiments of teaching in the classroom. It is a preparation as to what they must master when they go to the field to do teaching practice under the supervision of professionals. It is indeed a preparation for the challenges that await the teacher in his or her future carrier as an educator.


OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit, you should be able to: (i) describe the use of micro-teaching technique in Social Studies.



1. Read through this unit, Take note of the salient points as you read.

2. From the beginning, read the unit thoroughly as systematically arranged. Attempt all the activities stated.

3. Strictly adhere to the rules.


WORD STUDY Micro-teaching teaching organized for a small group of students Strategy an intended plan to achieve a purpose. Technique skilful way of doing something.

MICRO-TEACHING TECHNIQUE This is a laboratory training procedure geared towards simplification of the complexities of regular teaching-learning process. It is also a miniature teaching scaled down in terms of class size, time, task or content and the skill (Cliff 1973). However, in practice, micro- teaching follows a teach-critique-reteach procedure which involves the following:

1. The supervisor demonstrates the skill to be practised. This may be live demonstration of the skill or a video presentation of the skill which has been prerecorded for the purpose.

2. The group members select a topic(s) from a list and prepare the lesson of five to ten minutes, in which they will practise the particular skill that was demonstrated.

3. The teacher trainee then has the opportunity to practise and evaluate his use of the skills. Practice takes the form of a ten-minute micro-teaching session in which five to ten pupils are involved. When real students are used, the other trainee teachers act as observers and evaluators. When the trainee teachers are used a pupils they play the role of the pupils at the same time observe and evaluate the lesson objectively together with the supervisor. The progress of the session and the performance of the “teacher” are evaluated. There are many possible ways of doing this. These include observations and comments by the other trainee teachers, support by note made on pre-prepared evaluation checklists or a video recording of the performance which can be analyzed by all, including the performer being evaluated.


5 . If the trainee’s performance is not up to the expected standard, he redefines his use of the skills through additional practise, pre-plans the lesson, emphasising those skills in which his self-evaluation revealed his performance to be most inadequate. Then he re-teaches the lesson with another group of pupils and evaluates his second recorded performance. Finally, when the supervisor judges that the separate basic skills considered important are sufficiently well mastered and integrated; the trainees continue their practice in supervised real-life classroom situations (Romizowski 1988). A closer analysis of the sic procedural steps in a micro-teaching session provides three essential phases in sequential order thus:

Phase I Modelling

Phase II Practice

Phase III Feedback


Modelling has been described by Borg et.al. 91970) as a three-step process. First, the learner observes a model teaching episode where particular skills are demonstrated, second, the learner attempts to shape his own behaviours after those of the model; and third, the learner receives feedback on his performance. In the above procedure, modeling is taken to mean watching of a live, written audiotaped, videotaped or filmed teaching episode which provides a short but clear example of a specific teaching skill to be acquired. Generally speaking, there are several types of models. However, three of them gain more attention of practitioners and researches in education.

They are:

(i) Perceptual models (filmed or videotape teaching segments).

(ii) Symbolic models (written transcripts of a teaching episode or written descriptions of a skill’s application).

(iii) Audio models (audio taped teaching sequences). (Turney 1973). The use of any of these models in micro-teaching will depend on a number of factors. It may be necessary to consider such factors like the skill to be developed, cost of production or procurement, and motivational value among others. Indeed, studies of a number of researchers lend considerable support to the use of perceptual models in mich-teaching. For example, Turney et al. (1973) found the use of videotaped or perceptual models much more effective than symbolic models. The approach one is recommending to modern teacher



Subject Methods (Social Studies) PDE 715 trainers is the use of combination of perceptual and symbolic models to ensure optimum learning and rewarding micro-teaching experience.

MODEL PRESENTATION The manner in which models are presented is considered important if they are to produce desire effects. The following are listed as acceptable manner of model presentation. 1. Inform students about the skill to be watched and acquired. Make students aware of the instances of the skill or its components during the model’s presentation. 3. Show/present the model in a number of times perhaps several days to enhance its lasting effect. 4. Allow the student teachers to practise the skill in a similar teaching context to that of the model. 5. Encourage the use of the combination of teacher models and student models for more desirable effect.

PRACTICE This is the act of demonstrating in practical sense the skill being demonstrated in the video or the film medium. The trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what he has seen; learning by doing has been the basic principle on which the teaching learning laboratory is based. After all, we often hear the saying “Practice makes for perfection”.


FEEDDBACK Feedback is micro-teaching is information a student received concerning his attempts to imitate certain patterns of teaching. The built-in feedback mechanism in micro-teaching acquaints the trainee with the success or otherwise of his performance and enables him to evaluate and to improve his teaching behaviour. Electronic media gadgets that can be used to facilitate effective feedback in micro-teaching include videotape, audio-tape and a check-list. It should be emphasized that feedback is a vital aspect of the micro-teaching. The feedback through whichever medium should be geared towards assisting the trainees to analyse and improve his teaching

Lesson Note Features for Effective Teaching

Summary of key points 

1. Micro-teaching is a method to prepare future teachers for classroom teaching.
2. Its objective is to simplify the teaching-learning process.
3. Micro-teaching involves skills demonstration, practice, and feedback.
4. Modeling is an essential part of micro-teaching, involving observing and emulating teaching skills.
5. Various models, such as perceptual, symbolic, and audio models, can be used.
6. The combination of perceptual and symbolic models is recommended for effective learning.
7. Effective model presentation includes informing students about the skill and showing it multiple times.
8. Practice allows trainees to apply the skills they have observed.
9. Feedback is a crucial element of micro-teaching, providing information for improvement.
10. Feedback can be facilitated through various media, like videotape and checklists.

Education Concepts, Rewards, Microteaching


1. Micro-teaching is a method for preparing future teachers for _____.
a) classroom teaching
b) research
c) administrative roles
d) counseling

2. The main objective of micro-teaching is to simplify the _____ process.
a) cooking
b) teaching-learning
c) gardening
d) driving

3. Micro-teaching involves skills _____, practice, and feedback.
a) demonstration
b) measurement
c) simulation
d) evaluation

4. _____ is a crucial part of micro-teaching, where learners observe and emulate teaching skills.
a) Modeling
b) Drawing
c) Reading
d) Dancing

5. Which type of model involves written descriptions of a skill’s application?
a) Perceptual model
b) Symbolic model
c) Audio model
d) Visual model

6. The use of _____ models is recommended for optimum learning in micro-teaching.
a) single
b) perceptual
c) audio
d) written

7. In micro-teaching, the model presentation should inform students about the skill and show it _____.
a) only once
b) in different languages
c) multiple times
d) without any explanation

8. Practice in micro-teaching allows trainees to _____ what they have observed.
a) forget
b) criticize
c) apply
d) ignore

9. Feedback in micro-teaching is essential for trainees to _____ and improve their teaching behavior.
a) evaluate
b) ignore
c) celebrate
d) discourage

10. Which media can be used to facilitate feedback in micro-teaching?
a) Radios
b) Newspapers
c) Videotape
d) Magazines

11. Micro-teaching primarily prepares individuals for careers as _____.
a) doctors
b) engineers
c) educators
d) lawyers

12. Micro-teaching is a miniature version of regular teaching, scaled down in terms of class size, _____, task, or content.
a) time
b) budget
c) technology
d) location

13. Which phase of micro-teaching involves practicing the skills observed in the model?
a) Modeling
b) Feedback
c) Practice
d) Evaluation

14. What is the primary goal of the “feedback” phase in micro-teaching?
a) To criticize the trainee
b) To provide information for improvement
c) To showcase teaching skills
d) To complete the session

15. Combining teacher models and student models in micro-teaching is recommended for _____.
a) limited learning
b) confusion
c) more desirable effects
d) fewer models

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