# Enumerate any five (5) basic sampling techniques and explain any three (3) The basic sampling techniques in educational research are; A. Random sampling B. Stratified Sampling D. Accidental Sampling E. Quota Sampling C. Cluster Sampling

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**1. Random Sampling:**

Random sampling involves selecting a subset of individuals from the entire population in such a way that each member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen. This technique ensures that the sample is representative of the population, reducing the potential for bias. In educational research, a random sample of students might be chosen to participate in a study, and this method helps generalize findings to the larger student population.

**2. Stratified Sampling:**

Stratified sampling involves dividing the population into distinct subgroups or strata based on certain characteristics (e.g., grade level, gender, socioeconomic status). Then, a random sample is drawn from each subgroup in proportion to its size in the population. This technique ensures that each subgroup is represented in the sample, which can be useful when certain subgroups are of particular interest in educational research.

**3. Cluster Sampling:**

Cluster sampling involves dividing the population into clusters, such as schools or classrooms, and then randomly selecting a few clusters to include in the sample. All individuals within the selected clusters are then included in the sample. Cluster sampling is practical when itâ€™s difficult to obtain a complete list of individuals in the population but easier to access clusters. In educational research, this technique might be used when studying the performance of different schools.

As for the remaining two techniques:

**4. Accidental Sampling:**

Accidental sampling, also known as convenience sampling, involves selecting individuals who are readily available or convenient to include in the sample. This method is quick and easy but can introduce bias because it doesnâ€™t guarantee a representative sample. For example, if a researcher surveys students in a particular classroom without a formal randomization process, itâ€™s considered accidental sampling.

**5. Quota Sampling:**

Quota sampling involves selecting a predetermined number of individuals from various subgroups based on specific characteristics, often without randomization. Researchers set quotas for each subgroup and then include individuals who meet those quotas. While this technique can help ensure a diverse sample, itâ€™s prone to bias as the selection process is not truly random. In educational research, quota sampling might involve interviewing a certain number of students from different grade levels or backgrounds.

Each of these sampling techniques has its advantages and limitations, and the choice of technique depends on the research goals, available resources, and the level of representativeness required for the study.

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Compute the standard deviation of the following scores 6, 7, 6, 9, 5, 2, 6, 7, 3, 4

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**Evaluation**

1. In ____________, individuals are selected from the entire population with an equal chance of being chosen, ensuring representation.

(a) Stratified Sampling

(b) Accidental Sampling

(c) Random Sampling

2. ____________ involves dividing the population into subgroups based on characteristics and then randomly selecting from each subgroup.

(a) Cluster Sampling

(b) Quota Sampling

(c) Stratified Sampling

3. When researchers choose individuals who are conveniently available, itâ€™s referred to as ____________.

(a) Accidental Sampling

(b) Random Sampling

(c) Quota Sampling

4. ____________ involves selecting a predetermined number of individuals from different subgroups, often without true randomization.

(a) Stratified Sampling

(b) Cluster Sampling

(c) Quota Sampling

5. Researchers using ____________ select clusters, then include all individuals within the selected clusters in the sample.

(a) Accidental Sampling

(b) Quota Sampling

(c) Cluster Sampling

6. In educational research, ____________ might involve randomly selecting students from different grade levels.

(a) Random Sampling

(b) Accidental Sampling

(c) Quota Sampling

7. ____________ involves ensuring each subgroup is proportionally represented in the sample.

(a) Random Sampling

(b) Accidental Sampling

(c) Stratified Sampling

8. When researchers select individuals who are easy to access, they are using ____________.

(a) Cluster Sampling

(b) Accidental Sampling

(c) Random Sampling

9. Researchers might choose a few schools and then include all students within them in a study using ____________.

(a) Cluster Sampling

(b) Quota Sampling

(c) Random Sampling

10. In ____________, researchers set quotas for different characteristics and then include individuals who meet those quotas.

(a) Cluster Sampling

(b) Quota Sampling

(c) Accidental Sampling

11. ____________ involves dividing the population into distinct subgroups and then randomly selecting from those subgroups.

(a) Random Sampling

(b) Cluster Sampling

(c) Quota Sampling

12. Researchers using ____________ might sample students from different socioeconomic backgrounds to ensure representation.

(a) Accidental Sampling

(b) Stratified Sampling

(c) Quota Sampling

13. When individuals are chosen from the population without following a structured method, itâ€™s called ____________.

(a) Accidental Sampling

(b) Stratified Sampling

(c) Random Sampling

14. ____________ involves selecting clusters, which are often groups like schools or classrooms, to include in the sample.

(a) Quota Sampling

(b) Cluster Sampling

(c) Accidental Sampling

15. In ____________, a predetermined number of individuals from each subgroup are chosen to be part of the sample.

(a) Cluster Sampling

(b) Stratified Sampling

(c) Quota Sampling