1. Meaning of Non-contact Games
  2. Meaning of Swimming
  3. Breast Stroke Skills
  4. Butterfly Stroke Skills
  5. Learning to Swim
  6. Swimming Hazards and Safety Measures

Meaning of Non-contact Games

Non-contact games are sports where participants should have no possible means of impact, where players have separate lanes or take turns of play, such as sprinting, swimming, darts, snooker, gymnastics, tennis, table tennis, chess, badminton  etc.

Meaning of Swimming

Swimming is an act of moving through the water by using the arms, legs, and body in motions called strokes. The most common strokes are the crawl, backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, and sidestroke. Swimming is an integral part of almost all water-based activities. It is also a competitive sport itself.

Strokes in Swimming

The following are the strokes in swimming:

  1. Crawl
  2. Backstroke
  3. Breaststroke
  4. Butterfly
  5. Sidestroke

Breast Stroke Skills

This is a swimming stroke in which both arms are extended and pulled back together in a circular motion while both legs are thrust out and pulled back together.

The breaststroke is one of the easiest and most relaxing strokes for novices. Competitive swimmers, however, find it difficult because it uses more energy than the crawl and backstroke when swum at a fast pace. The breaststroke has undergone major changes since it was introduced in the 17th century. Most swimmers now use a technique called the wave breaststroke, which Hungarian coach Jozsef Nagy developed in the late 1980s.This interactive illustration captures four moments in the breaststroke. The breaststroke is the slowest competitive stroke, and during races the technique of the swimmers is strictly regulated to ensure a fair contest. In this diagram, the swimmer is moving to the right.

Butterfly Stroke Skills

In butterfly stroke the arms move together through the water and the feet pump together in what is Known as the dolphin kick.

Non-contact games - swimming

Learning to Swim

Non-contact games - Swimming - learning to swim

In many parts of the world, people learn to swim by imitating others, most often their parents, brothers, sisters, and friends. Most youngsters in North America also take lessons at swim clubs, community centers, schools, or recreational facilities. In addition, the American Swimming Coaches Association (ASCA) and the American Red Cross sponsor programs that teach children about water safety.

Instructors teach students skills that will make them safe, efficient, and confident swimmers. Beginners first put their heads in the water and blow bubbles by exhaling. Gradually, students progress to floating, treading water, and ultimately, learning the techniques of the major strokes.

Students use various pieces of equipment during these lessons. Water-wings are inflatable worn around the upper arms; they allow children to float easily. Kickboards are buoyant boards that students can rest their arms on; this keeps their upper bodies afloat and allows them to concentrate on kicking correctly. Pull-buoys are foam floats that swimmers hold between their thighs to keep the lower body high and flat on the surface of water; using them, students can learn the arm and upper body movements of various strokes. Paddles are small, firm boards fitted over the hands; they force students to pull their arms through the water correctly. Fins worn on the feet allow swimmers to go faster and to develop proper body position and power.

Swimming Hazards and Safety Measures

Individuals should not swim in conditions that their ability and experience will not allow them to handle. For inexperienced recreational swimmers, many safety hazards exist – even in a pool. These hazards include misjudging a dive and hitting one’s head on the bottom, holding one’s Breath too long, becoming exhausted, and experiencing sudden cramps while too far from shore or other swimmers.

In rivers and oceans, all swimmers should respect the power of nature. Powerful waves, tides, and currents can easily overpower even the most experienced swimmers, sweeping them out beyond safety or throwing them into coral or rocks. Caves pose additional dangers because swimmers can be trapped inside them. Swimmers must follow the instructions of lifeguards and obey posted information about water conditions, tides, and other dangers such as jellyfish or pollution. A good precaution for children is the buddy system, in which each child is paired with another while in the water. This system ensures that no person is swimming alone and that if an emergency does happen, the lifeguard can be notified immediately.


  1. Define non-contact games
  2. Define swimming
  3. Mention 5 strokes in swimming and explain two



  1. Meaning of Floor Activities
  2. Classification of Floor Activities
  3. Tumbling Activities
  4. Values of Floor Activities
  5. Safety Precautions in Floor Activities
  6. Gymnastics Officials


Meaning of Floor Activities

Floor activities are the activities performed on a mat, foam or floor. They are also known as stunts. Tumbling are the activities involving springing (jumping or moving rapidly), rolling, twisting and turning of the body.

Classification of Floor Activities

Floor activities can be classified into the following:

(a) Stunts activities (individual or with a partner).

(b) Tumbling activities.

(c) Balancing activities.

They are all performed without apparatus.

Stunts (Without partner)

Stunts without a partner include the following:

  1. Frog jump.
  2. Push up.
  3. Cycling in the air.
  4. Trunk curl.
  5. Sit up.
  6. Rabbit jump.

Stunts (With partner)

Stunts with a partner include the following:

  1. Cock fight.
  2. See-saw.
  3. Wheel barrow.
  4. Fireman lift.
  5. Lift the log.
  6. Chinese get-up.
  7. Leg wrestling.

 Stunts (Group)

  1. Pyramids

Tumbling Activities

The following are tumbling activities:

  1. Forward roll.
  2. Backward roll.
  3. Cartwheel.
  4. Dive forward roll.
  5. Head stand.
  6. Hand stand.
  7. Side roll.
  8. Front somersault.
  9. Back somersault.
  10. Head spring.

Values of Floor Activities

The values or importance of floor activities include the following:

  1. It develops courage.
  2. It develops physical fitness.
  3. It develops safety skills.
  4. It provides the means of livelihood.
  5. It improves body posture.
  6. It develops alertness.
  7. It develops coordination and balance.
  8. It develops a wide range of movement patterns.
  9. It develops beauty of movement.
  10. It develops mental and creative ability.

Safety Precautions in Floor Activities

The following safety precautions should be taken while taking part in floor activities:

  1. Have a proper warm up before activities.
  2. Make sure the playing area or field is free from dangerous objects or obstacles.
  3. Activities must be performed based on the ability of the performer.
  4. Put on correct wears.
  5. Practice and master fundamental skills before the exercises.
  6. Activities or exercises must be performed from simple to complex.
  7. Listen to and follow instructions.
  8. Adequate space must be made available for all tumbling exercises.
  9. There should be enough foam and flood light in activity area.

Gymnastics Officials

The following are officials of gymnastics:

  1. Referee
  2. Judges
  3. Scorers
  4. Announcers
  5. Doctors
  6. Clerks
  7. Mat chairman
  8. Time keeper.



  1. Define floor activities
  2. Enumerate three classifications of floor activities
  3. List five tumbling activities
  4. State five values or importance of floor activities
  5. Highlight five safety precautions in floor activities



  1. Meaning of Family
  2. Types of Family
  3. Roles and Responsibilities of Each Member of the Family


Meaning of Family

What is family? The family is a basic unit of the society that is responsible for supporting, caring for and preparing children for adulthood. It is a group of people that are related to one another by blood, marriage or law. The family is usually the first environment of every child, the personality development of the child is highly influenced by the family. The family is the primary environment in which the child grows.

Types of Family

There are two types of family:

(i) Nuclear family

(ii) Extended family

Other types of modern day family

(iii) Foster family

(iv) Adopted family

The nuclear family

A nuclear family is made up of the husband, wife and their children.

The extended family

This consists of the husband, wife or wives, their children, grandparent’s aunts, uncle and cousins. If it is a polygamous family, it will include co-wives and their children. This type of family provides care and social support for dependent relatives and interdependency among all members of the family unit.

The foster family

This is made up of adults acting as parents to children who may or may not be related to them, compensations are awarded to the parents

Adopted family

Children whose biological parents are unable to cater for are given out to another family by legal action. In adopted family, children are given rights of a child born into the family. The parents receive no compensations but are expected to exercise all the duties of natural parents.

Roles and Responsibilities of Each Member of the Family

Every member has a role to play within the family. The parent is to provide love, food, clothes, shelter and guidance. The role of the child is to be obedient assist with household chores and childcare, perform well in school and prepare for a meaningful adult life.

Roles and Responsibilities of the Family

The general roles of the family include the following:

  1. It is the responsibility of the family to raise children
  2. To care for the child from childhood till he is old enough to care for himself
  3. It is responsible for the education of the child
  4. It is responsible for the transmission of societal norms and culture to the child
  5. It is the responsibility of the family to provide emotional, psychological, moral and material support to the child
  6. It is responsible for the provision of physical security such as food, clothing shelter and other needs.

Roles and Responsibilities of the Father

The roles of the father in the family include the following:

  1. Provision of food, shelter, and money for the family
  2. Making important decisions

Roles and Responsibilities of the Mother

The roles of the mother in the family include the following:

  1. Preparation of food
  2. Keeping the house in order
  3. Nurturing and raising children
  4. Teaching the children morals and values

Note: Many of the above should be in conjunction with the father.

Roles and Responsibilities of the Children

The roles of the children in the family include the following:

  1. Obeying their parents.
  2. Assisting in performing household chores such as laundry, washing the car, cooking and gardening
  3. performing well in school
  4. Living up to family expectations.



  1. What is family?
  2. List and explain the two types of family.
  3. State five roles and responsibilities of the family.
  4. State two roles and responsibilities of each of the following family members: (i) Father (ii) Mother (iii) Children
  5. List 5 officials of gymnastics



  1. Meaning of Puberty
  2. Physical Changes that Take Place in Boys During Puberty
  3. Physical Changes that Take Place in Girls During Puberty
  4. Premarital Sex
  5. Health Consequences of Premarital Sex
  6. The Meaning of Teenage Pregnancy
  7. Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy

Meaning of Puberty

What is Puberty? Puberty is the time in your life when your body starts changing from that of child to an adult.  While there is no right time for puberty to begin, girls usually start a little earlier than boys – usually between 8 and 13 years of age. Puberty for boys usually starts at about 10 to 14 years of age.

Physical Changes that Take Place in Boys During Puberty

At puberty, the following physical changes occur in boys:

  1. A boy’s voice gets deeper
  2. His muscles develop
  3. His chest gets broader
  4. Hair starts to grow under his arms, on his legs and face
  5. During this time his penis and testicles will also grow bigger and longer
  6. Hair, often called pubic hair, will also start to grow at the base of his penis. He will start to have erections and he may have wet dreams.

Physical Changes that Take Place in Girls During Puberty

At puberty, the following physical changes take place in girls:

  1. A girl’s breasts will start to grow.
  2. Her hips get wider and rounder
  3. Hair will start to grow under her arms. Hair, often called public hair, will also grow between her legs. She will also start to have periods.

Premarital Sex

Meaning of Sex

Sex is sexual urge or instinct as it manifests itself in behavior.

Meaning of Premarital-sex

Premarital sex is the sexual intercourse between parties not married to each other.

Meaning of Adultery

Adultery is sexual intercourse between a married person and one other than the lawful spouse.

Health Consequences of Premarital Sex

The following are the health consequences of premarital sex:

  1. Unwanted pregnancies
  2. Unwanted child
  3. Life-long emotional effects
  4. Sexually transmitted diseases
  5. Teenage Pregnancy

The Meaning of Teenage Pregnancy

According to UNICEF, teenage pregnancy is defined as a teenage girl, usually within the ages of 13 – 19, becoming pregnant. The American Pregnancy Association defines teenage pregnancy as a pregnancy that occurs for a woman under the age of 20. It also refers to girls who have not reached legal adulthood, which varies across the world, who become pregnant.

Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy

The following are the consequences of teenage pregnancy:

  1. Babies born to teenage mothers are prone to several health risks. They are more likely to suffer from health and social problems than children born to older mothers.
  2. Teenage mothers are likely to suffer from medical complications such as premature labour., which can cause low birth weight of the baby.
  3. Teenage pregnancy makes many young girls drop out of school and forfeit their dreams and ambitions.
  4. Children born to teenage mothers are more likely to live in poverty because of their mothers’ lack of financial resources.
  5. A lot of children born to teen mothers grow up without the love and care of a father. This has both physical and psychological effects on the children as they grow up.
  6. Teenage mothers are more likely to get addicted to drinking and drug abuse as a result of post-pregnancy stress.
  7. The social life of the teen mother is negatively affected because of her early and unexpected pregnancy. Many teenage mothers spend their lives in emotional trauma.


  1. Define puberty.
  2. List 3 physical changes that take place in boys and girls during puberty.
  3. List three consequences of premarital sex.
  4. What is teenage pregnancy?



  1. Meaning of Assertiveness and Non-assertiveness

Meaning of Assertiveness

This is ability to say no because you know what you are capable of.

Meaning of Non-assertiveness

Non-assertiveness is a state in which a person is often taken advantage of, feels helpless, takes on every one’s problem, says yes to inappropriate demands and allows others to choose for him or her.


  1. Differentiate between assertiveness and non assertiveness
  2. e consequences of teenage pregnancy.



  1. The Need for Promotion of Sports in Our Society
  2. Sport Promotion Agencies and Bodies in Nigeria
  3. Agencies/Organizations Promoting Health Education in Nigeria
  4. Career Opportunities in Physical and Health Education
  5. Agencies and Organizations Promoting Health Education in Nigeria

The Need for Promotion of Sports in Our Society

Apart from the life-enriching and fulfilling role of sports;

  1. It is also part of man’s common culture in that it responds to an inherent human physical and mental desire, as well as being a way of responding to the inherent desire in human to move their bodies.
  2. It fosters stamina and physical strength.
  3. Relieves mental stress.
  4. Helps to prevent the habitual lifestyle diseases.
  5. It enhances the nation’s interest in sport.
  6. Makes a deep emotional impression.
  7. It fosters sense of personal responsibility.
  8. And self-control and a spirit of fair-play.
  9. Sport also fosters in the young communication ability.
  10. It brings about sound education for children and youths.
  11. Promotion of a new sense of cohesion in our regional communities.
  12. It creates employment opportunities.
  13. It contributes to the economic development of our country.
  14. It is one element of the world’s cultural heritage.
  15. It is a contributory element in fostering international friendship.

Sport Promotion Agencies and Bodies in Nigeria

The following are sport promotion agencies and bodies in Nigeria

  1. Nigeria Sports Association
  2. Nigeria Association of Physical Health Education and Recreation, Sport and Dance (NAPHER SD)
  3. Nigeria Institute of Sports
  4. Agencies and Organizations Promoting Health Education in Nigeria
  5. Ministry of Health
  6. Nigeria Drug Law Enforcement Agencies (NDLEA)
  7. Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC)
  8. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC)
  9. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
  10. United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
  11. World Health Organization (WHO)
  12. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
  13. The United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

Agencies/Organizations Promoting Health Education in Nigeria

The following are agencies/organizations promoting health education in Nigeria:

  1. Ministry of Health
  2. Nigeria Drug Law Enforcement Agencies (NDLEA)
  3. Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC)
  4. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC)
  5. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
  6. United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
  7. World Health Organization (WHO)
  8. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
  9. The United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

Career Opportunities in Physical and Health Education

The following are career opportunities in physical and health education:

  1. Coaching
  2. Training
  3. Sport journalism
  4. Teaching
  5. Editing/publishing


  1. Mention three sport agencies you know.
  2. What are the need for promotion of sport in Nigeria?



  1. Description of Ageing and Death
  2. Life Enhancing Measures against Ageing
  3. Supporting a Dying Person
  4. Supporting a Grieving and Ageing Person

Description of Ageing and Death

Ageing is the process of growing old and reaching the end of useful life. It is also a time in life where one becomes obsolescent.

Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living organisms. Death begins when the heart stops beating. Death is a process rather than an event.

Life Enhancing Measures against Ageing

The following are life enhancing measures against ageing:

  1. Rest and sleep
  2. Exercise
  3. Nutrition
  4. Greater participation in activities
  5. Having more close friends
  6. Visiting with family
  7. Addressing basic needs
  8. Promoting healthy behaviour

Supporting a Dying Person

A dying person can be supported in the following ways:

  1. Be there consistently, as often as the patient wants, and as frequently as the time schedule permits.
  2. Maintain contact on a regular basis, over a period of time, so the dying person will feel comfortable with sharing thoughts, fears, feelings, wishes, dreams and hopes
  3. Listen more than talk. Follow the dying person’s agenda as time is spent with them.
  4. Let them also know who is in the room ;tell him or her who is touching an arm or patting a shoulder
  5. Remind them of the time and date.
  6. It is very important, especially during the hours and minutes immediately preceding death, that arrangements be made for the patient and family members, friends, spouse, and partners to have time alone with the patient to hold, to touch, to say things one last time before they part

Supporting a Grieving and Ageing Person

A grieving and ageing person can be supported in the following ways:

  1. Social support
  2. Good self-care
  3. The passage of time
  4. Contact a counselor
  5. Contact bereavement support groups for help.


  1. What is ageing?
  2. Write a short note on death.
  3. State three steps to support dying person.
  4. List four life enhancing measures against ageing.



  1. Meaning of Drug
  2. Meaning of Drug Use, Misuse and Abuse
  3. Categories of Drugs
  4. Health Consequences of Drug Misuse and Abuse
  5. Prevention of Drug Abuse/Misuse Among Young People

Meaning of Drug

A drug is any chemical substance used for curing, treatment, diagnosis or for preventing diseases. Drug can also be used to reduce weight and to relieve someone from any form of symptoms.

Meaning of Drug Use

This refers to the taking of medication for an intended purpose, in an appropriate amount, frequency, strength and proper manner.

However, it has been discovered that most people often divert from the original purpose for which drugs were meant.

Meaning of Drug Misuse

Drug misuse is the practice of using drugs for pleasure rather than for medical reasons. It is the use of drugs without medically valid prescription. Even when drugs are prescribed, they may be misused if not taken in the right quantity,  dosage and length of time.

Meaning of Drug Abuse

Drug abuse is the indiscriminate, deliberate, excessive and persistent taking of chemical substances for purpose other than medical effect on the drug taker’s mental, physical, social and emotional health e.g. (doping in sport)

Categories of Drugs

The categories of drug include the following:

  1. Stimulants
  2. Narcotics
  3. Tranquilizers
  4. Psychedelic or hallucinogens
  5. Depressants, sedatives or hypnotics.

Health Consequences of Drug Misuse and Abuse

When drugs are misused or abused, they have serious consequences on the user. Such consequences include:

  1. Damage to organs e.g. brain, kidney, liver etc. leading to psychosis, psychological problems, etc.
  2. Criminal tendencies.
  3. Sociopathic behaviours e.g. rape.
  4. Lying and stealing to buy drugs.
  5. Loss of job due to declining productivity.
  6. Reduced coordination and neuromuscular control.
  7. Development of high blood pressure.
  8. Impaired judgement, leading to accidents.
  9. Frustration Leading to suicide tendencies.
  10. Physical disability or death.

Prevention of Drug Abuse/Misuse Among Young People

Drug misuse and abuse among young people can be prevented through the following ways:

  1. Educating the public{awareness ,enlightening people} on dangers of using drugs.
  2. Government ban on proliferation{reproduce rapidly} and sale of drug.
  3. Banning sale of drugs near institution of learning.
  4. Investigating social relationships and sources of drugs when found.
  5. Placing a ban on sale of drugs to children.
  6. Informing the home about the child’s behaviour.
  7. Giving health talk and true life stories to students.
  8. Using reformed users as resource person.
  9. Taking students on visits to psychiatric and rehabilitation centres.
  10. Giving individual or group counselling.
  11. Encouraging alternatives to drugs; for example sports, games and athletics.
  12. Giving referrals to experts early enough.
  13. Radio jingles and adverts motivating against use of drugs.
  14. Treatment and rehabilitation.


  1. What is a drug?
  2. Mention the categories of drugs.
  3. List five health consequences drugs.



  1. Meaning of Communicable Diseases
  2. Agents of Communicable Diseases
  3. Signs of Communicable Diseases
  4. Prevention of Communicable Diseases
  5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
  6. Prevention of HIV/AIDS
  7. Types of Communicable Diseases

Meaning of Communicable Diseases

Communicable diseases are diseases that can be transferred from one person to another. A disease is a condition of departure from the normal functioning state of the body.

Agents of Communicable Diseases

  1. Air-borne diseases
  2. Food borne diseases
  3. Insect borne diseases
  4. Contagious and sexually transmitted diseases

Signs of Communicable Diseases

The following are signs of communicable diseases:

  1. Red or watery eye
  2. Skin rash
  3. Cough
  4. Frequent passing of faeces
  5. Vomiting
  6. Running note
  7. Headache
  8. Anaemia
  9. Fever

Prevention of Communicable Diseases

The following are preventive measures against communicable diseases:

  1. Maintain personal hygiene.
  2. Cover food to protect them from flies
  3. Protect the body from insect bites
  4. Drink clean and safe water
  5. Do not use the materials of other people
  6. Do not spit indiscriminately
  7. Go for immunization
  8. Exposition to Health Education
  9. Do not sleep in overcrowded room (good ventilation).
  10. There should be proper disposal of refuse and sewage.
  11. Wash fruits thoroughly before eating
  12. Wash hand before eating food
  13. Wash hands after visiting the toilet to pass feaces
  14. Avoid pre-marital and outside marriage sex

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Sexually transmitted disease are;

  1. HIV/AIDS: HIV causes AIDS and interferes with the body’s ability to fight infections.
  2. Syphilis: A bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact that starts as a painless sore.
  3. Gonorrhea: A sexually transmitted bacterial infection that, if untreated, may cause infertility.
  4. Genital herpes: A common sexually transmitted infection marked by genital pain and sores.
  5. Chlamydia: A common, sexually transmitted infection that may not cause symptoms.
  6. Human papillomavirus infection: An infection that causes warts in various parts of the body, depending on the strain.

Prevention of HIV/AIDS

The following are preventive measures against HIV/AIDS

  1. Abstain from sex until you are married.
  2. Be disciplined in sex issues.
  3. Do not share razor blades, clippers, needles, syringes or other sharp instruments with people.
  4. Be faithful not to have sex outside marriage.
  5. Avoid taking alcoholic drinks and using intoxicating drugs.
  6. Cover open wounds.
  7. Do not share chewing stick, blades, needles and tooth brushes.

Types of Communicable Diseases

The types of communicable diseases include the following:

  1. Typhoid
  2. Diarrhoea
  3. Tuberculosis
  4. Syphilis
  5. Chicken pox
  6. Dysentery
  7. Cholera
  8. Measles
  9. Influenza
  10. Mumps
  11. Common cold


  1. Define diseases
  2. Mention two main types of diseases
  3. List 5 agents of diseases
  4. State 3 signs of communicable diseases
  5. List 3 sexually transmitted diseases
  6. Discuss HIV/AIDS



  1. Meaning and Causes of Non-communicable Diseases
  2. Common Non-communicable Diseases, Causes and Prevention

Meaning of Non-communicable Diseases

Non-communicable diseases are diseases that cannot be transmitted from person to person. They are noninfectious health conditions that cannot be spread from one person to another. They last for a long period of time. Non-communicable diseases are also known as chronic diseases.

Causes of Non-communicable Diseases

They have many causes but are never caused by germs, bacteria or other living organisms that attack the body. They are rather caused by:

  1. Atomic fallouts
  2. Chemical fallouts
  3. Physiological failure of the tissues
  4. Brain damage
  5. Congenital problems
  6. Dietary imbalance
  7. Malnutrition
  8. Heredity
  9. Endocrine/hormonal accident

Atomic fallout: Deposition on the surface of the earth of radioactive particles, released into the atmosphere as a result of nuclear explosions and by discharge from nuclear-power and atomic installations.

Chemical fallouts: Chemical agents such as nerve gas, or biological weapons such as the contagious disease anthrax.

Physiological failures of the tissues: Inability of the body tissues to work properly

Brain damage: Injury to the brain tissue that can impair its ability to function

Congenital problems: This is also called congenital disorders, any abnormalities of structure or function that are present at birth.

Dietary imbalance:


Common Non-communicable Diseases, Causes and Prevention

Diseases Causes Prevention
Cardiovascular disease
e.g. heart attack, stroke
Obesity, blood glucose
blood pressure
Regular exercise,
regular medical checkups,
balanced diet
e.g. lung, liver, prostrate,
breast, cervical and skin
Exposure to ultraviolet rays
Genetic mutation, etc.
Note: There is no single
cause of cancer
Avoiding tobacco
Limiting alcohol consumption
Chronic respiratory disease
e.g. asthma, cystic fibrosis,
pulmonary hypertension
Heredity, smoking,
environmental conditions,
e.g. poor ventilation,
air pollution
Proper ventilation,
Good air quality
e.g. Type 1 and
Type 2 diabetes
high blood sugar, poor diet,
lack of exercise, obesity,
immune system dysfunction
Balanced diet, regular exercise,

Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases

  1. Personal hygiene
  2. Eat balance diet
  3. Regular cheek up in good hospital
  4. Regular exercise
  5. Immunization
  6. Use insecticide mosquito net
  7. Drink water free from germs



  1. Define non-communicable diseases.
  2. Mention three (3) causes chronic diseases.



  1. Meaning of Disease
  2. Diseases Vectors
  3. Life Cycle of the Mosquito
  4. Life Cycle of Malaria
  5. The Housefly; Life Cycle of the Housefly
  6. Life Cycle of the Tsetsefly
  7. Control Measures of Mosquitoes; Carrier of Malaria
  8. Control Measures of Housefly; Carrier of Dysentery
  9. Control of Tsetsefly

Meaning of Disease

Disease means illness or disorder of the body or mind. The agents causing diseases are called pathogens. The science and the study of diseases is called pathology.

Diseases causative agents are viruses, rickettsiae, bacteria, spirochetes, fungi, protozoa, worms.

Diseases Vectors

Diseases vectors are animals which transmit disease causing organisms (pathogen) from an infected person to uninfected person without being infected. They assist in carrying micro organisms or microbes. They are mainly insects, mollusc and some mammals. Examples of vectors are:

  1. Mosquito
  2. Cockroach
  3. Housefly
  4. Tsetse fly
  5. Dogs and cats
  6. Rat
  7. Blackflies

Diseases vectors

Life Cycle of the Mosquito

Diseases vectors - Life cycle of the mosquito

Malaria is an infectious diseases caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. The parasite is transmitted to humans when we are bitten by the female Anopheles mosquito. The parasite spends its life cycle partly in humans and partly in mosquitoes. (1) Mosquito infected with the malaria bites a human, transmitting cells known as sporozoites into the human’s bloodstream. (2) These sporozoites travel to the liver. Each of these sporozoites undergoes asexual reproduction and its nucleus divides to form two new daughter cells called merozoites. (3) The merozoites get into the bloodstream and infect red blood cells. (4) In the red blood cells, merozoites grow and split to produce more merozoites, eventually causing the red blood cells to rupture. The newly released merozoites go on to infect other red blood cells. (5) Some merozoites grow and develop into sex cells called male and female gametocytes. (6) Another mosquito bites the infected human, ingesting the gametocytes. (7) In the mosquito’s stomach, the gametocytes mature and undergo asexual reproduction.

Life Cycle of Malaria

The mosquito is the carrier of the micro-organism which causes malaria. The micro-organism is a protozoan called plasmodium. It lives in the blood cells, passes waste matter into them and eventually destroys them. The malaria parasite is carried by the female anopheles. When the mosquito bites a person it passes the parasite into the blood.

The stages in the life cycle of the mosquito: eggs-larva-pupa-adult  

The Housefly

This is the common name for the most of familiar species of non-biting muscoid fly. It is found in the vicinity of human habitations throughout the world. It is often a carrier of such diseases as typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, tracheae and anthrax. The adult fly transmits disease by contaminating food with disease organisms which it has picked up on its hairy legs or has ingested and then regurgitated.

Life Cycle of the Housefly

The female lays an average of 150 white eggs in a mass. The female can live for about two months and can lay between 600 to 1000 eggs during its lifetime. The eggs hatch in about 12 hours into white, legless larvae called maggots which grow to 12.5mm in length. The maggots develop into pupa in five to six days. The pupa develops into a new adult in another four to five days if the weather is warm or in a month or later if weather conditions are favourable.

Life Cycle of the Tsetsefly

Tsetse-fly carries the sleeping sickness parasite. The parasite is trypanosome. The tsetse-fly spread the disease to man and other animals like goats, sheep pigs, horses and donkeys, by biting them. The parasite is passed to the bitten animal through the saliva of the tsetse fly. The bitten animals begin to feel the effects of the parasite after one to three weeks. The human victim suffers fever, headache, and frequent sleeping; hence it is called sleeping sickness or nagana.

Tsetse flies breed in shady, damp places such as the vegetation by the river side. Some breed in open places like the grassland. One mating is sufficient for the tsetse fly to continue to produce new tsetse flies for the rest of her life time. The tsetse fly has a life span of between three weeks and five months. The eggs develops inside the fly and hatch into larvae which are released in a shady place.

The larva then developed into pupa and pupa to adult or imago.

Control Measures of Mosquitoes; Carrier of Malaria

A drop of oil can be put on top of the water containing the larva and pupa stages of the mosquito; this hinders the further development of mosquitoes.

The knowledge of the life cycle of the mosquito will bring insight on how to control its spread. A large number of mosquito eggs and larvae are destroyed by small fish. Mosquito may be controlled by eliminating their breeding places with oil or insecticides. Other ways of controlling the breeding of mosquitoes include clearing the bushes around the houses, removal of all broken bottles and any container that can hold water pouring kerosene on any stagnant water around the houses

Major control measures include the following:

  1. Water drainage
  2. Insecticide
  3. Oil spreading/spraying.
  4. Clearing of stagnant water which is a breeding place for the growth of mosquito.
  5. Using insect repellent e.g. Raid
  6. Using mosquito nets over sleeping beds
  7. Clearing bushes around us.

Control Measures of Housefly; Carrier of Dysentery

Apart from the three ways of preventing the spread of diseases by vectors such as:

  1. Removing their breeding places
  2. Controlling their life cycle
  3. Killing the germs in the body of infected person without being harmed;
  4. House fly could be controlled in the following ways;
  5. Avoid exposing human faeces, kitchen waste and refuse or compost heaps around
  6. Always cover your food, do not house fly to land on it.
  7. Spraying house fly with insecticides to kill them.

Control of Tsetsefly

Like other vectors, tsetse fly could be controlled by:

  1. Controlling their life cycle.
  2. Getting rid of their breeding places.
  3. Clearing bushes around your houses.
  4. Stop the flies from breeding.


  1. What are vectors?
  2. Mention diseases cause by vectors
  3. Describe the life cycle of mosquitoes



  1. Transmission of Communicable Diseases
  2. Transmission of Non-communicable Diseases
  3. Consequences of Contracting Diseases on the Individual, Family and Society
  4. Disease Prevention


Transmission of Communicable Diseases

The following are modes of transmission of communicable diseases:

  1. Airborne – droplet infection and dust infection
  2. Waterborne – intestinal infection and parasites in animal that lives in water
  3. Contaminated food transmitted by flies, dirty hands or night-soil
  4. Contact or contagious diseases spread by skin contact
  5. Animal bites

Transmission of Non-communicable Diseases

The following are modes of transmission of non-communicable diseases:

  1. Physiological failure of the tissues
  2. Chemical or atomic fallout
  3. Malnutrition, dietary imbalance
  4. Congenital problem or emotional disturbance

Consequences of Contracting Diseases on the Individual, Family and Society

Contracting diseases has some negative consequences on the individual, family and society at large. They include the following:

  1. Disturbance to family and marital functioning
  2. Disruption of profession and personal life
  3. Increase in health care cost
  4. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  5. Social skill problem
  6. Academic difficulty
  7. Long term negative outcomes such as lower educational and employment

Disease Prevention

Diseases can be prevented through the following:

  1. Sanitation
  2. Education
  3. Immunization
  4. Choice of life partner


  1. How can sanitation prevent diseases?
  2. What are the consequences of contracting diseases on the individual?
  3. List and explain four ways of preventing diseases.
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