Components of soils with percentage of the contents in the soil Agricultural Science JSS 2 Third Term

Lesson Plan Presentation

Subject: Agricultural Science

Class: JSS 2

Topic: Soil Components and Their Percentages

I. Learning Objectives:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  1. Identify the various components that make up soil.
  2. Understand the percentages of each soil component.
  3. Recognize the importance of each soil component in supporting plant growth.
  4. Explain the role of soil components in agriculture.

II. Embedded Core Skills:

  1. Critical thinking and analysis.
  2. Scientific observation and identification.
  3. Oral communication and presentation.
  4. Problem-solving and application of knowledge.

III. Lesson Presentation


Title: Soil Components and Their Percentages

Introduction: Today, we will be discussing the different components that make up soil. Soil is a vital natural resource that supports plant growth and plays a crucial role in agriculture. Understanding the composition of soil is essential for successful farming. Let’s explore the various soil components and their approximate percentages.

  1. Mineral Particles (45%):
    • Sand: It is the largest particle size and has a gritty texture. It helps improve soil drainage but has low water-holding capacity.
    • Silt: This medium-sized particle has a smooth texture. It improves soil fertility and water retention.
    • Clay: It is the smallest particle size and has a sticky texture. Clay retains nutrients and water but has poor drainage.
  2. Organic Matter (5%):
    • Decomposed Plant and Animal Material: Organic matter consists of decomposed leaves, roots, and animal waste. It enhances soil fertility, structure, and water-holding capacity.
    • Humus: This dark-colored, stable form of organic matter provides nutrients to plants and improves soil structure.
  3. Water (25%):
    • Soil contains a significant amount of water, which is crucial for plant growth. It acts as a solvent for nutrients and helps transport them to plant roots.
  4. Air (25%):
    • Air fills the pore spaces between soil particles, providing oxygen to plant roots and soil organisms. It is essential for root respiration and microbial activity.
  5. Living Organisms (Trace amounts):
    • Bacteria and Fungi: These microorganisms break down organic matter, releasing nutrients for plants.
    • Earthworms and Insects: They help aerate the soil and improve its structure through their burrowing activities.

Note: The percentages mentioned above are approximate and can vary depending on soil type and location.


Conclusion: Understanding the composition of soil is crucial for agricultural success. The components of soil, such as mineral particles, organic matter, water, air, and living organisms, all play vital roles in supporting plant growth and ensuring soil fertility. By maintaining a balanced soil composition, farmers can create favorable conditions for crops and maximize their yield




  1. The largest soil particle size is _______. a) Sand b) Silt c) Clay
  2. Organic matter makes up approximately _______ of the soil. a) 10% b) 25% c) 5%
  3. Humus is a stable form of _______ matter in the soil. a) Inorganic b) Organic c) Synthetic
  4. Water comprises around _______ of the soil. a) 10% b) 25% c) 50%
  5. _______ particles have a sticky texture and retain nutrients and water. a) Sand b) Silt c) Clay
  6. The percentage of air in the soil is approximately _______. a) 5% b) 10% c) 25%
  7. _______ organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, help break down organic matter. a) Living b) Non-living c) Inorganic
  8. Earthworms and insects improve soil structure through their _______ activities. a) Burrowing b) Flying c) Swimming
  9. The approximate percentage of mineral particles in the soil is _______. a) 45% b) 65% c) 85%
  10. _______ is the smallest soil particle size. a) Sand b) Silt c) Clay

I hope these questions help reinforce your understanding of soil components and their percentages!


III. Lesson Presentation:

A. Introduction:

  1. Greet the students and briefly recap the previous lesson on the importance of soil in agriculture.
  2. Introduce the topic: “Today, we will be discussing the different components that make up soil and their percentages.”

B. Teacher’s Activities:

  1. Present a visual aid or display showing the different soil components.
  2. Explain each soil component and its importance in detail, highlighting their percentages.
  3. Use examples and illustrations to enhance understanding.
  4. Encourage students to ask questions and participate actively throughout the presentation.

C. Learners’ Activities:

  1. Observe and listen attentively to the teacher’s explanation.
  2. Take notes on the different soil components and their percentages.
  3. Engage in class discussions and ask questions for clarification.
  4. Participate in hands-on activities or experiments related to soil components, if applicable

D. Assessment:

  1. Conduct a class discussion to assess students’ understanding of the topic.
  2. Ask questions to check comprehension and encourage students to explain concepts in their own words.
  3. Monitor students’ participation and engagement during the lesson.

E. Evaluation Questions:

  1. What are the main components of soil?
  2. Which soil particle is the largest in size?
  3. What is the percentage range of organic matter in soil?
  4. How does clay differ from sand and silt in terms of texture and water retention?
  5. What is the importance of water in the soil?
  6. Name two types of living organisms found in the soil.
  7. How do earthworms and insects contribute to soil structure?
  8. What is the approximate percentage of mineral particles in the soil?
  9. How does organic matter enhance soil fertility?
  10. Explain the role of air in the soil.

F. Conclusion:

  1. Summarize the key points covered in the lesson.
  2. Emphasize the importance of understanding soil components for successful agriculture.
  3. Encourage students to explore further resources and conduct experiments related to soil components.
  4. Provide a brief preview of the next lesson.

G. Homework: Assign students to research and write a short essay on the importance of maintaining a balanced soil composition for sustainable agriculture.


Note: Depending on the available time and resources, the lesson plan can be adjusted to include hands-on activities, group discussions, or audiovisual aids to enhance student engagement and learning

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