# MEASURES OF VARIABILITY OR DISPERSION, STANDARD SCORES (Z-SCORES AND T-SCORES) AND THE NORMAL CURVE

In the realm of education, the necessity to assess and analyze student performance arises frequently. Whether it’s grading exams or evaluating other variables like age, height, or weight, the process of assigning scores can be complex due to various factors such as question difficulty, teacher tendencies, and measurement errors.

Consider the example of a student receiving a score of 70% in an exam. While the score itself may seem satisfactory, we need to ask whether it’s a high score in absolute terms or in comparison to other students’ scores. To gain a clearer perspective, we introduce the concept of “measures of variability” or “dispersion.” These measures provide insights into how much the individual scores deviate from the average, indicating the spread of scores within a dataset.

To address the issues arising from varying levels of difficulty among tasks or errors in measurement instruments, we turn to standardization. Standard scores, such as Z-scores and T-scores, help us normalize scores to a common scale, allowing for easier comparison and interpretation. A Z-score measures the number of standard deviations a score is from the mean, indicating how relatively distant it is from the average. A positive Z-score suggests a score above the mean, while a negative Z-score indicates a score below the mean. T-scores, on the other hand, convert raw scores into a standardized scale, often with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10, making comparisons even more convenient.

Additionally, the concept of the normal curve plays a crucial role. It represents a symmetrical distribution of scores, with the majority clustered around the mean and fewer scores at the extremes. This curve aids in understanding the distribution of scores within a population and helps identify unusual or exceptional performances.

By implementing norming and standardization techniques, educators and researchers aim to eliminate the influence of task difficulty or measurement errors. This allows for fairer evaluations and more accurate comparisons of student performance. So, as we explore these concepts further, remember that measures of variability, standard scores, and the normal curve are valuable tools in educational assessment, helping us make sense of student scores in a more meaningful and unbiased manner.

There is the need to determine the above in any distribution particularly when considering students’ performance You are aware that when a teacher or an examiner marks or grades students’ or candidates awer scripts, he she signs some marks or scores out of a maximum obtainable score. The fixed maximum obtainable score may be 10, 20, 30, 50, or most oflen 100. Scores may also he values of a variable (age, height, life span or weight of materials). Scores as presented above are referred to as raw scores Raw in the sense that such scores are not yet standardized or normed. Performance scores, barring examination malpractices or irregularities, depends upon easiness or difficulty indices of items tasks and the generosity or severity tendency of the teacher of examiner Other variable scores may depend upon defects in or errors of reading the calibrations of measuring instruments. All these defects or errors make the interpretations of scores difficult Morso, when a candidate student gets a score of 70% in an examination, what would you make out of it? Is the 70% high score in terms of standards of the task undertaken or in relation to the scores of the other candidates/students who also took the examination? Supposing 70% is the highest greatest or the least score of all the scores earned by all the students, how far apart are the other scores? To overcome the above errors, defects or undue influences on scores, norming and/or standardization of score are devised and used.

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Definition of Terms

1. Variability and Its Measures: Variability refers to the spread or dispersion of data points in a dataset. It helps us understand how much individual values deviate from the mean. Common measures of variability include the range (the difference between the highest and lowest values), the interquartile range (the range between the 25th and 75th percentiles), variance (the average of squared deviations from the mean), and standard deviation (the square root of the variance).
2. Calculating Standard Deviation: The standard deviation (σ) is a measure of the average deviation of data points from the mean. It’s calculated by following these steps: a. Calculate the mean (average) of the data. b. Subtract the mean from each data point and square the result. c. Calculate the mean of the squared differences. d. Take the square root of the mean from step c. This is the standard deviation.
3. Converting Raw Scores to Z-Scores and Vice Versa: To convert a raw score (X) to a Z-score, use the formula: Z = (X – μ) / σ, where μ is the mean and σ is the standard deviation. To convert a Z-score back to a raw score, use the formula: X = Z * σ + μ.
4. Transforming Z-Scores to T-Scores and Vice Versa: To transform a Z-score to a T-score, the formula is: T = Z * 10 + 50. To transform a T-score back to a Z-score, use the formula: Z = (T – 50) / 10.
5. Converting Raw Scores to Percentage and T-Scores: To convert a raw score to a percentage, divide the raw score by the maximum obtainable score and multiply by 100. To convert a percentage to a T-score, you would need to know the mean and standard deviation of the T-score distribution, which might be given as part of your statistics.
6. Drawing the Normal Curve: The normal curve, also known as the Gaussian distribution or bell curve, is a symmetrical probability distribution. It’s characterized by its mean (center) and standard deviation (spread). The curve is highest at the mean and tapers off as you move away from the mean in both directions.
7. Interpreting Areas of the Normal Curve: The area under the normal curve represents probabilities. For instance, the area under the curve between two Z-scores indicates the probability that a random observation falls between those values. The total area under the curve is 1 (or 100%), and specific areas correspond to certain percentages or probabilities. For example, approximately 68% of data points fall within one standard deviation of the mean, 95% within two standard deviations, and about 99.7% within three standard deviations

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Worked Examples

Define Variability and Give Its Measures:

Variability refers to the spread or dispersion of data points within a dataset. It helps us understand the range of values and how they differ from the central value, which is usually the mean. Measures of variability include the range, interquartile range, variance, and standard deviation.

2. Calculate Standard Deviation:

Let’s say we have the following dataset: 10, 15, 20, 25, 30.

a. Calculate the mean: (10 + 15 + 20 + 25 + 30) / 5 = 20.

b. Calculate the squared differences from the mean: (10-20)^2, (15-20)^2, (20-20)^2, (25-20)^2, (30-20)^2.

c. Calculate the mean of the squared differences: (100 + 25 + 0 + 25 + 100) / 5 = 50.

d. Take the square root of the mean: √50 ≈ 7.07. So, the standard deviation is approximately 7.07.

3. Convert Raw Scores to Z-Scores and Vice Versa:

Suppose in a test, the mean score is 75 and the standard deviation is 10.

a. To convert a raw score of 85 to a Z-score: Z = (85 – 75) / 10 = 1.

b. To convert a Z-score of -1.5 back to a raw score:

X = -1.5 * 10 + 75 = 60.

4. Transform a Given Z-Score to a T-Score and Vice Versa:

Given a Z-score of 2.1, let’s convert it to a T-score. T = Z * 10 + 50 = 2.1 * 10 + 50 = 21 + 50 = 71.

Now, let’s transform a T-score of 60 back to a Z-score. Z = (T – 50) / 10

= (60 – 50) / 10 = 1.

5. Convert Raw Score to Percentage and T-Score:

If a student’s raw score is 75 out of a maximum score of 100, the percentage is (75 / 100) * 100 = 75%.

If the mean T-score is 50 and the standard deviation is 10, the T-score can be calculated as T = Z * 10 + 50.

6. Draw the Normal Curve:

Hmmmm?

7. Interpret Areas of the Normal Curve:

For a standard normal distribution (mean = 0, standard deviation = 1):

• About 68% of data falls within 1 standard deviation from the mean.
• Around 95% falls within 2 standard deviations.
• Roughly 99.7% falls within 3 standard deviations.

These interpretations help us understand the distribution of data and the likelihood of specific values occurring within different ranges.

Evaluation

1. Variability refers to the ____________ of data points within a dataset.
a) Similarity
c) Repetition

2. Measures of variability include the range, interquartile range, ____________, and standard deviation.
a) Mode
b) Median
c) Variance

3. To calculate standard deviation, you need to find the mean and then calculate the average of the squared ____________ from the mean.
a) Differences
b) Multiples
c) Dividends

4. A raw score of 90 is converted to a Z-score of 1.5. If the mean is 80, what’s the standard deviation?
a) 5
b) 7
c) 10

5. To convert a Z-score of -2 to a raw score, if the mean is 60, the raw score is ____________.
a) 40
b) 56
c) 62

6. A Z-score of 1.8 corresponds to a T-score of ____________.
a) 18
b) 68
c) 68

7. To transform a T-score of 53 back to a Z-score, subtract ____________ and divide by 10.
a) 5.3
b) 50
c) 3

8. If a student’s raw score is 70 out of 90, the percentage score is ____________.
a) 70%
b) 77.8%
c) 78.1%

9. If the mean T-score is 60 and the standard deviation is 15, a T-score of 70 corresponds to a raw score of ____________.
a) 85
b) 100
c) 130

10. The normal curve is often referred to as a ____________ distribution due to its shape.
a) Parabolic
b) Linear
c) Bell-shaped

**7. Interpret the Areas of the Normal Curve:**

11. Approximately ____________% of data falls within 1 standard deviation from the mean in a standard normal distribution.
a) 34
b) 68
c) 95

12. The area under the normal curve represents ____________ in the context of probability.
a) Volume
b) Deviation
c) Probability

The Variance and Standard Deviation

Variance: Variance is a measure of how much the individual data points in a dataset deviate from the mean of that dataset. In other words, it quantifies the average squared difference between each data point and the mean. A high variance indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range, while a low variance suggests that the data points are closer to the mean.

Mathematically, variance (σ²) is calculated as the average of the squared differences between each data point (X) and the mean (μ):

σ² = Σ(X – μ)² / N

Where:

• Σ denotes the sum across all data points
• X is each individual data point
• μ is the mean of the dataset
• N is the total number of data points

Standard Deviation: Standard deviation is the square root of variance. It is a more intuitive measure of dispersion since it is in the same unit as the original data, making it easier to interpret. Standard deviation measures the average amount by which individual data points deviate from the mean. A larger standard deviation indicates greater variability among the data points, while a smaller standard deviation indicates less variability.

Mathematically, standard deviation (σ) is the square root of variance:

σ = √(Σ(X – μ)² / N)

The standard deviation provides a measure of the “typical” amount that each data point deviates from the mean. It’s widely used in various fields to understand the spread of data and make comparisons between datasets. For example, in education, it helps assess the consistency of students’ scores around the average.

Both variance and standard deviation offer insights into the dispersion of data, but the standard deviation is usually more commonly used due to its direct relation to the original units of measurement and its easier interpretability.

Worked Examples

Example 1: Suppose we have the following dataset: 12, 15, 18, 21, 24.

a. Calculate the mean: (12 + 15 + 18 + 21 + 24) / 5 = 18.

b. Calculate the squared differences from the mean: (12-18)^2, (15-18)^2, (18-18)^2, (21-18)^2, (24-18)^2.

c. Calculate the average of the squared differences: (36 + 9 + 0 + 9 + 36) / 5 = 18.

d. The variance is 18.

Example 2: Using the same dataset, calculate the standard deviation:

a. The variance from Example 1 is 18.

b. Take the square root of the variance: √18 ≈ 4.24.

So, the standard deviation is approximately 4.24.

Example 3: Let’s consider a dataset: 5, 8, 10, 12, 15.

a. Calculate the mean: (5 + 8 + 10 + 12 + 15) / 5 = 10.

b. Calculate the squared differences from the mean: (5-10)^2, (8-10)^2, (10-10)^2, (12-10)^2, (15-10)^2.

c. Calculate the average of the squared differences: (25 + 4 + 0 + 4 + 25) / 5 = 10.8.

d. The variance is 10.8.

Example 4: Using the same dataset, calculate the standard deviation:

a. The variance from Example 3 is 10.8.

b. Take the square root of the variance: √10.8 ≈ 3.29.

So, the standard deviation is approximately 3.29.

Example 5: Let’s consider a dataset: 22, 25, 28, 31, 34.

a. Calculate the mean: (22 + 25 + 28 + 31 + 34) / 5 = 28.

b. Calculate the squared differences from the mean: (22-28)^2, (25-28)^2, (28-28)^2, (31-28)^2, (34-28)^2.

c. Calculate the average of the squared differences: (36 + 9 + 0 + 9 + 36) / 5 = 18.

d. The variance is 18.

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Evaluation

1. Variance measures the ____________ of data points from the mean.
a) Similarity
b) Dispersion
c) Frequency

2. To calculate variance, you find the average of the ____________ of squared differences between each data point and the mean.
a) Sum
b) Product
c) Square

3. The standard deviation is the square root of the ____________.
a) Mean
b) Median
c) Variance

4. A high standard deviation indicates ____________ among the data points.
a) Low variability
b) Moderate variability
c) High variability

5. Variance provides a ____________ measure of dispersion than standard deviation.
a) More intuitive
b) Less intuitive
c) Similar

6. A dataset with a smaller standard deviation tends to have data points ____________ the mean.
a) Close to
b) Far from
c) Equal to

7. The standard deviation is the ____________ of the variance.
a) Cube root
b) Square root
c) Absolute value

8. Calculate the variance for the dataset: 10, 12, 15, 18, 20.
a) 14.8
b) 15.6
c) 16.2

9. Calculate the standard deviation for the dataset in question 8.
a) 3.53
b) 4.06
c) 4.50

10. A larger variance indicates ____________ among the data points.
a) Less variation
b) More variation
c) No variation

11. Standard deviation is a measure of the ____________ deviation of data points from the mean.
a) Absolute
b) Average
c) Positive

**7. Application and Importance:**

12. Standard deviation is commonly used in fields like finance to assess ____________.
a) Weather patterns
b) Market volatility
c) Population growth

13. Variance and standard deviation provide insights into the ____________ of data.
a) Shape
c) Skewness

The T-score and the Z-score

Z-Score: A Z-score (also known as a standard score) is a measure of how many standard deviations a data point is away from the mean of the distribution. It helps us understand how far a particular data point is from the center of the distribution and in what direction (above or below the mean). A positive Z-score indicates that the data point is above the mean, while a negative Z-score indicates that it’s below the mean.

Mathematically, the formula to calculate the Z-score of a data point (X) is: Z = (X – μ) / σ

Where:

• Z is the Z-score
• X is the individual data point
• μ is the mean of the distribution
• σ is the standard deviation of the distribution

T-Score: A T-score (also known as a Student’s t-score) is another type of standardized score. It’s particularly useful when we don’t know the population standard deviation and need to estimate it from the sample data. T-scores are often used in small sample sizes or when dealing with situations where the population standard deviation is not available.

The formula to calculate the T-score is: T = (X – μ) / (s / √n)

Where:

• T is the T-score
• X is the individual data point
• μ is the mean of the distribution
• s is the sample standard deviation
• n is the sample size

T-scores are interpreted similarly to Z-scores: positive T-scores indicate data points above the mean, and negative T-scores indicate data points below the mean.

In summary, both Z-scores and T-scores allow us to compare data points across different distributions while taking into account the mean and variability of those distributions. Z-scores are more commonly used when we know the population standard deviation, while T-scores are useful for smaller sample sizes or when the population standard deviation is unknown and needs to be estimated from the sample data.

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Example 1: Calculating Z-Score

Suppose you have a dataset of exam scores with a mean (μ) of 75 and a standard deviation (σ) of 10. Calculate the Z-score for a student who scored 85.

Solution: Z = (X – μ) / σ Z = (85 – 75) / 10 Z = 1

The Z-score is 1, indicating that the student’s score is 1 standard deviation above the mean.

Example 2: Calculating T-Score

Consider a sample of 25 students with a sample mean (μ) of 60 and a sample standard deviation (s) of 8. Calculate the T-score for a student who scored 65.

Solution: T = (X – μ) / (s / √n) T = (65 – 60) / (8 / √25) T = 5 / 1.6 T = 3.125

The T-score is 3.125, indicating that the student’s score is approximately 3.125 standard deviations above the sample mean.

Example 3: Converting Z-Score to Raw Score

Given a Z-score of -2.5 and a mean (μ) of 100, calculate the corresponding raw score.

Solution: X = Z * σ + μ X = -2.5 * σ + 100

Assuming σ (standard deviation) is 15: X = -2.5 * 15 + 100 X = 62.5

The corresponding raw score is approximately 62.5.

Example 4: Converting T-Score to Raw Score

If you have a T-score of 1.8, a sample mean (μ) of 70, and a sample standard deviation (s) of 5, calculate the corresponding raw score.

Solution: X = T * (s / √n) + μ X = 1.8 * (5 / √25) + 70 X = 9 + 70 X = 79

The corresponding raw score is 79.

Example 5: Converting Raw Score to Z-Score

Given a raw score of 120, a mean (μ) of 110, and a standard deviation (σ) of 8, calculate the Z-score.

Solution: Z = (X – μ) / σ Z = (120 – 110) / 8 Z = 1.25

The Z-score is 1.25, indicating that the raw score is 1.25 standard deviations above the mean.

Evaluation

1. A Z-score measures how many ____________ deviations a data point is from the mean.
a) Absolute
b) Standard
c) Positive

2. A positive Z-score indicates that the data point is ____________ the mean.
a) Above
b) Below
c) Equal to

3. Calculate the Z-score for a data point of 80 in a distribution with a mean (μ) of 75 and a standard deviation (σ) of 5.
a) 1.0
b) 1.5
c) 2.0

4. A Z-score of -1.8 means that the data point is ____________ the mean by 1.8 standard deviations.
a) Above
b) Below
c) Equal to

5. T-scores are used when we need to estimate the population ____________ from sample data.
a) Mean
b) Median
c) Standard deviation

6. T-scores are particularly useful when dealing with ____________ sample sizes.
a) Large
b) Small
c) Equal

7. Calculate the T-score for a data point of 90 in a sample with a sample mean (μ) of 85 and a sample standard deviation (s) of 6.
a) 0.83
b) 1.0
c) 1.5

8. If the sample mean (μ) is 50, the sample standard deviation (s) is 10, and the data point is 55, the T-score is ____________.
a) 0.5
b) 1.0
c) 5.0

9. To convert a T-score of 2.5 to a Z-score, you would multiply by the ____________.
a) Standard deviation
b) Mean
c) Sample size

10. Given a Z-score of -1.2 and a standard deviation (σ) of 20, the corresponding T-score can be calculated by multiplying by the ____________.
a) Mean
b) Standard deviation
c) Sample size

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MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND LOCATION: MEAN, MODE, MEDIAN AND GRAPHICAL LOCATION OF MODE, MEDIAN, QUARTILES, DECILES AND PERCENTILES

QUANTILES OF FRACTILES

TERMS USED IN FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS

1. A Z-score of 0 indicates that the data point is ____________ the mean.
a) Above
b) Below
c) Equal to

2. A negative Z-score suggests that the data point is ____________ the mean.
a) Above
b) Below
c) Equal to

3. Calculate the Z-score for a data point of 65 in a distribution with a mean (μ) of 60 and a standard deviation (σ) of 8.
a) 0.625
b) 0.625
c) 0.625

4. A Z-score of 1.5 indicates that the data point is ____________ the mean by 1.5 standard deviations.
a) Above
b) Below
c) Equal to

5. T-scores are often used when the population ____________ is unknown.
a) Mean
b) Median
c) Standard deviation

6. T-scores are useful for ____________ sample sizes.
a) Large
b) Small
c) Equal

7. Calculate the T-score for a data point of 80 in a sample with a sample mean (μ) of 75 and a sample standard deviation (s) of 10.
a) 0.5
b) 0.5
c) 0.5

8. If the sample mean (μ) is 40, the sample standard deviation (s) is 5, and the data point is 42, the T-score is ____________.
a) 0.4
b) 0.4
c) 0.4

9. To convert a T-score of 2.0 to a Z-score, you would multiply by the ____________.
a) Standard deviation
b) Mean
c) Sample size

10. Given a Z-score of -1.8 and a standard deviation (σ) of 15, the corresponding T-score can be calculated by multiplying by the ____________.
a) Mean
b) Standard deviation
c) Sample size

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Frequency Polygons and frequency curves

11. To convert a T-score of 1.8 to a Z-score, you would need to know the ____________ of the distribution.
a) Mean
b) Standard deviation
c) Sample size

12. T-scores are more suitable when dealing with ____________ samples.
a) Large
b) Small
c) Balanced

13. Z-scores are commonly used when the population ____________ is known.
a) Mean
b) Median
c) Standard deviation

14. Calculate the Z-score for a data point of 40 in a distribution with a mean (μ) of 35 and a standard deviation (σ) of 6.
a) 0.83
b) 0.83
c) 0.83

15. Calculate the T-score for a data point of 70 in a sample with a sample mean (μ) of 65 and a sample standard deviation (s) of 8.
a) 0.625
b) 0.625
c) 0.625