# Multiplication of Whole Numbers Mathematics Primary 4 First Term Lesson Notes Week 8

**Class:** Primary 4

**Subject:** Mathematics

**Topic:** Multiplication of Whole Numbers

**Sub-topic:** Multiplication of two and three-digit numbers

**Duration:** 40 minutes

**Term:** First Term

**Week:** 8

**Previous Knowledge:** Students should have a basic understanding of multiplication and should be able to multiply one-digit numbers.

**Set Induction:** Begin the lesson by asking students to share situations where they might need to multiply two or three-digit numbers in real life. For example, calculating the total cost of multiple items in a store.

**Behavioral Objectives:** By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

- Multiply two and three-digit numbers accurately.
- Solve word problems involving multiplication.
- Apply multiplication skills to real-life situations.

**Embedded Core Skills:** This lesson will enhance students’ numeracy, problem-solving, and critical thinking skills.

**Learning Materials:**

- Chalkboard/Whiteboard
- Chalk/Markers
- Multiplication tables
- Flashcards
- Word problems
- Pencils and notebooks

**Teaching Methods:** The lesson will involve a combination of teacher-led instruction, guided practice, and independent practice.

**Content:**

Teacher: Hello, everyone! Today, we are going to learn an important skill in mathematics, which is how to multiply two and three-digit numbers accurately. This skill will help us solve more complex math problems. Are you all ready to learn?

Students: Yes!

Teacher: Great! Let’s start with multiplying two-digit numbers.

Step 1: Multiplying Two-Digit Numbers

Teacher: Imagine you want to multiply two numbers like 24 and 35. We want to find out what 24 times 35 equals. Here’s how we do it:

[mediator_tech]

1. 3 x 26 = ___

a) 56

b) 78

c) 108

d) 78

2. 42 x 5 = ___

a) 47

b) 210

c) 6

d) 37

3. 57 x 4 = ___

a) 228

b) 204

c) 25

d) 238

4. 6 x 93 = ___

a) 32

b) 558

c) 626

d) 98

5. 23 x 7 = ___

a) 166

b) 160

c) 10

d) 130

6. 124 x 8 = ___

a) 112

b) 992

c) 982

d) 144

7. 15 x 9 = ___

a) 135

b) 10

c) 24

d) 195

8. 32 x 45 = ___

a) 1420

b) 76

c) 20

d) 29

9. 76 x 12 = ___

a) 792

b) 1242

c) 912

d) 218

10. 138 x 5 = ___

a) 590

b) 672

c) 99

d) 75

11. 58 x 3 = ___

a) 131

b) 174

c) 176

d) 48

12. 457 x 6 = ___

a) 2482

b) 319

c) 122

d) 527

13. 231 x 4 = ___

a) 1114

b) 312

c) 924

d) 55

14. 85 x 27 = ___

a) 2295

b) 2160

c) 1122

d) 1137

15. 567 x 3 = ___

a) 1899

b) 10

c) 1701

d) 1889

[mediator_tech]

Solving word problems involving multiplication is a step-by-step process. Here’s how to do it:

**Read the Problem Carefully:**Start by reading the word problem carefully to understand the situation. Pay attention to any numbers, quantities, or relationships mentioned in the problem.**Identify What’s Asked:**Determine what the problem is asking you to find. This will be your “goal” or “unknown” in the problem.**Identify What You Know:**Identify the information provided in the problem. This may include numbers, quantities, or other relevant details. List them, and if needed, assign variables to unknown quantities.**Choose the Correct Operation:**In multiplication word problems, you will typically use the multiplication operation. Determine which quantities need to be multiplied together to solve the problem.**Write an Equation:**Create an equation that represents the problem. This equation will involve the quantities you identified in step 3 and the operation you chose in step 4.**Solve the Equation:**Use your equation to find the solution to the problem. Perform the multiplication operation to calculate the answer.**Check Your Answer:**After finding the solution, read the problem again to make sure your answer makes sense in the context of the problem. Ensure that you addressed what was asked.**Present Your Answer:**Write or state your answer clearly, including any necessary units of measurement.

Here’s an example:

Here’s an example:

**Word Problem:** If Sarah has 4 boxes, and each box contains 6 apples, how many apples does she have in total?

**Solution:**

- Read the problem.
- Identify what’s asked: Find the total number of apples.
- Identify what you know: Sarah has 4 boxes, and each box contains 6 apples. You can assign variables: Let A represent the total number of apples.
- Choose the correct operation: You will use multiplication (4 boxes × 6 apples per box).
- Write an equation: A = 4 × 6
- Solve the equation: A = 24
- Check your answer: In the context of the problem, it makes sense that Sarah has 24 apples.
- Present your answer: Sarah has 24 apples in total.

Remember that practice is key to improving your ability to solve multiplication word problems. Start with simpler problems and gradually tackle more complex ones as you become more comfortable with the process.

Applying multiplication skills to real-life situations is essential because it helps us solve practical problems and make sense of everyday scenarios. Here’s a simplified explanation for primary students:

**Shopping:**When you go shopping with your parents, you can use multiplication to calculate the total cost. For example, if you want to buy 3 toys, and each toy costs ₦5, you can multiply 3 by 5 to find out how much money you need: 3 x 5 = ₦15.**Sharing Treats:**Let’s say you have 2 candy bars, and you want to share them with 4 friends. To figure out how many candy bars each friend gets, you can use multiplication. It’s like dividing, but in a fun way. So, you can say, “2 candy bars for 4 friends means 2 x 4 = 8 pieces of candy, and we share them equally, so each friend gets 8 ÷ 4 = 2 pieces.”**Gardening:**If you have a garden and want to plant flowers in rows, you can use multiplication to find out how many flowers you need. For example, if you have 4 rows, and you want to plant 6 flowers in each row, you can multiply: 4 rows x 6 flowers = 24 flowers in total.**Measuring Ingredients:**In the kitchen, when you’re helping your mom or dad bake a cake, you may need to use multiplication. If the recipe says you need to add 3 cups of flour and you want to make 2 cakes, you can multiply 3 cups x 2 cakes = 6 cups of flour.**Time Calculation:**Multiplication is also handy for telling time. If you have to wait for 3 hours before your favorite TV show starts, and you want to know when it will be on, you can add or multiply. To find the time, add 3 hours to the current time. For example, if it’s 5 PM now, your show will be on at 5 PM + 3 hours = 8 PM.

By using multiplication in these real-life situations, you can solve problems, make decisions, and understand the world around you better. It’s like having a superpower that helps you make sense of numbers and solve everyday challenges! 😊🌟

[mediator_tech]

**1. To find the total cost of 4 toys at ₦8 each, you can use __________:
a) addition
b) multiplication
c) subtraction
d) division
Answer: b**

**2. If you have 3 bags, and each bag contains 5 apples, how many apples in total?
You can find out by __________.
a) adding 3 and 5
b) dividing 3 by 5
c) multiplying 3 by 5
d) subtracting 3 from 5
Answer: c**

**3. When you share 10 cookies equally with 2 friends, each friend gets __________ cookies.
a) 5
b) 10
c) 2
d) 20
Answer: a**

**4. In your garden, you planted 4 rows of flowers, and each row has 6 flowers.
To know how many flowers you planted in total, you should __________.
a) add 4 and 6
b) subtract 4 from 6
c) multiply 4 by 6
d) divide 4 by 6
Answer: c**

**5. If a recipe asks for 2 cups of milk for one cake, and you want to bake 3 cakes,
you’ll need to use __________ to calculate how many cups of milk you need.
a) addition
b) subtraction
c) multiplication
d) division
Answer: c**

**6. You need to study for 5 days to prepare for a test. How many hours of study is that?
__________ 5 by the number of hours you study each day.
a) Add
b) Subtract
c) Multiply
d) Divide
Answer: c**

**7. If you have 8 video games, and you want to trade them with your friend,
and each of you gives 4 games, how many games will be swapped?
Calculate by __________.
a) adding 8 and 4
b) dividing 8 by 4
c) multiplying 8 by 4
d) subtracting 8 from 4
Answer: c**

**8. You need to buy 6 notebooks for school, and each notebook costs ₦15.
What’s the total amount of money you’ll spend? __________ 6 and 15.
a) Add
b) Subtract
c) Multiply
d) Divide
Answer: c**

**9. You want to know how many months there are in 3 years.
You can find out by __________ 3 by 12 (since there are 12 months in a year).
a) Adding
b) Subtracting
c) Multiplying
d) Dividing
Answer: c**

**10. At a store, you can buy 5 pencils for ₦10.
To know the price of 7 pencils, you should __________ 5 by 10 and then __________ the result by 7.
a) Add, subtract
b) Multiply, divide
c) Divide, multiply
d) Subtract, add
Answer: b**

[mediator_tech]

**11. If you are riding your bicycle at a speed of 15 km/h for 4 hours,
how far will you travel in total? You can __________ 15 by 4.
a) Add
b) Subtract
c) Multiply
d) Divide
Answer: c**

**12. Your favorite TV show starts at 7 PM, and you need to wait for 2 hours.
What time will it be when your show starts? __________ 7 by 2.
a) Add
b) Subtract
c) Multiply
d) Divide
Answer: c**

**13. You have 3 boxes of crayons, and each box has 24 crayons.
How many crayons in total? __________ 3 by 24.
a) Add
b) Subtract
c) Multiply
d) Divide
Answer: c**

**14. To find out how many candies each of 6 friends gets when you share 24 candies,
__________ 24 by 6.
a) Add
b) Subtract
c) Multiply
d) Divide
Answer: d**

**15. You have 4 shelves, and each shelf can hold 10 books.
How many books can you store on all 4 shelves? __________ 4 by 10.
a) Add
b) Subtract
c) Multiply
d) Divide
Answer: c**

**Step 1:** Introduction to Multiplication

- Begin by revising what multiplication is.
- Define the terms “multiplicand” and “multiplier.”
- Discuss why multiplication is useful.

**Step 2:** Multiplication of Two-Digit Numbers

- Explain the process of multiplying two-digit numbers.
- Use examples and guided practice on the board, e.g., 24 x 35.
- Discuss the steps involved: multiplying the ones, carrying over, and then multiplying the tens.

**Step 3:** Multiplication of Three-Digit Numbers

- Extend the lesson to multiplication of three-digit numbers.
- Use examples and guided practice on the board, e.g., 453 x 27.
- Explain the steps for multiplying three-digit numbers, including carrying over when necessary.

**Teacher’s Activities:**

- Present the content clearly and step by step.
- Encourage students to ask questions.
- Provide ample examples and practice exercises.
- Give feedback and corrections as needed.

**Learners Activities:**

- Listen attentively to the teacher.
- Participate in class discussions.
- Attempt practice exercises individually.
- Ask for clarification when needed.

**Evaluation:**

- Distribute worksheets with multiplication problems of various difficulty levels.
- Review students’ work to assess their understanding.
- Encourage students to solve word problems using multiplication.

1. To solve word problems involving multiplication, you need to _______________ the problem.

a) Ignore

b) Understand

c) Color

d) Eat

2. In word problems, what should you identify to find the solution?

a) Colors

b) Unknowns

c) Animals

d) Songs

3. What is typically the main operation used in multiplication word problems?

a) Addition

b) Subtraction

c) Multiplication

d) Division

4. To create an equation for a word problem, you need to use the information from the problem and the ______________ operation.

a) Division

b) Subtraction

c) Multiplication

d) Addition

5. After solving the equation, what should you do next?

a) Dance

b) Check your answer

c) Skip to the next problem

d) Call a friend

6. In a multiplication word problem, the equation often includes quantities that you need to ______________.

a) Add

b) Subtract

c) Divide

d) Multiply

7. To find the solution, you perform the ______________ operation on the quantities in the equation.

a) Addition

b) Subtraction

c) Division

d) Multiplication

8. What’s the purpose of checking your answer in a word problem?

a) To have fun

b) To see if your answer makes sense

c) To take a break

d) To confuse yourself

9. Which word represents the result you’re looking for in a word problem?

a) Equator

b) Antelope

c) Apples

d) Unknown

10. In the equation, what does “A” represent in the word problem “A = 4 × 6”?

a) Apples

b) Alligators

c) Avocado

d) Alien

11. What is the goal of solving word problems involving multiplication?

a) To bake cookies

b) To find the total

c) To watch a movie

d) To do a cartwheel

12. In a multiplication word problem, if you have 3 boxes, and each box contains 8 pencils, how many pencils do you have in total?

a) 12 pencils

b) 24 pencils

c) 2 pencils

d) 10 pencils

13. After you’ve solved a word problem, you should ___________________.

a) Dance

b) Forget the answer

c) Check your answer

d) Eat a pizza

14. To find the total number of apples in a word problem, you should __________________.

a) Count your fingers

b) Multiply the number of boxes by the number of apples in each box

c) Sing a song

d) Run in circles

15. What should you include when presenting your answer to a word problem?

a) Your favorite recipe

b) Any random number

c) The answer and any necessary units of measurement

d) A funny joke

By the end of this lesson, students should have a better grasp of multiplying two and three-digit numbers, making them more confident in solving math problems involving larger numbers.