Structure Active Voice and Passive Voice English Grammar Primary 5 First Term Lesson Notes Week 3

Title: Structure of Active Voice and Passive Voice

Grade Level: Primary 5

Term: First Term

Week: 3

Duration: 45 minutes

Learning Objectives: By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  1. Understand the difference between active voice and passive voice.
  2. Identify the structure of active and passive voice sentences.
  3. Transform sentences from active to passive voice and vice versa.

Materials Needed:

  1. Whiteboard and markers
  2. Examples of sentences in both active and passive voice
  3. Chalkboard or digital presentation tool


Introduction (5 minutes):

  • Begin by discussing the concept of different sentence structures in English.
  • Introduce the terms “active voice” and “passive voice” and explain that they represent two different ways of constructing sentences.

Active Voice (10 minutes):

  1. Write a simple sentence on the board in active voice, for example, “She ate the cake.”
  2. Discuss the structure of active voice, where the subject (“She”) performs the action (“ate”) on the object (“the cake”).

Passive Voice (10 minutes):

  1. Write the same sentence but in passive voice, for example, “The cake was eaten by her.”
  2. Explain the structure of passive voice, where the object (“The cake”) receives the action (“was eaten”) performed by the doer (“her”).

Comparison (5 minutes):

  1. Write more examples of sentences in both active and passive voice on the board.
  2. Discuss the differences between the two structures, emphasizing the role of the subject and the order of elements.

Transformation Practice (15 minutes):

  1. Provide sentences in active voice and ask students to transform them into passive voice.
  2. Similarly, provide sentences in passive voice and ask students to convert them into active voice.
  3. Encourage active participation and provide guidance as needed.

Review and Discussion (5 minutes):

  • Review the transformed sentences as a class, discussing any challenges or questions that arose during the practice.

Conclusion (5 minutes):

  • Summarize the key points of the lesson, emphasizing the structure and transformation of active and passive voice sentences.
  • Encourage students to practice these structures in their writing.

Homework (Optional):

  • Assign exercises in their textbooks or workbooks related to active and passive voice sentence transformations.


  • Assess students based on their participation in class discussions and their ability to correctly transform sentences from active to passive voice and vice versa during the practice.

Note: This lesson introduces students to the structure of active and passive voice sentences, providing them with a foundation for understanding and using these structures effectively in their writing and communication.


Important points to note when changing sentences from active voice to Passive voice

Changing sentences from active voice to passive voice can be a bit tricky, but it’s an essential skill in English grammar. Here are some important points to keep in mind when making this transformation:

1. Identify the subject and object:

  • In active voice, the subject performs the action on the object. When changing to passive voice, identify the object, as it will become the subject in the passive voice sentence.

2. Reverse the order:

  • In passive voice, the order of the sentence is often reversed compared to active voice. The object comes before the subject.

3. Use the appropriate tense:

  • Make sure the verb tense in the passive voice sentence matches the tense in the active voice sentence. For example, if the active sentence is in the past tense, use the past tense in the passive voice.

4. Insert “by” for clarity:

  • While it’s not always necessary, using “by” followed by the doer of the action can add clarity to a passive voice sentence. For example, “The book was read by John.”

5. Maintain the same meaning:

  • Ensure that the meaning of the sentence remains the same when converting from active to passive voice. The action should still make sense.

6. Change the verb form:

  • Transform the active verb into a past participle form when creating a passive voice sentence. For example, “eat” becomes “eaten.”

7. Be cautious with transitive and intransitive verbs:

  • Not all verbs can be easily transformed into passive voice. Some intransitive verbs (verbs that don’t require an object) don’t work well in passive voice.

8. Avoid ambiguity:

  • Pay attention to the context to ensure that your passive voice sentence isn’t ambiguous. Make it clear who or what is performing the action.

9. Practice makes perfect:

  • Changing from active to passive voice takes practice. The more you practice, the more proficient you’ll become.

10. Know when to use passive voice:

  • Passive voice is useful in certain situations, like when the doer of the action is unknown or less important than the action itself. Use it appropriately to convey the right message.

Mastering the skill of changing sentences from active to passive voice is valuable for effective communication and writing. It allows you to vary your sentence structure and add depth to your writing


Active Voice Passive Voice
The chef prepares delicious meals. Delicious meals are prepared by the chef.
They built a tall skyscraper. A tall skyscraper was built by them.
She wrote an interesting story. An interesting story was written by her.
The team won the championship. The championship was won by the team.
The gardener plants beautiful flowers. Beautiful flowers are planted by the gardener.
He fixes the broken bicycle. The broken bicycle is fixed by him.
The storm damaged the roof. The roof was damaged by the storm.
We painted the room blue. The room was painted blue by us.
The teacher explains the lesson. The lesson is explained by the teacher.
They caught the fast runner. The fast runner was caught by them.

This table illustrates the difference between active and passive voice by showing how the same action can be expressed in two different ways, either with the subject performing the action (active voice) or with the subject receiving the action (passive voice).


Active Voice: In an active voice sentence, the subject of the sentence performs the action. It’s a straightforward and direct way of expressing who or what is doing something. Here are some examples:

  1. The cat chased the mouse.
    • In this sentence, “The cat” is the subject, and it’s doing the action, which is “chased.” So, it’s in active voice.
  2. She baked a delicious cake.
    • “She” is the subject, and she’s doing the action, which is “baked.”
  3. They built a sandcastle at the beach.
    • “They” is the subject, and they are doing the action, which is “built.”

Passive Voice: In a passive voice sentence, the subject is not the doer of the action but is acted upon by someone or something else. It often focuses on the action rather than who is performing it. Here are some examples:

  1. The mouse was chased by the cat.
    • Here, the mouse is the subject, but it’s not doing the action. It’s being chased by “the cat.” This is in passive voice.
  2. A delicious cake was baked by her.
    • “A delicious cake” is the subject, but it’s not doing the baking; it’s being baked by “her.”
  3. A sandcastle was built at the beach by them.
    • In this sentence, “A sandcastle” is the subject, but it’s not building itself; it’s being built by “them.”

Key Differences:

  • In active voice, the subject performs the action.
  • In passive voice, the subject receives the action.
  • Passive voice often uses “by” to indicate who or what is performing the action.

It’s important to note that both active and passive voice have their uses. Active voice is usually clearer and more direct, while passive voice is used when the focus is on the action or when we don’t know who performed the action. Understanding both forms of voice helps us communicate effectively in writing and speaking.





Active voice and Passive Voice. Third Term Basic 7/ JSS 1 Third Term English Grammar



1. The cat ____________ the mouse.
a) chases
b) chased
c) is chased
d) has chased

2. The book ____________ by my friend.
a) reads
b) read
c) is read
d) has read

3. We ____________ a delicious cake.
a) baked
b) is baked
c) bake
d) has baked

4. The trophy ____________ by the winner.
a) won
b) wins
c) is won
d) has won

5. The teacher ____________ the lesson.
a) explained
b) is explained
c) explains
d) has explained

6. The car ____________ by my father.
a) drives
b) driven
c) is driven
d) has driven

7. The letter ____________ by the postman.
a) delivers
b) is delivered
c) deliver
d) has delivered

8. The cake ____________ by the baker.
a) bakes
b) baked
c) is baked
d) has baked

9. The message ____________ by me.
a) sends
b) sent
c) is sent
d) has sent

10. The secret ____________ by everyone.
a) knows
b) known
c) is known
d) has known

11. They ____________ the news on TV.
a) watches
b) watched
c) are watched
d) have watched

12. The house ____________ by the builder.
a) builds
b) built
c) is built
d) has built

13. The puzzle ____________ by the children.
a) solves
b) solved
c) is solved
d) has solved

14. The story ____________ by my grandmother.
a) tells
b) told
c) is told
d) has told

15. The cookies ____________ by my sister.
a) bakes
b) baked
c) are baked
d) has baked

Mastering the Active and Passive Voice in English Grammar

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