FIRST TERM E-LEARNING NOTE
SUBJECT: GOVERNMENT CLASS: SS2
SCHEME OF WORK
- Elections: Meaning, Functions, Demerits and Types of Elections, Merits and Demerits of Types
- Types of Voting- Merits and Demerits of each Type of Voting- Free and Fair Election- Meaning, Conditions Necessary for the Conduct of a Free and Fair Elections
- Electoral Commission- Meaning Features and Functions.
- Public Administration- The Civil Service: Meaning, Features, Structures/Classes, Functions, Problems and Control: The Civil Service Commission- Meaning, Functions, Ombudsman, Meaning and Functions
- Public Corporation- Meaning, Characteristics, Reasons for Setting up Public Corporations, Functions, Organizational Structure, Differences between Public and Civil Service, Control of Public Corporation.
- Local Government: Definition, Powers and Functions, Reasons for the Creation of Local Government, Control of Local Government, Control, Problems and Suggested Solutions to Problems of Local Government.
- Pre-Colonial Political System in Nigeria; Hausa/Fulani Political System, Igbo Political System.
- Pre-Colonial Political System: Yoruba Political System- Pre-colonial Political Institutions with their Functions-Traditional Rulers, Council of Elders, Secret Societies, Age Grade etc.
- Colonial Administration: Historical background, Meaning, Reasons, Features and Classification.
- British Colonial Policy: Indirect Rule System-North, West and East- Merits and Demerits of Indirect Rule.
- French Colonial Policy: Historical Background- French Colonial Policies-Assimilation and Association- Features and Reasons for the Failure of Assimilation-Compare British and French Colonial Policies.
- Meaning, Functions and Demerits
- Types of Elections
- Merits and Demerits of types
MEANING OF ELECTIONS
An election may be defined as an act of choosing or selecting candidates into different offices in government. The candidates are to represent the people of a country in the parliament or in other positions of government. It is a contest between competing political parties or groups to acquire political power through the ballot i.e. electorate’s mandate.
FUNCTIONS/ADVANTAGES OF ELECTIONS
Elections are held to serve the following functions;
- Choosing of Representatives; Elections makes it possible for the citizens to choose those that will represent their interest and opinions in the government.
- Elections are used to change a government smoothly and orderly.
- Elections confer legitimacy on the government as representatives of the people
- Election makes the government responsive to the needs of the people since it can be voted out
- Elections give the political parties the opportunity to educate the people on national issues.
- Elections are used to test the popularity of the government or a member of parliament.
- Elections help to integrate the different societies.
- Elections help to socialize the people.
DEMERITS OF ELECTIONS
- Elections bring about polarization of the people of a country into antagonistic groups.
- The division of people in a country caused by election brings about disunity in a country.
- Elections are too expensive to conduct.
- Minority groups are usually not favored during elections.
- Elections cause uneven development as a result of neglect of areas that failed to vote for the party in power.
- Elections breeds nepotism, divisionism and ethnocentrism.
- Elections enthrone politicians who deceive the people with their fake manifestoes and sugar-coated tongue.
- What is election?
- Identify five functions of election
TYPES OF ELECTION
This is the method by which the electorate cast their votes directly in choosing people to represent them in the legislature and other offices in government. Only the qualified voters are allowed to carry out this political exercise.
ADVANTAGES OF DIRECT ELECTIONS
- It gives voters the freedom of electing members of the legislature without interference
- It is a necessary requirement of representative government.
- It guarantee political equality of the citizens i.e. one man one vote.
- Voters would show more interest in government and will know their representatives.
- Elected representatives are usually the popular choice of the people.
DEMERITS OF DIRECT ELECTION
- Several voters may not be able to vote intelligently due to lack of proper political education.
- Direct voting may cause hatred and embarrassment.
- It encourages violence during polling as a result of the number of people involved.
- A lot of rigging is involved in direct election because it is final election to elect representatives.
- Corrupt-minded candidates may use their wealthy position to buy the votes of the electorates particularly in poor societies.
This is election into the legislature by two or more stages i.e. through Electoral College who will now vote on behalf of the people.
MERITS OF INDIRECT ELECTION
- There is competence on the part of the electors who finally select the members of the legislature.
- It is less violent than direct election.
- The candidates elected through indirect elections are more qualified going by the intelligent level of the people that elected them.
- It is less expensive and with little opportunity of rigging elections and electoral malpractices.
- It increases quality of legislation and administration in a country owing to the candidate’s qualification.
DEMERITS OF INDIRECT ELECTIONS
- The Electoral College can be easily influenced and bribed with money.
- Some interest may not be adequately represented in the legislature.
- The electorate does not know their representatives and this form of election do not reflect popular choice.
- Government policies are not in line with the masses as they did not have the opportunity to choose manifestoes of their choice.
- It does not encourage equality of votes and it is less democratic since they did not vote.
- List 5 merits of direct election.
- What do you understand by indirect elections?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION
- Define direct election.
- State 4 merits of direct election.
- What are the limitations of direct election?
- Explain government as an institution of the state.
- State 5 reasons why we study government
Comprehensive government by J. U.Anyaele pages 104-106
Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 112-113.
- The following are types of elections except—– (a) direct election (b) indirect election (c)run-off election
- One of the merits of direct election is [a] it allows rigging [b] it is undemocratic [c] equality of votes.
- The major functions of elections is that it [a] allows victimization [b] facilitates change of government [c] engenders hunger
- One of the demerits of indirect elections is [a] bribery and corruption [b] popular candidate [c] it is less violent.
- A system where people elect their representatives is called (a) electoral college (b) election (c) electoral district.
- Discuss the following;
- Direct election
- Indirect election
- State 5 reasons why election is important in a political system
TOPIC: TYPES OF VOTING
- Public or Open Ballot and Secret Ballot System of Voting.
- Merits and Demerits of each Types of Voting.
- Free and Fair Election-Meaning, Condition Necessary for the Conduct of a Free and Fair Election.
TYPES OF VOTING
PUBLIC OR OPEN BALLOT SYSTEM
This is a system of voting in which voters vote at an open place in the clear view of candidates and the electorate. Under this system, the voters at election indicate their support for a candidate by a show of hands or queuing behind the candidate of their choice or his poster. In an open ballot, there are no pooling booths; ballot papers etc. This system of voting became popular during the Babangida’s regime in Nigeria.
MERITS OF OPEN BALLOT
- Openballot is cost effective in the sense that a lot of money that would have been used in building polling booths, printing ballot papers will be saved.
- The open ballot system is very simple and easy to understand
- Open ballot system helps to prevent rigging vices such as illegal printing of ballot papers, voters cards, thumb-printing of ballot papers etc
- The results of open ballot system are easy to ascertain because everything is done openly, not secretly.
- It helps to avoid double-voting, unlike in secret balloting where one person can vote as many times as possible
- It makes election results to be known in a very short period of time.
DEMERITS OF OPEN BALLOT SYSTEM
- Open ballot system is often associated with intimidation and victimization of opponents, hence; is highly susceptible to manipulation.
- It is difficult to guarantee maximum security, adopting the open ballot system.
- It will disenfranchise influential people. It will not be possible for people like the president,governors,and traditional rulers to queue up openly with the masses.
- It is difficult to control the crowd during election when the open ballot system is adopted.
- The system is time consuming.
- The system can create enmity.
- Many voters will be discouraged from voting in elections where open ballot system is adopted.
SECRET BALLOT SYSTEM
This is the method by which voters indicate support for a candidate through the ballot under complete secrecy. At the poling booth, he collects a ballot paper which bears the names and symbols of all the contesting political parties or candidates. He enters into an enclosure or moves away from public view to thumb print his candidate of choice and then drop ballot into the ballot box.
MERITS OF SECRET BALLOT SYSTEM
- The voter is free to cast his vote according to his choice without any fear of intimidation or embarrassment from anybody.
- The system is democratic.
- The system is more popular and more widely accepted than any other type of voting system.
- Voters are given the freedom of choice to vote for candidate of their choice alone.
- The system encourages political participation.
DEMERITS OF SECRET BALLOT SYSTEM
- It is very expensive to operate. The cost of the materials needed for the election like the ballot box, ballot papers e.t.c may be too costly.
- The system encourages electoral malpractices.
- The electorates may not be able to handle the ballot papers well thereby spoiling their own votes.
- The system is time consuming.
- The whole system of voting is very tedious and difficult to understand.
This is a system of voting in which it is made compulsory for all eligible voters to do. Proponents of this system argue that since voting is a civic duty of a citizen. Failure to vote is regarded as a criminal offence and punishable under the law.
In this type of voting, an eligible voter is not compelled to vote. He has the choice whether or not to vote.
VOTING BY POST
This system entails a registered voter voting from outside his registered area. The vote is sent through post, this is in the case of a person traveling outside his area or country.
VOTING BY PROXY
If a voter is absent owing to certain excuses, he or she could be voted for in absentia through an authorized representative.
SECRET OPEN VOTING
This system of voting combines both the elements of open and secret voting system. Voters are gathered at an open place,then they are counted to know their total number. When the actual voting starts, each voter casts his or her vote at a place where nobody sees whom he/she votes for in turns.
- What is open ballot voting?
- Define secret ballot system.
FREE AND FAIR ELECTION
A free and fair election refers to one conducted in an atmosphere devoid of harassment, intimidation and other coercive means. It can also be seen as one conducted according to the principles and practices of democracy.
CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR THE CONDUCT OF FREE AND FAIR ELECTION
- There must be the establishment of an electoral commission, which must be impartial and must not allow interference from outside.
- There must be political parties to contest elections.
- The country should be divided into constituencies on equal basis to ensure equal representation.
- The legislature must enact electoral laws to be carefully followed by the commission, the candidates and the electorates.
- There should be public counting of votes. This should be done under strict security.
- Announcement of election results should not be delayed after counting.
- There must be equality of campaigning conditions.
- There should be adequate remuneration for election officials.
- Election officials should be given adequate training.
- Secret voting should be adopted.
- Provision should be made for the challenge of election results in the court of law.
ORGANISATION OF ELECTION
For an election to be conducted, it has to follow an organized pattern. This is known as the stages of election.
STAGES OF ELECTION
- The electoral acts and rules governing the elections are formed.
- The electoral commission which is a body that conducts the election is set up by the government.
- Electoral districts are created and delimitation of constituencies is carried out.
- Political parties are registered by the government.
- The names of eligible and qualified voters are registered. The voters register must be displayed before election so that each voter can know his polling booth.
- Candidates are nominated by the parties. Where there are two or more candidates contesting, a primary election is held to determine who represent the party at the general election.
- A campaign kicks off. This is a period of time set aside for political parties to tour the country with their manifestoes to the electorates.
- The Election Day is the day the electorate are allowed to cast their votes for the candidates of their choice.
- The electoral commission declares the result of the election stating the winner. An aggrieved candidate can go to the electoral tribunal to contest the validity of an election.
- What is free and fair election? and fair elections?
- Explain the following terms; (i) Voting by Post (ii) Voting by
- Explain the stages of election.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION
- What are the conditions necessary for the conduct of free?
- Explain the following (i) Voting by post (ii) voting by proxy (iii) Compulsory Voting (iv) Optional Voting.
- List and explain the features of government.
- Discuss 5 functions of government.
Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 113-115
Comprehensive government by J.U. Anyaele 94-96
- The term electorate refers to ……..
- citizens who vote candidates to power (b) electoral college (c) electoral commission
- The Electoral College is usually seen as……
- democratic (b) undemocratic (c) the best option
- Electoral constituency refers to as……
- polling booth (b) electoral district (c) plebiscite
- In public or open ballot system, the system used is ….
- ballot paper (b) manifesto card (c) counting
- If I vote on behalf of my uncle, the method of vote is ….
- proxy vote (b) post vote (c) secret ballot.
- Explain the system of vote by post.
- Mention five conditions necessary for the conduct of free and fair election.
TOPIC: ELECTORAL COMMISSION
MEANING OF ELECTORAL COMMISSION
An electoral commission is defined as a body responsible for organizing and conduction of elections in a political system. It is an independent and impartial body charged with the responsibility of conducting and organizing elections in a country.
The commission usually has a head that is referred to as the Chairman of the Commission. There are other members of the commission that help in the smooth running of the affairs of the body.
FEATURES OF ELECTORAL COMMISSION
- Organizing and Conducting Elections: The Electoral commission has the sole responsibility of organizing and conducting all elections in a political system.
- Ensuring free and fair elections: It is also the specific duty of the commission to conduct Free and Fair Elections in a country.
- Announcement of Election Results: The body only, is permitted by law to announce election results.
- Independent Body: The commission is an independent and impartial electoral body.
- Headed by a Chairman: The commission is controlled by the chairman, while other members are appointed.
- Fixed Tenure of Office: The composition of the electoral commission has a stipulated tenure of office.
- Resident Commissioner: Each state of the federation has a resident commissioner who works for the body in the state.
- Constitutionally Guided: In all its actions, the commission is strongly backed by law in all its dealings.
- Honesty and Fair Play: An electoral commission is expected to be honest and just in decision making especially with the conduct of the elections.
- A Neutral Body: The commission should be neutral and should not be partisan in out-
- What is Electoral Commission?
- List 5 features of electoral commission.
FUNCTIONS OF ELECTORAL COMMISSION
- Registration of Political Parties: The commission registers political parties according to the stipulated rules and regulations. Parties that meet the requirements are duly registered.
- Registration of Voters: Eligible voters in a country are registered by the commission.
- Provision of Electoral Materials: During an election, it is the duty of the commission to provide electoral materials like ballot votes, pooling booth etc.
- Free and Fair Elections: The major function of an electoral commission is to organize and conduct credible free and fair elections in a country.
- Delimitation (division) of the Country. The commission divides the country into constituencies or electoral districts for easy conduct of elections.
- Appointment and Training: It appoints electoral officers and organizes training for adhoc staff, presiding officers, clerks, pooling orderlies etc.
- Counting of Votes: The commission is responsible for the counting of votes and the release of the results of elections conducted.
- Financial Grants to Parties: Part of the functions of the commission is to give financial grants to political parties to aid their campaigns and election actions.
- Enlightenment: The electorate is properly educated by the commission about the necessary issues in the elections.
- Types of Voting: It is also the function of the electoral commission to inform the electorates about the types of voting system to be adopted in an election, whether secret or open (public) vote system etc.
- Screening of Candidates: Candidates for election are properly screened and their eligibility is confirmed before elections are held.
- Security at the Pooling Stations: Since elections some times may prove to be rowdy, the commission provides adequate security at the polling stations so that the lives and properties of the commission’s staff and that of the voters are safe guarded to prevent unwarranted attacks.
List 5 functions of an electoral commission.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION
- What is electoral commission?
- Discuss the features of electoral commission.
- Explain the concept of Power.
- List and explain the forms of power.
- Differentiate between power and authority.
Comprehensive Government page 97-98
Essential Government page 113-114
- An electoral commission is headed by a (a) Director (b) Chairman (c) Secretary.
- A resident commissioner is an electoral officer in a (a) Local Government (b) State (c) District
- A form of rigging in electoral districts is (a) lobbying (b) gerrymandering (c) ramping
- In a plurality system of votes, the highest number of vote (a) wins (b) has a second ballot (c)none
- Absolute majority requires_____ percent (a)50 (b)40 (c)10
- What is delimitation in electoral practices?
- List five primary functions of an Electoral commission.
TOPIC: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
- The Civil Service: Meaning
- Characteristics and Structures
MEANING OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
The civil service is an essential department in the executive arm of government through which the government implements its policies and programmes. It transmits government policies and programmes into services to the people. It is divided into departments called ministries. The political head of a ministry is called a Minister or Commissioner, while the administrative head is called Director General or Permanent Secretary.
- Permanence in Office: Civil servants are career government employees who are employed under a merit system in which federal characters is applied. They enjoy a permanent tenure of office. Government comes and goes but the civil service remains. This enables them to carry out their functions.
- Political Neutrality: This means that they are to remain loyal and dedicated to the ruling party or government of a country. They are not allowed to engage in partisan politics, although they may belong to a political party and vote in elections, their views are private and should not affect their loyalty to the government of the country.
- Impartiality: This means that the civil servants should discharge their duties with maximum considerations.
- Anonymity: This means that credit or failure of any administration on any issues does not go to the civil servants. They are also not allowed to speak to the press on issues except that their minister or directors authorize them.
- Merit: This means that recruitment into government offices is based on merit and not favoritism. This enhances efficiency.
- Expertise: They are expected to be experts in their fields and offices, which they occupy.
- Framework of law: This checks the use of arbitrary powers.
- Hierarchy: This refers to the organization of the system in different levels of importance, from the highest to the lowest
STRUCTURE OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
The civil service is classified into the following.
- Administrative Class: This is the highest class of the civil service. They consist mainly ofthe Director General, Deputy Director General,and PrincipalOfficers etc. They are mostly graduates and they co-ordinate the activities of their ministry by policy making and advising ministers and commissioners.
- Executive Class: They deal with the day-to-day conduct of administration following lay down policies. They also implement government policies. They consist of Assistant Executive -Officers, Semi-Executive Officers and Executive Officers.
- Professional Class: They are trained specially for their jobs. Examples include the lawyers, doctors, engineers etc.
- Clerical Class: They are involved in the routine jobs of the service. Their jobs include keeping of records, movement of files, preparation of vouchers, statistics etc. They are mostly young school leavers with SSCE, GCE, and NECO etc.
- Auxiliary Class: Recruitment into this class of workers may not require any formal education or high technical skills. However, such skills might be required to do their jobs. Such jobs include, drivers, cleaners, gardeners, messengers etc
FUNCTIONS OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
- Formation of Policy: The administrative and professional class of the civil service formulates policies owing to their wealth of experience. They present these policies to the ministers for final decision and implementation.
- Implementation of Public Policies: The implementation of public oriented policies results in the execution of services to the public like good roads, electricity schools, hospitals etc.
- Preparation of Budget: It prepares the government yearly budget of statement of expected revenue and expenditure.
- They Make Byelaws: They perform sub-legislative functions. A senior civil servant has the power to draw up rules and regulations.
- Archival Function: Civil servant document government policies and information and keep them safe for future references in public decisions.
- Define civil service.
- Mention five characteristics of the civil service.
PROBLEMS OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
- Low Incentives: Poor conditions of service reduce the moral of the workers. This is further worsened by slow promotion process.
- An issue that needs urgent attention may not be met at the needed time.
- Negative attitude to work: Most civil servants feel that government work does not deserve the best. They do their work half-heartedly.
- Political Interference: Most government always interferes by not giving the civil service a free hand to run its affairs. Most politicians equally interfere with the planning and implementation of government policies.
- Tribalism/nepotism and favoritism: Most unqualified persons are employed based on ethnic affiliations.
- Political Instability: Frequent military interventions affect policy making and implementation as director generals, permanent secretaries, ministers and commissioners are changed.
- Bribery and Corruption: Most civil servants receive bribes and undue gratification for most works done.
- Lack of qualified personnel: The civil service is always hit by the exodus of workers who seek greener pasture in private companies which offer attractive working conditions.
- Unfriendliness of the staff: Most civil servants are arrogant and arrogate power to themselves. They are unfriendly to the public and most times are impatient to listen to complains from the public.
CONTROL OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
The civil service and the civil servants can be controlled through the following ways:
- Legislative Control: Ministers or commissioners can be asked to appear before the legislature and explain their activities.
- Public Service Commission Control: This body has the power to appoint, promote, transfer, discipline or dismiss civil servants.
- Control of Ministries: Ministries of finance and establishments have control over the ministries under the civil service. They control the expenditure, conditions of service, salaries and persons.
- Press control: The press also helps to control the activities of the civil service. They criticize erring officers and this keeps them on check.
- Judicial control: The court can try any body for criminal charges. The public officers also have this in mind.
- Hierarchical Control: The civil service is structure in a way that one cannot carry out the actions without letting his superior know.
- Pressure Groups: They help to mount pressure on public officer to the line of other ministries.
- Public Complaint Commission (Ombudsman): The function of this body is to receive and investigate complaint from the public about a public officer who has not performed according to laid down rules.
- The General Order: This is the regulation which outline the condition of service and responsibilities of the civil servants..
REFORMS IN THE CIVIL SERVICE (1988)
The government of Ibrahim Babangida embarked on the reform of the civil service commission in 1988 in line with the Dotun Philip’s review panel established in 1985. The major elements of the reform were:-
- The ministers and not the permanent secretary is responsible for the policy and programmes of the ministry. He is accountable for his ministry’s actions.
- The permanent secretary becomes Director General and his appointment is political. His tenure ends with the government that appointed him.
- The civil service is professionally oriented with each civil servant spending his career in the ministry.
- Each ministry is responsible for the appointment, discipline and promotion of civil servants under it, under the federal services guidelines.
- The civil service is now empowered with various responsibilities.
- The central bank and the ministry of budget and national planning will be under the office of the presidency.
- The officer of the head of service ceases to exist.
- Each ministry has the power to set up its personnel management board.
- List three factors that hinder the effectiveness of the civil service.
- List five ways by which the civil service can be controlled
THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
The civil service commission is an independent body set up by the government with the responsibility of remitting workers into the service based on merit. The body also is in charge of the discipline, promotion and dismissal of workers. Either the president or governor appoints the chairman and members.
COMPOSITION OF THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
The 1989 constitution of Nigeria provides for the establishment of the federal civil service commission. Section 51 states that its composition should consist of a president or chairman and maximum of 9 members.
FUNCTIONS OF THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
- Employment: The commission is empower to remit highly qualified personnel into the civil service either by competitive examination or oral interview.
- Promotion: The body is responsible for promotion of workers from one salary scale to another when they are due to it.
- Transfer: The transfer of civil servants from one ministry to another within the civil service is done by the commission.
- Discipline: The commission is empower to take actions against any civil servant who goes against the rules of the general order.
- Retirement: The civil servants who have reached the stipulated retirement age are retired by the commission.
- Dismissal: the commission dismisses civil servants who are found to be corrupt.
- Condition of Service: The commission states the terms and condition of service, allowances and salaries of civil servants.
- Advice: The commission offers advice to the government in the appointment of senior officers in departments and ministries.
- Efficiency: Efficiency and integrity are the watch word of the civil service and the commission works towards it realization.
OMBUDSMAN/PUBLIC COMPLAINT COMMISSION (PCC)
This is government institution established to investigate and examine cases of injustice, corruption and unfair treatment by public officers against citizens. The Ombudsman, which is known as public complaint commission, was first introduced in Sweden in 1809. It was introduced in Nigeria in October, 1975 by the military administration of General Murtala Mohammed.
FUNCTIONS AND IMPORTANTS OF THE COMMISSION
- To ensure that public officers discharge their duties in line with the laid down rules of the commission.
- The body protects the rights and liberties of the citizens.
- The body investigates cases of maladministration by any public officer.
- The Ombudsman has the power to suggest some changes in the laws of the land.
- It investigates cases of undesirable conditions and practices in public places like hospitals and prisons.
- It is empowered to investigate any acts of corruption and nepotism.
- It presents public officers and authorities that have violated the law and neglected their duties.
- Cases of lost of documents and papers are investigated by the commission.
- The commission offers help to citizens whose rights have been infringed upon to seek redress.
LIMITATIONS TO THE POWERS OF THE OMBUDSMAN
- The ombudsman does not have the power to enforce its investigations. It can only investigate and recommend.
- It cannot investigate top government officials like Director-General, State Governor etc. It can only be involve in matters affecting junior workers.
- It lacks the power to reverse court decisions.
- The need to preserve state security and vital national interests hinders the commission access information and documents.
- Lack of confidentiality of ombudsman constitutes a limitation.
- Explain 5 functions of the civil service commission.
- What are the limitations to the powers of the ombudsman?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION
- Discuss five problems of the civil service.
- State five functions of the Ombudsman.
- List four major elements of civil service reforms.
- Define Legitimacy.
- Discuss 5 factors affecting legitimacy.
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages pages 121-125
Comprehensive Government by J. U. Anyaele pages 107-112.
- Who among the following is a civil servant? (a) Bank manager (b) Medical Doctor (c) Commissioner of Police.
- Neutrality of civil servants means that they (a) do what they like (b) cannot accept government appointment (c) should not take part in politics.
- In a civil service commission, the boss is usually the (a) Minister (b) Chairman (c) Permanent Secretary.
- Red-tapism in the civil service simply means (a) too much emphasis on protocol (b) delegated power (c) using red tape to measure objects
- Those who work under the civil service are called (a) public servants (b) civil servants (c) political leaders.
- Mention 5 features of the civil service
- State five functions of the civil service commission
TOPIC: PUBLIC CORPORATION
- Meaning, Characteristics and Reasons for setting up Public Corporations
- Functions and Organizational Structure
- Differences between Public and Civil Service and the Control of Public Corporation
A public corporation may be defined as a business organization, owned, managed and financed with tax payer’s money by the government of a country. The aim is not to make profit but to render essential services to the members of the public. It is established by acts of parliament and they determine their functions.
Public corporations are owned by the government but are managed by boards of directors appointed by the government. Such corporations include, the National Port Authority (N.P.A.) Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (N.N.P.C.) Power Holding Company of Nigeria (P.H.C.N.) etc
FEATURES OF PUBLIC CORPORATION
- It is wholly owned by the government.
- Being created by special laws incorporating them makes it a legal entity.
- It enjoys monopoly as it does not compete with another organization in the provision of those essential services.
- Those who work under public corporation are not civil servants, they are known as contract men.
- A huge amount of capital is involved in the establishment of public corporation.
- Profit making is not the main motive of its establishment but to render essential services to members of the public.
- It is set up by an act of parliament.
REASONS FOR SETTING UP PUBLIC CORPORATION
- Because of the huge amount of capital that is involve in the provision of these essential services, the government therefore provide such services at minimum cost to all citizens to enjoy.
- Public corporations provide employment for people since human labour is required in running the various services.
- Such social services usually involve initial losses and as a result no private individual will be willing to bear such risk.
- To avoid duplication of service.
- To ensure government control of sectors of the economy.
- To ensure rapid economic development.
- To ensure a constant and regular supply of those services.
- What is public corporation?
- List 5 features of public corporation.
FUNCTIONS OF THE PUBLIC CORPORATION
- They provide essential services to the people for instance, transport , electricity etc
- They are established to provide employment to the people.
- They prevent exploitation of the people by few individuals.
- They generate revenue for the government.
- They promote economic development in the country.
- Public corporation control basic essential industries which are life wires of the nation for example, P.H.C.N., N.R.C.
- They help to raise the standard of living of the people through the regular provision of these services.
ORGANISATIONAL STUCTURE OF PUBLIC CORPORATION
The Board of Directors is appointed by the government. There are also managing directors who are also appointed by the government. Others are appointed by the board of directors, the chairman and the deputy chairman are appointed by the minister concerned. The above mentioned people get on with the organization of the corporation.
A corporation has the following branches; finance section, sales section, production section, administrative section, and transport and public relations divisions etc, all work towards the ultimate goal of the corporation for which it is set up.
- List 5 functions of public corporation.
- Explain the organizational structure of public corporation.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUBLIC CORPORATION AND CIVIL SERVICE
- Government ministries render services without profit motive, while a public corporation is established to provide services.
- A public corporation is managed by members of board of directors, while the civil service is managed by a minister advised by the Director General (Permanent Secretary).
- The political head of a public corporation is the chairman, while the political head of a ministry is a minister.
- Those who work in public corporation are called public servants while those who work in civil service are known as civil servants.
- The administrative head of a public corporation is the General Manager, while that of the civil service is known as Director General or permanent secretary.
- Public corporations are set up to provide essential services like water, electricity for the comfort of the people, while government ministries are set up to formulate and execute government policies.
- A public corporation takes decision quicker than a ministry.
- Public corporation can still perform without the annual budgetary allocation, while government ministries fully depend on the annual budgetary allocation to perform.
- Workers in public corporations enjoy better conditions of service, while workers in government ministries do not enjoy much conditions of service.
CONTROL OF PUBLIC CORPORATION
The public corporation can be controlled through the following ways;
- Legislative Control: Public corporations are set up through acts of parliament. The legislature can control them through the following ways;
- The laws stipulated in their acts.
- Auditing their accounts.
- Summoning their officials to explain any act not understood.
- Budget allocation and approval.
- Ministerial control: This is done by :
- Appointment and dissolution of board of directors if they are not performing.
- Approval of loans and expenditure.
- Auditing of accounts
- Issuing of directives.
- Judicial Control: The court can declare the activities of any public corporations illegal if they go contrary to the laws establishing them.
- Financial Control: Senior officials of the corporation can be made to appear before the legislature to explain their budget. Also annual reports of public corporation are presented to the legislature for verification.
- Public Control: Members of the public who consume goods and services of the public corporations exercise some form of control through criticisms they level against these corporations.
- Differentiate between public and civil service.
- How are public corporations controlled?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION
- State five reasons for setting up public corporation
- Describe the organizational structure of public corporation
- Mention six(6) examples of public corporation.
- State 5 features of communism.
- Highlight 5 features of feudalism.
Comprehensive Government by J.U Anyaele pages 113-116.
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 121-126.
- A public corporation is headed by a —- (a) minister (b) permanent secretary (c) chairman.
- Those who work in public corporation are called — (a) civil servants (b) public servants (c) political head.
- Public corporation is set up by —- (a) the minister (b) act of parliament (c) chairman.
- Public corporations are owned by the (a) director (b) government (c) minister.
- All but one of the following are examples of public corporation (a) NIPOST (b) NITEL (c) Ray Power
- How is a public service different from a civil service?
- How are public corporations controlled?
TOPIC: LOCAL GOVERNMENT
- Definition and Types of Local Government, Reasons for the Creation of Local Government,
- Powers and Functions of Local Government, Sources of Local Government Revenue and Control of Local Government
- Problems and Suggested Solutions to Problems of Local Government.
MEANING OF LOCAL GOVRENMENT
A local government can be defined as government at the local level established by law to perform specific functions within defined area. It has the power to take charge of local political affairs. They are created by acts of parliament as avenues by which the federal government reaches the locality. They are usually the third tier of government. In Nigeria, they were created under the 1963 Republican constitution.
TYPES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Professor Harold Anderfer classified local government into 4 basic types. They are:
- French Type: This type of local government is an extension of the central government. In other words, the staffs of local governments are also staff of the federal government.
- English Type: This type of local government has a feature of autonomy. Though federal government has some measure of control over it. Nigeria adopts this system. There is no local economy.
- Traditional Type: This system is entirely indigenous. It is neither western nor eastern. It is based on leadership of a traditional ruler.
- Communist Type: Most communist countries practice this system. There is no local economy. Every local government works in conformity with the socialist ideology and values.
REASONS FOR THE CREATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
- The local governments are established in order to bring government closer to the people at the grassroots.
- They allow the indigenes of the different local areas to govern themselves according to their culture and traditions.
- They serve as a link between the people and the state and federal government.
- The creation of local government gives room for even development in parts of the country.
- They act as representatives of the federal and state government in the implementation of policies and in the maintaining of law and order etc.
- They can also provide employment at the local level.
- They provide the essential services to the people in areas like electricity, roads, water, health care centers etc.
- They are created to avoid the concentration of power in one authority.
- They are created to give the people in the rural areas a sense of belonging and participation in the government.
- Define local government
- State and briefly explain the types of local government.
POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
- Local government constructs and maintains public roads, water ways, bridges, gutters, sidewalks and drainages.
- Establishment and maintenance of markets, motor parks and public conveniences and refuse disposal.
- Collection of taxes, radio and television licenses, rents etc.
- The provision and maintenance of primary schools.
- They register deaths, births, marriages etc.
- Maintenance of forests.
- Naming of roads and streets and numbering of houses.
- Establishment and maintenance of cemeteries, burial grounds and homes for destitute.
- Development of agricultural and natural resources.
- They make bye laws for the maintenance of law and order. They also set up customary courts as directed by the state government.
SOURCES OF REVENUE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
- Federal Government Grants: Local government gets their fund from federal government. This is the major source of local government revenue. In Nigeria, local government is entitled by law to receive 10 percent of federally derived revenue
- Grants from state government
- Loans from financial institutions
- Taxes from non salary earners residing within their areas of jurisdiction.
- Local rates like water, market stalls, motor parks etc.
- License fees such as bicycle, dogs, radio, television, canoe etc.
- Court fees: These are fines imposed on offenders in customary courts which also help to generate revenue to local governments.
- Commercial ventures such as transport services, plantation farms, guest houses, holiday resorts, poultry farms etc.
CONTROL OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
- Amendment of law: The national assembly through the federal government can amend the law establishing the local government.
- Withholding of grants: The federal government may for one reason or the other withhold the grant allocated to local government. It may be on the grounds of mismanagement of fund.
- Judicial control: The law courts can declare bye-laws made by the local government as null and void if they are not in conformity with the provisions of the country’s constitution.
- Ministerial control: Ministers or commissioners and government officials controls the activities of local councils from time to time.
- Audit control: The government officials audit the account book of council at least once a year.
- Public control: Members of the public whom the local government are meant to serve, use constructive criticisms to control the activities of the councils.
- Mention 5 functions of local government
- Mention 4 ways in which local government can be controlled.
PROBLEMS OF LOCAL GOVERNMRNTS
- Bribery and corruption: Bribery and corruption are common in some council as well as embezzlement and misappropriation of funds.
- Financial problem or poverty of local government bodies.
- Shortage of personnel: Some council officials are untrained or ill-trained and so inefficient.
- The machinery for or rate collections is grossly inadequate and inefficient.
- Lack of infrastructure such as electricity, pipe borne water, good roads etc.
- The size of local government councils: A council should not be too large as to create problems.
- Favoritism and nepotism.
- Illiteracy among councilors.
- Interference from central government.
SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
- Control of the central government should be reduced.
- Honest and capable hands should be used in the collection of rates and levies.
- Qualified personnel should be employed to local governments.
- Local government accounts should be audited regularly and any official found guilty on misappropriation of funds should be prosecuted by E.F.C.C. or I.C.P.C.
- More money should be allocated to local governments from the federation account to enable them carry out their functions.
- Access to loan should not be made difficult for the local government.
- Regular in-service training and seminars should be given or organized for local government workers.
- Mention 5 problems of local government.
- List five suggested solutions to the problems of local government.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Discuss the various ways through which the local government can be controlled.
- Identify the sources of local government revenue.
- Highlight the powers and functions of local government.
- Discuss 5 features of capitalism.
- State 5 characteristics of socialism
Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 116-121
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 131-134.
- All the following are sources of revenue of local government except (a)rate (b) motor parks and market fees (c) duties on exportation of local products.
- An electoral district for local government election is—– (a) senatorial district (b) ward (C) constituency.
- One of the problems facing local government in Nigeria is the (a) withdrawal of grants by the central government (b) lack of qualified personnel (c) collection of taxes.
- Local government imposes rates because (a) the government wants the rich to become richer (b) the people are expected to finance political parties (c) of the need to provide fund for public corporation.
- Representatives of the people in the local government areas are called (a) parliamentarians (b) congressmen (c) councilors.
- Explain the sources of revenue of local government
- Explain the problems confronting local government.
TOPIC: PRE-COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION/POLITICAL SYSTEM IN NIGERIA
- Hausa/Fulani Political System.
- Igbo Political System.
PRE-COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION IN HAUSA/FULANI LAND
Historical background of the Hausa
The Fulani assumed the political leadership of the Habe (Hausa) states in the 19th century after the jihad war led by Othman Dan Fodio. He established the Sokoto caliphate, which was highly politically centralized.
He introduced a new system of selecting rulers known as Emirs to rule the caliphate. Sokoto and Gwandu were made two headquarters for all emirates as each Emir owed allegiance to Othman Dan Fodio and his representatives at Sokoto and Gwandu.
- The Emirate: The caliphate was divided into emirates headed by an Emir possessing almost all powers. He was an authoritarian ruler. He made laws and maintained law and order according to Islamic rules. He was assisted by a number of advisers. These are:
- The Waziri- he was the head of all the officials.
- The Galadima- He is in charge of the capital.
- The Madawaki- He was the commander of the army.
- The Dogari- He was in charge of treasury
- SarkinRuwa- the River fishing official.
- SarkinFada- The head of the palace workers.
- SarkinPawa- The head of all butchers.
- Yari- Official in charge of the prisons.
- The legislative organ: The Muslim law known as Sharia was applied throughout the emirate. The law was regarded as the law of God and supreme.
- The Executive organ: The Emir was authoritarian in nature. Though he had a council of adviser, he could accept or reject their advice.
- Judicial organ: The laws were based on sharia laws and the Alkali judges administered them. Some minor cases were passed to the village heads to settle. Criminal and land cases were for the Emir to decide as long as Sharia laws dealt with civil cases.
- District administration: Each emirate was divided into district headed by an official appointed by the Emir called Hakimi.
- What were the powers and functions of an Emir in the Hausa/Fulani political system?
- How did the caliphate begin?
PRE-COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION IN IGBO LAND
The Igbo system had no central authority like the Yoruba and Hausa. Different groups shared power and it involved the general participation of people in governance .They practice a form of direct democracy.
FEATURES OF IGBO POLITICAL SYSTEM
- It was a decentralized and segmented system.
- It was republican. No individual had hereditary rights to political office.
- The system was democratic as there was the principle of equality and social justice.
- There was no centralized power. No one was a political ruler.
- Women played a significant role in government through, the Umuada (daughters of the kindred)
STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION OF THE IGBO POLITICAL SYSTEM
- The Village Administration: The Igbo political system was based on the village as a political unit. Each village was made up of families. Each family head held the Ofor title and they all formed the council of elders, which govern the village. The oldest Ofor title holder was referred to as the Okpara and presided over the council of elders meeting where decisions affecting the people are taking. During village meetings, every adult was expected to participate.
- The Executive: The affairs of the village were discussed by the heads (council of elders). Every adult had the power to contribute.
- The Legislature: The villagers made laws themselves. The age grade could make laws, which the elders accepted.
- The Judiciary: Family heads settle dispute between families. Serious cases were referred to the council of elders and the Okpara.
- The Age Grade: There were young men who belonged to the same age group. They were involved in the administration of the village and perform public duties like clearing of parts, road etc, they maintained security and helped in the implementation of policies made by the council of elders.
- The Ozor Titleholders: Some wealthy and influential men took the Ozor title, which was very expensive. The society respected such men and they could join the council of elders to debate on issues affecting the people.
- Women Association: They participated in settling disputes as they served as a powerful pressure group. They socialized with their young ones by inculcating in them good morals, political values and norms. They stood against corruption and oppression.
- List 5 features of Igbo political system.
- What were the functions of the age grade in the Igbo political system?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Describe the composition of the village assembly in the Igbo pre-colonial political system
- Discuss the roles of the Ozor title holders in the Igbo pre-colonial system.
- Define Totalitarianism
- Give 5 features of totalitarianism
Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 122-126
Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 136-140
- The arm of government responsible for implementing laws in Igbo pre-colonial system is? (a) The village assembly (b) Age grade (c) Ozor holder.
- An institution which seeks to redress people’s grievances against abuse of administrative power is called (a) judicial commission (b) Ombudsman (c) civil service.
- The body of officials who help the executive to formulate and implement policies is (a) the legislature (b) civil service (c) public corporation.
- Legitimacy of government simply means (a) the ability to control others (b) the rights to inherit power (c) popular acceptance of a political system.
- In the pre-colonial political system, which of these societies practiced a form of democracy? (a) Yoruba (b) Hausa (c) Igbo
- How is the Igbo political system different from the Hausa?
- What is the role of the Ozor titleholders in the Igbo pre-colonial political system?
TOPIC: PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEM
- Pre-colonial Administration in Yoruba Land
- Functions of Traditional Rulers, Council of Elders, Secret Societies and Age Grade
PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEM IN YORUBA LAND
Oyo was a very large empire divided into different provinces. The system of government in the Old Oyo Empire was like most other kingdoms and empires that existed in Africa. It was monarchical in nature and was headed by a king called Alafin.
Features of Yoruba Pre-colonial Political System
- The size of the political system was a very large one.
- The system was a constitutional monarch, the system was decentralized, and the Oba was not an autocratic ruler.
- There was a system of checks and balances so that the Oba did not abuse the power.
- The Oba only ratified the decisions taken by the chiefs.
- There was no system of taxation.
- Political head: The Alafin was the political head of the empire. He was chosen by the Oyomesi and seven hereditary king makers of the empire. It was claimed that the Alafin only appear to the public three times a year during historic festivals. The administration of the empire involved the Alafin assisted by the Aremo, the, Bashorun, Oyomesi and others. The Bashorun (prime minister) and the Oyomesi played a key role in the administration.
- The Aremo: He is the eldest son of the Alafin but cannot succeed the father at his demise. He only assisted the Alafin in the administration of the empire.
- The Oyomesi: They were the seven hereditary kingmakers in the empire headed by the Bashorun. Their duty was to install a new Alafin when the ruling one dies or to remove the Alafin. They also assisted the Alafin in the administration of the empire.
- Provincial Governors: (Bale or Oba) each province was ruled by Ajele or Oba. They were responsible for the collection of tributes and the payment of homage to the Alafin.
- The Army: The Are-ona kankafo was the head of the army. It was claimed that if the army suffers a defeat, the kankafo will commit suicide.
- The Ogboni Society: This was a secret society made up of prominent diviners headed by the Oluwo. They were the third organ of government in the Old Oyo Empire. They checked the excesses of the Oyomesi such as their rejection of an Alafin. They performed judicial functions. They maintained and preserved the cultural duties of the people.
- The three Eunuchs: They were also involved in the administration of the empire. They included.
- The Osi Efa- He was in charge of political affairs and customary, he had to die with the Alafin.
- The Oni Efa- for the judiciary
- The Otun Efa- performs religious duties for the Alafin.
- The Empty Calabash: If the Alafin begins to act unconstitutionally, the Oyomesi could authorize the Bashorun to send an empty calabash to the king which signifies his rejection. The Alafin was expected to commit suicide afterwards.
- Kingship: The ascension to the throne of Alafin was not hereditary but the Oyomesi was free to choose a new ruler from the royal families.
- State the features of the Yoruba pre-colonial political system.
- Describe the political administration of the Yoruba pre-colonial system.
FUNCTIONS OF THE TRADITIONAL RULERS IN THE PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEM
- They acted as the supreme rulers in their various communities.
- They performed legislative functions of law making in their communities.
- They ensured the defense of their communities.
- They performed religious functions as high priest of some religious cults.
- They were the head of administration in their various communities.
- They safeguarded the lives of people in their communities.
- They were involved in the sharing of communal wealth.
- They served as political symbols of unity.
- They were involved in the maintenance of law and order in the communities.
- They planned for the progress and development of their communities.
FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF COUNCIL OF ELDERS
- The council advised the paramount chiefs.
- The council of elders was responsible for the maintenance of law and order.
- The council acted as decision making body.
- It performed religious functions.
- The council helped to install and deposed paramount chiefs.
- The council checked the activities of the paramount chiefs.
- The council decided whether the community would go to war or not.
FUNCTIONS OF SECRET SOCIETIES
- They helped to enforce law and order.
- They performed both military and police functions.
- They served as link between the members of the communities and their ancestors.
- They protected their members.
- They helped to educate their members and other members of the community.
- They performed rituals to drive away evil spirits.
- They acted as agents of socialization.
FUNCTIONS OF AGE GRADE
- The prosecution of warfare was done by the age grade.
- They undertook social labor like construction of roads, bridges etc.
- They performed socialization functions.
- They performed ceremonial functions during important occasions in their communities.
- They helped to defend their communities against both internal and external aggression.
- They checked wrong use of powers by permanent chiefs.
- What were the functions of the age grade in pre-colonial political system?
- List 5 functions of the council of elders.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- State the functions of the Oyomesi in the old Oyo empire
- Highlight the functions of the Ogboni society in the Yoruba pre-colonial system.
- Define State
- List and explain the characteristics of a State.
- Discuss the component of political culture.
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 138-139
Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 122-123
- The head of Oyomesi in the old Oyo Empire was (a) Aremo (b) Oba (c) Bashorun.
- The Yoruba pre-colonial political system was —- in nature
(a) Hierarchical (b) Monarchical (c) Republican.
- The eldest son of the Alafin was called (a) Aremo (b) Oluwo (c) Baale
- Which of the following titles among the Igbos in the pre-colonial era required substantial wealth before one could acquire it? (a) Ofor (b) ozor (c) Eze.
- In the Hausa pre-colonial political system, sovereignty was located in the
(a)Emir (b) Galadima (c) Waziri.
- Examine the features of the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration
- Examine the features of the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration
TOPIC: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
- Historical Perspective (Definition)
- Reasons for Colonialism and Features of Colonial Rule
- Classification of Colonial Rule
DEFINITION OF COLONIALISM IN AFRICA
Colonialism may be defined as an imposition of a more developed culture over a less developed one backed up by expansionist and economic adventure.
It may also be defined as the forceful ruling of one country by another. It is the extension of political control of one powerful nation over a weaker nation. This means the weaker nation is politically dominated and economically exploited by the stronger one. Colonialism is sometimes called imperialism.
The first attempt made by Britain to set up a formal government in Nigeria was in 1900. Before 1880’s, Europe had what is known as the industrial revolution. This brought the desire to source for finished goods. Britain, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal were involved in the colonies in Africa. So, the competition led to the scramble and partition of Africa. At the Berlin West Africa conference of 1884-1885, African lands were shared to European countries as colonies.
The first British attempt to set up a formal government in Nigeria was in 1900. By 1900, what is known as Nigeria today was made up of 3 separate administrative areas or units namely:
- Colony of Lagos
- Protectorate of Northern Nigeria
- Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
In May 1906, Lagos colony and southern protectorate were joined together and renamed the colony and protectorate of Southern Nigeria. In 1914, Lord Frederick Luggard amalgamated Lagos and Southern Protectorate with the Northern Protectorate to form a single colony called Nigeria.
REASONS FOR COLONIALISM
- Economic reasons:
- Raw materials for industries: Following the industrial revolution in Europe between 18th and 19th century, the European industrialists needed a large quantity of raw materials to feed their industries. This brought them to Africa (Nigeria).
- Market: The Europeans were also looking for market outside Europe to sell their excess product. Africa was seen as a new market to be utilized.
- Social Reasons.
The colonies were seen as a place to settle their surplus population
- Cultural Reasons: Colonialism was also seen as a means of civilizing the blacks who were wrongly believed to be primitive.
- Humanitarian Reasons: The Colonizers also explained that it was a means of stopping slave trade and inter-ethnic wars in West Africa.
- Religious Reasons: The Europeans adventures to the West African coast had the motive to win souls for God and convert Africans to Christianity.
- Prestige motive; Colonialism was seen as a means of enhancing the prestige of metropolitan centers like Britain and France.
- Political Reasons: The Europeans wanted to extend their spheres of influence and rule the territories in Africa.
- Explorative Motive: Many Europeans explorers came to Africa to explore various parts of Africa so as to discover various human and natural resources.
- What do you understand by colonialism?
- Give four reasons for colonialism in Africa.
FEATURES OF COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
- Central Administration: This was headed by the Government. He was appointed by the Secretary General of state for colonies. The Governor is the president of both the legislative and executive council.
- Native administration: The colonial administration instituted a system of native administration in the protectorate, provinces and districts through the indirect rule system.
CLASSIFICATION OF BRITISH COLONIES IN WEST AFRICA
- Crown colony: This is established by military conquest. The geographical territory is owned by the British crowns as property e.g. Lagos colony.
- Protectorate: This refers to a territory under the protection of British government. It was protected against other European conquest e.g. Northern and Southern protectorate of Nigeria.
- Trust territory: These were the colonies under the control of Germany before it was defeated by the allied powers e.g. Cameroun, Togo and Tanzania.
- Briefly explain the features of colonial administration.
- What is trust territory?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION
- Describe the historical background of Colonialism in Nigeria.
- State the classification of British colonies in West Africa.
- What is political socialization?
- List and explain the agents of socialization.
Comprehensive Government pages 127-129
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 136-140.
- Nigeria was colonized by (a) Britain (b) France (c) Germany.
- The Northern and Southern Protectorate were amalgamated by (a) Sir Lord Luggard (b) Sir Clifford (c) Sir Richards.
- The following were reasons for colonialism except (a) prestige (b) religion (c) slave trade.
- Africa lands were shared to Europeans countries in the year (a) 1885-1886 (b) 1883-1884 (c) 1884-1885.
- The name Nigeria was formed by (a) Flora Shaw (b) Lord Luggard (c) Queen Elizabeth.
- Trace the history of colonialism in West Africa.
- Explain the classification of British colonies in West Africa.
TOPIC: INDIRECT RULE
- Meaning and Reasons
- Indirect Rule System in Nigeria-North West and East
- Merits and Demerits of Indirect rule.
Indirect rule may be defined as a British system of ruling her colonies with the use of local chiefs and other intermediaries and traditional laws and customs with British officials merely supervising the administration. Indirect rule was first introduced in Nigeria by Sir, Lord Frederick Luggard who described the system as a child of necessity. Lord Luggard is also referred to as the ‘father of indirect rule’.
FEATURES OF INDIRECT RULE
- Indirect rule used the existing traditional system of administration.
- It recognized the status of traditional rulers.
- Traditional laws and customs were used in the administration.
- It was supervised by British officials.
- It was not an expensive system of administration.
- Taxes were collected.
- Native courts were used for administration of justice.
- Native police and prisons were utilized in the system.
REASONS FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF INDIRECT RULE
- Lack of personnel: Few Europeans were prepared to come to West Africa which was described as a white man’s grave due to the poor climate and presence of deadly insects and tsetse flies.
- Inadequate Fund: Britain’s reluctance to involve heavily in the financing of her colonies forced Luggard to adopt the system.
- In countries like Indian and Uganda, the system worked effectively. Luggard felt it could work in Nigeria.
- It was economically cheap as Britain as Britain was saved the huge cost of maintaining officials in Nigeria.
- To preserve existing traditions and customs.
- Due to the vast areas involved.
- Language difficulty.
- Poor transportation and communication.
- What is indirect rule?
- Give 5 reasons for its introduction in West Africa.
INDIRECT RULE IN THE NORTHERN NIGERIA
Northern Nigeria at this point was made up of the centralized Sokoto caliphate and Borno Empire in addition to smaller pagan areas.
WHY INDIRECT RULE WAS SUCCESSFUL IN NORTHERN NIGERIA.
- The system preserved their existing culture.
- Centralization of power: Most of the Emirs were authoritarian as nobody challenged their authority.
- Illiteracy: Most of them were illiterates and this explained why they could not challenge imposition of foreign culture.
- Religion: They believe that their rulers are divinely sent and so obedience to rulers is necessary as true believers.
- Taxation system: They already practiced tax payment before colonial administration. The system was only improved
- The British officials promoted the position of traditional rulers.
INDIRECT RULE IN THE WESTERN NIGERIA
The Obas were used in the Western Nigeria. The system did not prove 100 percent successful but it was a partial success.
- The Limited Powers of Obas: The Obas unlike the emirs had limited powers and did not command total respect like the emirs in Northern Nigeria.
- Education: The majority of the Yoruba’s were highly educated and that put them in the position to question indirect rule. They kicked against the system because there was no morality in colonialism.
- Religion: Majority of the Yorubas were Christians and Christianity is not as conservative as Islam. They questioned the reasons for the introduction of indirect rule system.
- Absence of Highly Centralized Administration: The Yorubas did not have a centralized system of administration like the Hausas. This caused the partial success of the indirect rule.
- Boycott by Educated Elite: The educated elites in the Western region rejected the system because they were not allowed to participate in the administration. This got them angry as they were not valued.
- Restoring Authority in the Alafin of Oyo: Lord Luggard tried to restore authority in Yoruba land to the Alafin of Oyo instead of the Ooni of Ife, and this led to his failure. The Yoruba’s believed that IIe-Ife was their ancestral home and the Ooni was their head.
- Imposition of Tax: A new system of taxation that was introduced sparked off riots in every part of Yoruba land like Abeokuta, Ikire, Iseyin etc.
- Explain any three reasons given for the success of indirect rule system in the northern Nigeria.
- Compare the indirect rule system in northern and western Nigeria.
INDIRECT RULE SYSTEM IN THE EASTERN NIGERIA
The indirect rule system succeeded in the north met partial success in the west and failed completely in the eastern Nigeria. This was because the easterners never developed monarchies and the people appointed by Luggard as warrant chiefs were rejected. Also the system of taxation in an effort to raise funds to sustain the indirect rule led to series of disturbances like the famous Aba women riot of 1929.
REASONS FOR THE FAILURE OF INDIRECT RULE SYSTEM IN EASTERN NIGERIA
- Absence of Traditional Rulers: The Igbos never developed a monarchical system. The absence of chiefs made the system impracticable as the people they imposed were rejected by the people.
- Appointment of Warrant Chiefs: The British were forced to appoint warrant chiefs, not minding their characters and family background. They were out rightly rejected by the people and this was a cause of the 1929 Aba women’s riot.
- The Type of Political Administration Practiced: The Igbo political system of administration was decentralized without a central authority and decision making body. This led to the failure of indirect rule system.
- Absence of a System of Taxation: The Igbo unlike the Hausa did not pay tax and this made the system to fail woefully as there was no generation of funds. To make matter worse, the British government refused to get involved financially.
- Religion: the Igbos were mainly Christians and they were not conservative and submissive like the northerners. Their lack of submissiveness was caused by absence of chiefs and their decentralized system.
- Education: During this period, majority of the Igbos were educated and this put them in the position to protest against the system.
- Boycott of the Educated Elites: The British preferred half educated people or illiterates as warrant chiefs. The educated ones therefore rejected the system.
- Why did the indirect rule fail in eastern Nigeria?
- How did education contribute to the failure of the indirect rule system in eastern Nigeria?
MERITS OF INDIRECT RULE
- The indirect rule system was less expensive.
- It preserved native laws, customs and cultures.
- It developed political activities.
- It reduced the administrative cost on the part of the colonial government.
- It made the collection of taxes, rates and levies very easy.
- It trained traditional rulers in the act of government and infused in the rulers personal responsibility, self reliance and probity.
- It helped to put a stop to some evil practices like human sacrifice and killing of twins that were before now going before the advent of the Europeans.
DEMERITS OF INDIRECT RULE
- The native rulers were puppets of the British officers. They were used for the selfish ends of the white masters.
- The system alienated the educated elites.
- Most of the traditional rulers were involved in evil practices and the system could not prosecute them.
- There were bribery and corruption because of the poor condition of service for the native rulers.
- Democratic rights of the people were abused
- The system encouraged tribalism and sectionalism.
- The system was an imposition.
- List 5 merits of indirect rule.
- What are the weaknesses of indirect rule?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION
- Indirect rule was a partial success in the West; discuss.
- Highlight the features of indirect rule.
- Differentiate between written and unwritten constitution.
- State 5 reasons for the adoption of federalism.
Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 128-134
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 142-147
- Indirect rule was introduced by ____ (a) Sir Clifford (b) Sir Lord Luggard (c) Sir Richards.
- ALL the following were the reasons for introducing indirect rule except
(a) poverty (b) language difficulty (c) lack of personnel.
- The indirect rule system was successful in the north because of all the following but (a) illiteracy (b) religion (c) decentralization.
- Indirect rule system was introduced in Nigeria in the year (a) 1906 (b) 1900 (c) 1914.
- Indirect rule was successful in the east? yes/no
- Explain three reasons given for the partial success of indirect rule in the western Nigeria.
- What were the achievements of the system of indirect rule?
TOPIC: FRENCH COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
- Historical Background
- French Colonial Policies: Assimilation and Association-Features, Reasons for the Failure of Assimilation
- Comparison between British and French Colonial Policies
France, in the administration of West Africa colonies constituted all of them into a loose federation with headquarters in Dakar, Senegal. A governor general was appointed in Dakar and he was in charge of the federation. France in her belief of the superior of French civilization and inferiority of Africa civilization adopted a system of administration known as the policy of Assimilation.
THE POLICY OF ASSIMILATION
The policy of Assimilation involves the imposition of French culture on West African culture. This means the way of life, tradition, customs, beliefs, thinking, and traditional institutions gave way to a more advanced French culture and civilization. This Assimilation policy was practiced in the four communes. They are Dakar, Goree, Rufisque and Saint Louis.
FEATURES OF FRENCH COLONIAL SYSTEM (ASSIMILATION)
- It was centralized.
- It was a direct rule.
- West Africans were divided into two, citizens and subjects.
- Education was restricted because few schools were built.
- Paris served as the base of centralized administration.
- There was absence of political parties and association.
- There was non-recognition of chieftaincy institutions.
- There was no respect for African culture.
- French officials arrested and imprisoned Africans without trial.
REASONS FOR THE FAILURE OF THE POLICY OF ASSIMILATION
- There were cultural differences between the French and the West African. The French did not consider the culture of the West Africans before introducing the policy.
- The powers of the traditional chiefs were reduced.
- The system placed financial burden on the people of France and they therefore criticized it.
- The French intellectuals opposed the policy that would create equality between the French men and Africans.
- The success of indirect rule system in Nigeria motivated the need for a change of the French policy so as to make the system flexible.
- The Second World War and its aftermath/ effects compelled the French to abandon assimilation.
- Forced labour, jail without trial etc made the policy unpopular and objectionable.
- The love the people of Africa demonstrated for their culture contributed to the failure of the policy.
- The division of Africans into two classes, 1st class and second class citizen contributed to the failure of indirect rule.
- Compare the British and French colonial policies in West Africa.
- List five features of the French policy of Assimilation.
POLICY OF ASSOCIATION
As a result of the failure of assimilation which was caused by wrong opposition and wide criticism, France decided to abolish the policy of assimilation and adopted the policy of association which is similar to indirect rule.
FEATURES OF THE POLICY OF ASSOCIATION
- It respected and recognized the people’s culture.
- It abolished the indignant policy of forced labour.
- The people’s traditional political institutions were recognized.
- Dual citizenship was abolished.
- Freedom of political association was permitted.
- Each colony was granted freedom to develop in its own way as they desired.
- More French personnel were used than Africans.
Mention 5 features of French policy of association.
COMPARISON BETWEEN THE BRITISH AND FRENCH COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
- While Britain adopted indirect rule system of government, France adopted a direct rule system.
- While Britain did not federate their colonies in West Africa, France did.
- Britain treated local languages and cultures with some respect, while France disregarded local languages and culture.
- Britain recognized and respected traditional rulers, while France did not respect traditional rulers.
- Britain encouraged mass education in her colonies, but it was restricted in French colonies, only few had access to education.
- Britain, allowed the function of political associations in her colonies, while France opposed and suppressed the formation of political parties.
- The British indirect rule gives each colony the opportunity to develop its area in its own best way, while France did not.
- While Britain allowed parliaments and assemblies to develop in her colonies, France did not allow such.
Compare the British and French colonial policies in West Africa.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISON QUESTION
- What is the Policy of Assimilation?
- State the features of the French Policy of Association
- What were the reasons for the failure of the Policy of Assimilation?
- What is bi-cameral legislature?
- Give two (2) merits and two (2) demerits of bi-cameral legislature.
Comprehensive Government pages 134-138
Essential Government pages 147-150
- Which of the French policy is similar to British indirect rule? (a) Policy of Assimilation (b) Policy of Unionism (c) Policy of Association.
- The following countries were colonized by Britain except (a) Senegal (b) Nigeria (c) Ghana.
- —– was the headquarters of French West Africa colonies (a) Goree (b) Dakar (c) Senegal.
- How many countries were colonized by Britain in West Africa? (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 5.
- The following are the features of French policy of assimilation except- (a) it was decentralized (b) it was a direct rule (c) Education was restricted.
- Explain 5 features of French policy of assimilation.
- What is policy of association?