Grammar: Revision of parts of speech: Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs and Ajective
Composition: Informal Letter
Literature – in – English: Introduction to Fiction and non fiction
SPEECH WORK: The Schwce sound / /
Grammar: Expressing/describing emotions(Verb+ preposition)
Reading and comprehension: purpose
Composition: Informal Letter
Literature – in – English: Poetry
SPEECH WORK: Stress and Intonation
Grammar: Adverbs of Frequency
Comprehension: Reading
Composition: Writing a Story
Literature – in – English: Reading of recommended prose text
SPEECH WORK: Consonant /3/ and /d3/
Grammar: Changing positive statement to negative
Reading and comprehension: critical reading:
Literature in English: Introduction to rhyme scheme
SPEECH WORK: consonant sounds/d/,/0/,/z/
Grammar: Modal forms–will,can,could,etc
Reading and comprehension: reading to identify the meanings of words in various contexts
Composition: Revisit the formal and informal letter
Literature – in – English: Use the recommended text on Drama (ii) Theme/setting in the recommended text
SPEECH WORK: Contrasting /3:/ and /c/
Grammar: Adjectives and Adverbs
Reading and comprehension: reading to identify the facts and opinions in a given passage
Composition: Formal Letter
Literature – in – English: use recommended text on Drama, (ii) characterization and plot in the recommended text
SPEECH WORK: The consonant sound // and // (contrastion)
Grammar: Adverbs of place and manner
Reading and comprehension – reading to explain the facts and opinions in a selected passage
Composition: Debate
Literature – in – English: Rhyme scheme
SPEECH WORK: the consonant
Grammar: Idiomatic expression
Reading and comprehension: refer for week 6
Composition: descriptive essay – My favourite Subject
Literature – in – English: Revision
SPEECH WORKS: The consonant sound /w/ and /j/
Grammar: Adverbs of cause and reason
Reading and comprehension: A revision of week 4
Composition: Debate
Literature – in – English: Revision of the recommended text (ii) Revision on literary terms
12 – 13

Grammar: Part of speech.
What is a Part of Speech?
A part of speech is a group of words that are used in a certain way. For example, “run,” “jump,” and “be” are all used to describe actions/states. Therefore they belong to the VERBS group. In other words, all words in the English language are divided into eight different categories. Each category has a different role/ function in the sentence.
The English parts of speech are:
Nouns , pronouns , adjectives , verbs , adverbs , prepositions , conjunctions and interjections .
In the English language many words are used in more than one way. This means that a word can function as several different parts of speech.
For example, in the sentence “I would like a drink ” the word “drink” is a noun. However, in the sentence “They drink too much” the word “drink” is a verb . So it all depends on the word’s role in the sentence.
A noun is a word that names a person, a place or a thing.
Sarah, lady, cat, New York, Canada, room, school, football, reading.
Example sentences:
(1) People like to go to the beach.
(2) Emma passed the test.
(3) My parents are traveling to Japan next month .
The word “noun” comes from the Latin word nomen, which means “name,” and nouns are indeed how we name people, places and things. Types of Nouns
(1) Abstract Nouns:
An abstract noun is a noun that names an idea, not a physical thing.
Examples: Hope, interest, love, peace, ability, success, knowledge, trouble.
(2)Concrete Nouns: A concrete noun is a noun that names a physical thing.
Examples: Boy, table, floor, coffee, beach, king, rain, children, professor.
(3) Common Nouns:
A common noun is a noun that names a general thing, not a specific thing.
Examples: Boy, girl, city, country, company, planet, location, war.
(4) Proper Nouns:
A proper noun is a noun that indicates the specific name of a thing. It begins with a capital letter.
Examples: Robin, Alice, London, Sweden, Google, Earth, Eiffel Tower, Civil War.
(5) Countable Nouns:
A countable noun is a noun that indicates something you could actually count.
For example, you could count pigs: one pig, two pigs, three pigs… However, you couldn’t count water : one water, two water – no, it doesn’t work… A countable noun has both a singular and a plural form, and it can be used with the indefinite articles (a/an) .
Examples: Window, teacher, tree, lion, eye, cloud, pencil, heart, movie.
(5) Uncountable Nouns:
An uncountable noun is a noun that indicates something you cannot count.
For example, you could count pigs: one pig, two pigs, three pigs… However, you couldn’t count water : one water, two water – no, it doesn’t work…
An uncountable noun has only one form (no plural), and it cannot be used with the indefinite articles (a/an) .
Examples: Furniture, advice, mail, news, equipment, luggage, work, coffee, information.
A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun . For example, you could say, “Lisa is a nice girl.” Then you could replace the noun “Lisa” with the word “She” and get the following sentence: “She is a nice girl.” “She” is a pronoun .
Examples: I, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself.
Example sentences:
(1) He doesn’t want go with them .
(2) Would they help us?
(3) His house is bigger than ours.
(4) Who is she ?
The word “pronoun” comes from “pro” (in the meaning of “substitute”) + “noun.”
Types of Pronouns
(A) Personal Pronouns:
Personal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them.
(2) Demonstrative Pronouns:
“Demonstrative” means “showing, making something clear.” Demonstrative pronouns point to things. The demonstrative pronouns are: this, that, these, those.
Use “this” and “these” to talk about things that are near in space or in time.
Use “that” and “those” to talk about things that are farther away in space or time.
Example sentences:
(1) This cannot go on.
(2) That was beautiful!
(3) He wanted those, but decided to compromise on these .
(B)Interrogative Pronouns:
“Interrogative” means “used in questions.” Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are: who, whom, which, what, whoever, whatever, etc. Use “who” and “whom” to talk about people.
Use “which” and “what” to talk about animals and things.
Example sentences:
(1) Who is your father?
(2) Whom did you speak to?
(3) Which bag did you buy?
(4) What are my choices?
(C) Possessive Pronouns:
“Possessive” means “showing ownership.” Possessive pronouns indicate that something belongs to somebody/something. The possessive pronouns are: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.
Example sentences:
(1) I’ve lost my wallet.
(2) He married his girlfriend.
(3) This place is theirs.
(4) Is that cat yours?
(5) My car is slow. Hers is much faster.
(D) Relative Pronouns:
“Relative” means “connected with something.” Relative pronouns are pronouns that link different parts of a sentence. The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which, that, whoever, etc.
Examples sentences:
(1) The girl who called yesterday came to see you.
(2) The teacher whom you wrote has answered your questions.
(3) She lives in Kiev, which is the capital city of Ukraine.
(4) I really liked the book that you gave me.
(E) Reflexive Pronouns:
“Reflexive” means “going back to itself.” Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action. Reflexive pronouns end in “-self” (singular) or “-selves” (plural). The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.
Example sentences:
(1) He cut himself while shaving.
(2) I sent myself to bed.
(3) He could hurt himself!
(4)We must help ourselves.
(5) She trusts herself .
(F) Intensive Pronouns:
“Intensive” means “giving force or emphasis.” An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used for emphasis. In other words, intensive pronouns emphasize the subject of the sentence. They are written exactly the same way as the reflexive pronouns, but their function is different. Examples.
(1) I myself baked the cake.
(2) The queen herself recommended this restaurant.
(3) Have you yourself been there?
(4) The project itself wasn’t difficult.
(5) We will do it ourselves .
(G) Reciprocal Pronouns:
Reciprocal means that two people or groups do the same thing to each other. They treat each other in the same way. For example, Joe loves Kate, and Kate loves Joe. So we can say,
“Kate and Joe love each other.”
Another example: Mike helps Lucy, and Lucy helps Mike. So we can say, “Mike and Lucy help each other.”
There are two reciprocal pronouns in English:
Each other and one another.
The cat and the dog like each other .
The two politicians hate each other .
We must stop fighting one another.
They gave each other Christmas presents.
They can’t hear one another.
(H) Indefinite Pronouns:
“Indefinite” means “not exact, not limited.” Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not refer to any specific person or thing.
Anything, everybody, another, each, few, many, none, some.
Example sentences:
Many have died during the war.
Can anyone call her?
Everybody wants to see you.
Something can be done to help.
(I) Adjectives:
An adjective is a word that describes a person or thing.
Examples: Big, pretty, expensive, green, round, French, loud, quick, fat.
Example sentences:
He has big blue eyes.
The new car broke down.
The old lady was talking in a quiet voice.
The word “adjective” comes from the Latin word jacere, which means “to throw.”
Types of adjectives
Adjectives can be divided into several types: Opinion Nice, pretty, stupid, original, expensive, etc.
Big, small, large, tiny, enormous, little, etc.
Young, old, new, ancient, antique, etc.
Round, square, flat, straight, etc.
Blue, red, white, black, dark, bright, yellowish, etc.
Italian, British, Mexican, western, southern, etc.
Metal, wooden, plastic, golden, etc.
(J) Determiners:
A determiner is a word that comes before a noun to show which person or thing you are talking about.
Examples: A, an , the , my, your, some, any, several, enough, any.
Example sentences:
I have a red hat.
Please give me my bag.
Some people decided to leave.
She doesn’t want any money.
They watched several movies.
Some people consider determiners to be a type of adjective. What’s special about determiners is that you usually can use only one determiner at a time.
Incorrect: He has the my ticket.
Correct: He has my ticket / He has the ticket.
Nouns that act like adjectives. Sometimes nouns function as adjectives. In other words, they come before another noun and describe it.
Sports car
Orange juice
Television station
Coffee shop
Book cover
The order of adjectives
A noun can have several adjectives describing it.
“She bought a new red Italian table.”
“He is a great , successful father.”
There are certain rules on the correct order of those adjectives. This is the order you should generally follow: Determiner -> opinion -> size -> age -> shape -> color -> origin -> material -> a word describing purpose/function
A nice little coffee shop
(Determiner -> opinion -> size -> purpose/function word)
My huge new swimming pool
(Determiner -> size -> age -> purpose/function word)
Several Chinese plastic cups
(Determiner -> origin -> material)
The round yellow ball
(Determiner -> shape -> colour )
Adjectives of the same type:
When you have several adjectives of the same type, you should separate them with commas or a conjunction (and, but).
A cheap , good meal
A happy, smart man
The beautiful , original painting
My nice and sweet cat
An expensive but important trip
Comparative adjectives
“Comparative” means “comparing something to something else.” Comparative adjective show us which thing is better, worse, stronger, weaker, and so forth.
Better, worse, bigger, smaller, nicer, fatter, thinner, more dangerous.
Example sentences:
She is a better student than her brothers.
The test was worse than I’d expected.
You are stronger than me.
He seems healthier .
You are more beautiful than her.
Superlative adjectives
“Superlative” means “of the highest degree.” Superlative adjectives show us which thing is the best, the strongest, and so forth.
Best, worst, strongest, smallest, cheapest, most expensive.
Example sentences:
You are my best friend.
This is the worst day of my life.
Even the smallest donation helps.
This is the most expensive restaurant I’ve ever heard of.

A verb is a word or group of words that express an action or a state.
Go, jump, sleep, eat, think, be, change, become, drive, complete.
Example sentences:
We had a nice lunch.
I think that he is right.
He drove for hours.
The word “verb” comes for the Latin word verbum , which means “word.”
Auxiliary Verbs (also called “helping verbs”): auxiliary verbs (helping verbs) and compound verbs.
Auxiliary verbs are verbs that are used together with the main verb of the sentence to express the action or state.
Main verb + auxiliary verb = complete idea. The main auxiliary verbs are: be, am, is, are, was, were, do, did, have, has, had.,
Example sentences (the auxiliary verb is in bold, and the main verb is underlined):
They are jogging .
She was sitting .
We were waiting for hours.
Is she sleeping ?
He didn’t know the answer.
We have gone a long way.
Has she received any of my letters?
Do you smoke?
Will she help ?
Compound Verbs: A compound verb = auxiliary verb + main verb.
Examples: was playing, has eaten, doesn’t want.
They were discussing their future.
He didn’t tell us the truth.
I have finished my homework.
She will meet us there.

Stative Verbs: Stative verbs are verbs that express a state rather than an action.
Examples: be, seem, love, own, want, sound, have, know, understand.
Examples sentences:
She is a great wife.
He seems rather strange.
He wanted to see you.
That sounds awesome!
We have enough things to do.
Stative verbs are usually not used in the progressive tenses.
Incorrect: He is wanting to see you.
Correct: He wants to see you.
Incorrect: I am knowing what to do.
Correct: I know what to do.
Incorrect: They are seeming nice.
Correct: They seem nice.
However, if the same verb is used to describe an actual action (not a state), then it can be used in the progressive tenses.
When the verb “have” means “own” – it is a state. So we do not use it in the progressive tenses.
Incorrect: I am having a laptop.
Correct: I have a laptop.
When the verb “have” means “eat” – it is an actual action. So we can use it in the progressive tenses.
Correct: I am having lunch with Kate.
Correct: I have lunch with Kate.
Dynamic Verbs
Dynamic verbs are the opposite of stative verbs. They express a real action.
Jump, swim, catch, write, call, sleep, hit, open, speak.
Example sentences:
They swam to the other side.
She hit me on the head!
Open the window, please.
The dynamic verbs can be used in the progressive tenses.
Correct: He is drinking water.
Correct: He drinks water.
Regular Verbs
Regular verbs are verbs that follow this rule: Past form of the verb = present form of the verb + ed / d.
Past form of “check” = check + ed = checked.
Past form of “open” = open + ed = opened.
Past form of “bake” = bake + d = baked.
There are certain rules to adding “d” or “ed” to a verb. Read about them in the Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs section .
Irregular Verbs
Irregular verbs are verbs that do not follow the above rule, and there are quite a lot of them!
Past form of “drink” = drank.
Past form of “sleep” = slept.
Past form of “bring” = brought.
Phrasal Verbs:
A phrasal verb is a verb that is combined with an adverb or a preposition. The combination creates a new meaning.
Run = to move very quickly with your legs. (“She can run fast!”)
Into = in the direction of something. (“He looked into my eyes.”)
Run into = to meet someone by accident. (“I ran into Joe yesterday.”)
Make = to create or do something. (“He made a lot of noise.”)
Up = to a higher point. (“Look up !”)
Make up = invent (a story, an excuse). (“It never happened. He made the whole thing up !”)
Put = to place something somewhere. (“Could you put this upstairs?”)
Up = to a higher point. (“Look up !”)
With = concerning (“She is happy with her workplace.”)
Put up with = to tolerate. (“I cannot put up with his behavior any more!”)
An adverb is a word that describes or gives more information about a verb , an adjectiv another adverb, or even the entire sentence. Adverbs usually answer the following questions:
Where? Home. (“I went home.”)
When? Yesterday . (“We met yesterday .”)
How? Slowly . (“The turtle moves slowly .”)
How often? Sometimes. (“Sometimes it stops responding.”)
How long? Temporarily. (“She is staying with us temporarily.”)
How likely? Surely. (“Our team will surely win!”)
To what degree? Very . (“She was very pleased.”)
An adverb can describe a verb:
She runs quickly.
An adverb can describe an adjective:
She is so beautiful .
An adverb can describe another adverb:
She smokes very rarely .
An adverb can describe an entire sentence:
Naturally, you don’t have to come.
The word “adverb” comes for the Latin ad- (in addition) and verbum (word).
In many cases (but not always!) adverbs have the following form:
Adjective + “-ly”
Quick + ly = quickly
Strange + ly = strangely
Dead + ly = deadly
Sudden + ly = suddenly
Clever + ly = cleverly
Brave + ly = bravely
Real + ly = really
When an adjective ends with “y” replace the “y” with an “i”:
Heavy + ly = heavi + ly = heavily
Happy + ly = happi + ly = happily
When the adjective ends with an “e” drop the “e”:
True + ly = tru + ly = truly
However, there are many adverbs that do not end in “-ly”: Fast, very, hard, home, just, too, well, never, sometimes, and so forth. We can divide English adverbs into several categories:
Adverbs of degree , adverbs of manner, adverbs of place , adverbs of time , adverbs of frequency, adverbs of duration , adverbs of probability , comparative adverbs and superlative adverbs.
Adverbs of degree
Adverbs of degree show us the strength or degree of the action or state. They answer the following questions: How much? To what degree?
Very, highly, totally, perfectly, partially, almost.
Example sentences:
He is very concerned with you.
You are totally right.
We almost made it to the train.
Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of manner show us the way the action is done. They answer the following question: How?
Examples: Well, badly, nicely, slowly, loudly, quietly, happily, sadly, secretly, weakly.
Example sentences:
He handled the situation well .
She listened secretly to their conversation.
The children ran happily to their father.
Adverbs of place
Adverbs of place show us the location of the action or state. They answer the following question: Where?
Examples: Home, here, there, outside, inside, away, around, anywhere, abroad, up, down, out.
Example sentences:
We are here .
He went home .
We found him outside.
She looked up .
Adverbs of time
Adverbs of time show us the time of the action or state. They answer the following question: When?
Now, soon, later, yesterday, tomorrow, early, before, lately, recently.
Example sentences:
Let’s talk now.
I will do it later .
He promised to write back soon .
What are you doing tomorrow ?
We haven’t met before .

Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of frequency show us the frequency of the action or state. They answer the following question: How often?
Always, never, sometimes, often, rarely, usually, occasionally.
Example sentences:
I always brush my teeth after a meal.
We often meet and chat.
He is usually here on time.

Adverbs of duration
Adverbs of duration show us the length of the action or state. They answer the following question: For how long?
Examples: Forever, constantly, temporarily, briefly.
Example sentences:
He is working there temporarily .
We spoke briefly .
I will be forever grateful.
Adverbs of probability
Adverbs of probability show us the chances for the action or state to happen. They answer the following question: How likely?
Examples: Certainly, maybe, probably, possibly, surely.
Example sentences:
She will certainly forget about it.
Maybe we’ll come after all.
It will probably not work.
Surely you are not serious!
Comparative adverbs
“Comparative” means “comparing something to something else.” Comparative adverbs show us which action or state is better, worse, stronger, weaker, and so forth.
Examples: more, less, better, worse, faster, slower, farther, closer.
Example sentences:
Maggie works out more seriously than Donna.
She eats less than her friends.
You are better than this.
We couldn’t go slower even if we wanted to.
Let’s get closer.
Superlative adverbs
“Superlative” means “of the highest degree.” Superlative adverbs show us which action or state is the best, the strongest, and so forth.
Examples: Best, most, least, worst, strongest, fastest, slowest.
Example sentences:
He knows best .
It was the most boring experience.
He shouted the loudest so he won.
He ran the slowest so he lost.
A preposition is a word that is used before a noun or a pronoun to connect it to another word in the sentence. It is usually used to show location, direction, time, and so forth.
Examples: On, in, at, by, under, above, beside, to, out, from, for.
Example sentences:
I sat on the floor.
Let’s go into the house.
We will meet at four o’clock.
Have a look under the couch.
He went to school.
This letter is for you.
The word “preposition” comes from the Latin word praeponere (put before). So prepositions usually come before the noun/pronoun.
A conjunction is a word that joins parts of a sentence together.
Examples: And, but, or, because, so.
Example sentences:
I want to come, but I can’t.
She is smart and beautiful.
Would you like a cat or a dog?
He didn’t pass the test because he didn’t understand the subject.
We were hungry, so we ordered pizza.
The word “conjunction” comes from the Latin word conjungere (join together)
An interjection is a short sound, word or phrase used to express the speaker’s emotion.
Examples: Oh! Look out! Ow! Hey! Wow! Ah! Um…
Example sentences:
Wow , that’s amazing!
Ah , that was a good meal.
Um … I’m not sure what to say.
Oh dear ! What happened?
Hello! How are you doing?
Well, that’s an option too.
The word “interjection” comes from the Latin word interjicere (throw between).
– Assignment
Look at the word in bold.Indicate the part of speech they belong to
1. I like ice-cream. Part of speech:
2. Daniel is moving to Florida. Part of speech:
3. The cat keeps fighting with the dog. Part of speech:
4. Hey , this is mine! Part of speech:
5. He bought a new hat and a new shirt. Part of speech:
6. She handled it very smoothly. Part of speech:
7. This is the most beautiful view I’ve ever seen. Part of speech:
8. You should be able to fix it. Part of speech:
9. Obviously , you will not be alone. Part of speech:
10. Hi , it’s good to see you. Part of speech:
11. Reading is important. Part of speech:
12. This is for you. Part of speech:
13. He is the best in the area. Part of speech:
14. He probably hates himself now. Part of speech:
15. He is good looking, but is he smart? Part of speech:
16. I am ready. Part of speech
Literature in English:
Topic:Introduction to Fiction and non fiction
Fiction vs Non fiction
Fiction is not true and non-fiction is true. This is the simplest way of defining fiction and non-fiction. Non-fiction involves real things, real people, real events, real places and real writing. However, fiction is just imaginary things, imaginary people, imaginary events, imaginary places and imaginary writing. While a writer based on his imagination creates Fiction, non- fiction is not created but only written based on facts. While Non-fiction focuses on ideas or events that actually took place, fiction tends to be focussing on imaginary ideas and events. Coming to the characters, non-fiction deals with real people and fiction only creates characters. If some thing is said to have happened in real places, whether in the past or present, then it is non-fiction. But if something is said to have taken place in a fake place, then it is fiction. A big difference is that fictions are made up stories and Non- fictions are entirely fact-based writings. Fictions are just entertainers and on the other hand non-fictions are informative. Autobiography , history books and journals are examples of non-fictions. Novels, short stories, films are all fictions. Fiction is made out of nothing and on the other hand non-fiction comes out of something.
A fiction writer intends to make the audience believe that the whole things, which they read, or view, are occurring. But a non-fiction writer cannot indulge in such a thing. Fiction writers create stories without any commitment to their readers. They only elaborate on their ideas and views. A non-fiction writer cannot pour out his own imaginations. Non-fiction can be called as a prosaic piece of literature, which talks about various topics, which are relevant for every one. Fiction on the other hand elucidates on our imagination. When Fiction is more symbolic, non-fiction is straightforward, fiction is artificial as it is created from one’s own imagination. Non-fiction is natural as it deals with events that had actually taken place. Fiction is an invented story where as non-fiction deals with existing facts. Fiction is a reflection of the writer’s imagination. Meanwhile, non-fiction is a recollection of facts. Fiction tends to be more elaborate and descriptive; non-fiction tends to say only that is necessary to establish a fact or idea. A fiction writer can run his imagination free where as non-fiction writer cannot. Simplicity, directness and clarity are most important in non- fiction works. While a fiction leaves the imagination to audience or readers and they can have their own interpretations.
1. Fiction is not true and non-fiction is true
2. While Non-fiction focuses on ideas or events that actually took place, fiction tends to be focusing on imaginary ideas and events.
3. Fictions are made up stories and Non-fictions are entirely fact-based writings.
4. Fictions are just entertainers and on the other hand non- fictions are informative
Week Two:
Grammar:Describing Emotions (Verb+preposition)
1. Adjectives
The two examples given above (sorry, concerned) fall into this category. The category as a whole tends, like them, to express emotions, e.g. happy, glad, pleased, delighted (all with about/for/ with ), angry, annoyed, furious, upset, disappointed (all with about/ with ) and anxious, embarrassed (both with about/for ). However, there are also emotion adjectives with only one
preposition: surprised, amazed and shocked (all at), interested (in ), bored and satisfied ( with ) and worried ( about) (as passive participles these can also have by to show an action instead of a
state – see 66. Variable Meanings of Passive Verbs – but this more grammatical use is not a “partner” preposition in the same sense).
When the preposition is variable, about is usually needed with an
existing situation. For example, one could be happy (or angry,
concerned, embarrassed etc.) about the performance of a football
team. Even the use of about before a person directs attention to
a situation involving them rather than to them as people. A rare alternative to about is at.
With after positive adjectives like happy also introducessituations, but usually when the meaning is “having” rather than “seeing”. Thus one could be happy with one’s own job and happy about another person’s. However, after negative adjectives such as angry , with must instead be followed by a living cause of the emotion (e.g. angry with the government ).
For usually goes with living things. After positive adjectives like happy , it shows the speaker’s satisfaction with the good fortune of whoever is being mentioned. For example, if one is happy for a newly-wed couple, one is happy that they have achieved?
something nice. Contrast this with happy about them, which merely shows approval of their situation, regardless of whether it is good or bad. On the other hand, after negative adjectives for seems to have a future reference: being concerned for refugees expresses a fear that something bad might happen to them, while concerned about suggests that something bad has already happened.
Other adjectives with alternative prepositions include good (at/ to/for), disgusted (at/with) and responsible (to/for) .
2. Nouns: Some nouns have a partner preposition in front of them, e.g. on an occasion , while others have it after, e.g. a limit on … (see 111. Words with their Own Preposition). Variable prepositions, however, seem mainly to be of the kind that follow their noun. A few examples are mentioned elsewhere within this blog in the post 78. Infinitive versus Preposition after Nouns .
In some cases, the variability of a preposition makes a contrast between all and some of something. Consider the noun news .
News of an event means that the event – all of it – is the news,
whereas news about it means that the event is already known about, and the news is additional information, i.e. a part of it.
Other nouns like this include ignorance, knowledge, a question, an idea, a report and a statement . Sometimes one finds on instead of about, especially after a report .
Slightly different is a theory of/about . Of suggests a much more intricate theory than about . Thus a theory of gravity is a proper scientific theory attempting to explain every aspect, whereas a theory about gravity is more like a single general belief about it.
The noun difficulty uses of before the name of the difficulty (the difficulty of curing cancer), but with before something possessing it, e.g.:
(a) The difficulty with children is that they need supervision.
The same is true of a problem . However, trouble always has with , and advantage, benefit, pleasure and value , whilst combining with of in the same way as above, combine with something possessing them by means of in , usually after there is – e.g.
there is an advantage in …
A different type of noun with a variable preposition is of the kind derived from verb. The variability arises if the noun is able to express two different
meanings, one an action and one not. For example, the noun receipt, which is derived from RECEIVE, can mean either “receiving” or “something written to acknowledge a purchase”. With such nouns, it is usually found that the action meaning is followed by of ( receipt of visitors ), the other meaning by another preposition ( a receipt for goods ).
Slightly different is the action noun an increase, which shows what increases with a following of or in , regardless of whether or not an action is being expressed. The difference is in the cause of the increase of indicates an external agent, in does not. Thus, an increase of taxes is something brought about by an agency such as a government, while an increase in taxes is vague about agency – taxes might even have increased by themselves. The former corresponds to taxes are/were increased , the latter to taxes increase(d) .
The same contrast affects various synonyms and antonyms of increase, provided they have a related verb like INCREASE which can be used both with and without an object (see 4. Verbs that Don’t Have to be Passive 1 ). They include acceleration, expansion, improvement, intensification, cut, decrease, diminution and reduction .
A special use is found with cost and its opposite value . If we wish to say what possesses a cost/value, the preposition is of (e.g. the cost of inflation ). On the other hand, the sufferer of the cost needs to (the cost to the government ). This use of to is similar to that with indirect objects (Verbs with an Indirect Object).
Finally, a word has to be said about research, which can be followed by in, into or on . The first of these seems normally to show the broad subject area involved (e.g. research in biology ).
The other two often seem interchangeable, though perhaps into shows a more precise object of research (e.g. research on primates/into primate intelligence ). It is important to remember
that the related verb RESEARCH is not followed by any preposition at all (Unnecessary Prepositions ).
3. Verbs
Verbs with a partner preposition tend to be called “prepositional”. They are not to be confused with “phrasal” verbs (Phrasal Verbs). Sometimes their meaning changes if the preposition is dropped ( Troublesome Prepositional Verbs). Sometimes, though, meaning changes are linked with different prepositions. The following are of interest:
AGREE with/on/to
APPLY for/to
ASK about/for
CARE for/about
FALL for/over
FEEL for/like
GET into/on/off/over
GO into/over/through/with
HEAR about/of
LEARN about/of
LISTEN for/to
LIVE for/in/through
LOOK at/after/for/round
REPORT on/to
PLAY with/at/for/on
SEE about/throug

Literature in English:
Topic: Poetry
Poetry, as man’s inherited possession, is the expression of strong feeling and thought which leads to a communion between the individual and his surroundings, but most usually between a person and nature, the world, or the universe. Poetry is the means of universalizing and perpetuating a thought, an idea, a feeling, sensation, or internal experience.
Whenever we look at a poem, the first thing we will probably notice is its form. In other words, poems have a given FORM. One poem will look very different from another, and still another poem will look very distinct from the second one, and so on. Each poet uses the “form” which will most effectively EXPRESS what he wants to convey to other human beings.
Traditional poetry used to follow very strict forms. People whostill follow these forms nowadays are following the traditional manner and style. But nowadays we know that there is a strong tendency to break from the traditional and to become even very unorthodox, unconventional or even unusual. This kind of poetry is called FREE VERSE. It is most often used in modern times and presents a multitude of possibilities. The poet uses free form to make the poem fit the contents and to express the mood or feeling of his work.
After looking at a poem and seeing that it has some sort of FORM, we often notice that it also consists of LINES. These are the vehicle of the authors thoughts and ideas. These are the building blocks with which to create a poem. The WORDS of each line
proceed as usual from left to right, but they curiously end where the poet wants them to stop. Therefore, you may have some lines that are of equal length and others which are not. Besides the length and margining of the first word in each line, the PUNCTUATION at the end of each is also a major tool for the poet. At times he will want us to make a full stop, other times a gentle or slight pause, and even others perhaps a sudden break, and so on. Ultimately, then, poetry creates sensations, moods, and images in the reader’s mind.
The lines in a poem are most often divided into sections lookingas some sort of paragraphing. These we call STANZAS. A stanza, therefore, is the grouping of the lines, sort of like a paragraph.
Rhyme is the SONIC imitation usually of end syllables of words. There are basically two kinds of rhyme used in poetry. The first is the most typical and best known by young people, END RHYME, in which the words at the end of a given line rhyme. The second kind of rhyme is called INTERNAL RHYME. This kind of rhyming is different from end rhyme in that the rhyming takes place somewhere within the line and not at the end. But most of us find it more natural to use rhyming at the end and not in the middle of our poem’s lines. Still, the most widely read and enjoyed poetry artfully combines these and other patterns and techniques for the creation of the poems.(Internal Rhyme): It won’t be LONG before my SONG ends the day, And the FLOWERS near the TOWERS reach the sky.
Rhyme contributes in creating a pattern when read appropriately. It creates a special effect which results in being pleasant and motivating. Humans in general are susceptible to patterns. As a matter of fact, we live with all sorts of patterns every day of our lives. Our very lives are patterns themselves. The human mind itself has an inherent (internal) patterning force and capacity which allows the individual to perceive and create the patterns inherent in poems. And it is rhyme which is one of the contributors to the pattern created in reading or writing a poem:
Another contributor to pattern is the number of syllables, as can be seen in the third set of the examples given right above. DE- MONS-TRATE as imitated by WHAT-SHE-ATE. Still another
element which contributes to pattern is the accomodation and distribution of the lines. The reader is thus led or even forced into following a given pattern, and BEAT. But the ultimate creator of pattern is the combination of the STRESSED SYLLABLES IN ANY PARTICULAR LINE of a poem.
This brings us to the topic of RHYTHM, perhaps the pivot point ofall the elements, because it is rhythm which creates the pleasant gliding effect when we read a poem. It helps us as readers to travel along the lines of the poem with a certain enjoyable tempo created by the components of rhythm.
Never in my lonely life,
Could you make it — be my wife.
If only then she had seen,
That crime and anger were to have been.
The length of the lines are different, but it is the combination that creates a certain rhythm. Now, if the poet just repeats the same pattern with every set of lines in a stanza, and from stanza to stanza, then he will be effectively creating a rhythm. It is the REGULARITY of the
REPETITION that tends to create the rhythmical pattern. A BEAT is created when we analyze the STRESSED and UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES within the lines of a poem. Observe the following lines from a poem:
And as she WALKED to the MOON,
We could ALL hear her SWOON,
To the MARvelous SIGHTS,
In which she NOW so deLIGHTS,
EUPHONY is simply the combination of agreeable and melodious sounds which make a poem pleasant to listen to. It is the nice- sounding tone of a poem when read. This is the reason why a poem is never as effective as when read aloud — simply because poetry in general deals a lot with the euphonic sounds contained within it. EUPHONY is perhaps one ultimate aim of poetry. The esthete — the beautiful. It is poetry which allows mankind to express such beauty from within. Poetry itself is beauty created.
Poetry, like every other art, has its techniques and DEVICES. Becoming a poet liked by others is not always an easy thing to do, and it so happens that the cause of this is the way the author of a poem uses the available devices to his advantage or purposes.
Below are some of the major devices used in many of the poems we encounter as students of poetry.

1.- ALLITERATION: The purposeful repetition of a consonant sound in two or more consecutive words, usually at the beginning of such words.
The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive lines or stanzas.
Tomorrow when the sun comes out,
Tomorrow when the birds sing out,
Tomorrow it will come to be,
Tomorrow, when you’ll come to me.
c) ANADIPLOSIS: The repetition of a word or phrase at the end of one line and at the beginning of the next; or, at the end of the last line in a stanza or verse, and at the beginning of the next stanza.
She will never come to this my land,
To this my land where I belong.
3.- ONOMATOPOEIA: The use of words which imitate the sounds they stand for.
4.- INVERSION: a) ANASTROPHE: To the sea she went,
Without smiling they parted,
b) HYSTERON-PROTERON (the last first):
Then came the thunder.
Out she went.
Fear she felt.
The use of language, sensory language, language which stimulates the reader’s imagination. The use of the sensory language which serves to transmit or invoke the same or similar images in the reader’s mind.
7.- VARIETY: The use of variety in length of lines, rhythm, rhyme, distribution of lines and words, and anything else which adds to the EFFECTIVENESS of the poem. Variety may be used to create humor, depression, or many other moods or sensations. The effective poet learns to use variety whenever and wherever it serves his purposes of expression and externalization of internal experiences.
I. NARRATIVE: There are many kinds or types of poems. Some describe what the poets see; some what they remember; and others what they perceive through other senses. But other poems are intended to tell a story. These are called NARRATIVE POEMS. Just like the
regular stories which you read in your literature courses, a narrative poem also has the same basic elements. It has a setting, one or more characters in it, usually a conflict, a plot which builds up to a climax, and even a conclusion, oftentimes. The story which the narrative poem tells can also be about almost anything.
LYRIC poetry, also called DESCRIPTIVE poetry, is a very personal kind of poetry. It is usually brief, melodic, and very expressive. It is descriptive in essence, and conveys IMPRESSIONS, FEELINGS, EMOTIONS, SENSATIONS, and very personal and INTIMATE VIEWS concerning an experience. Lyric or Descriptive poetry may touch such themes as: nature, beauty, love and friendship, the joy of life, death, patriotism, and the like.
It is probable that you, as student of literature, have never really stopped to think how versatile poetry is. But it is because poetry is so FLEXIBLE, so PLASTIC, that there are so many varieties of poetry in the world or nation. The plasticity of poetry makes it possible therefore for author’s to bend and shape this kind of written expression to suit their needs or purposes. It is no wonder then that some poets should choose HUMOR as their main purpose in writing a poem.
I. LIMERICK : A LIMERICK is a special type of poem intended to be humorous. It consists of five lines only. It is usually a nonsense verse which often concerns something ridiculous. But even so, it follows a regular and distinctive pattern. Of the five lines, the FIRST, SECOND, and FIFTH lines have the same length. Each one of these contains NINE SYLLABLES, … and they RHYME. The THIRD and FOURTH lines, which are shorter, contain only FIVE syllables, and they too rhyme. Also, these third and fourth lines are slightly dented — that is, they are indented by three letters. Following is an example.
There once was a pretty young girl Who had pretty teeth like a pearl, But her fortune did change, When her mom dis-ar-ranged, The nice girl, and her teeth and a curl. This limerick form probably originated in the old town of Limerick in Ireland, and thus borrowed the name from it. But limericks are just for fun and laughter. Here is another example.
A puppy whose hair was so flowing,
There really was no means of knowing
Which end was his head,
Once stopped me and said,
“Please, sir, am I coming or going?”
One of the oldest types of poetry is a special kind of Narrative poem known as the BALLAD. The Ballad tells a story and happens to be quite lengthy. As a rule, a Ballad is concerned with a sharp CONFLICT and with deep HUMAN EMOTION. Once in a great while, though, a ballad here and there will deal with the funnier side of life. But, as a rule ballads dealt with love, honor, courage, and death. Characteristics of a Ballad include the following. 1) They usually involve the common people (although there are some about nobles, too).
2) They usually deal with physical courage and tragic love.
3) They contain little characterization or description.
4) The action in ballads usually moves forward through dialogue.
5) Much of the story is IMPLIED or suggested, forcing the listener to fill in the details. 6) They tell the story in ballad stanzas.
The BALLAD STANZA contains FOUR LINES. The FOURTH line rhymes with the SECOND. The FIRST and THIRD lines usually have FOUR ACCENTED SYLLABLES while the SECOND and FOURTH have THREE each.
BALLAD RHYTHM: Lines 1/3 = 4 BEATS; Lines 2/4 = 3 BEATS.
Come LISten to ME,
you GALlants so FREE,
All YOU that love MIRTH for to HEAR,
And I will you TELL of a BOLD outLAW,
That LIVED in NOTtinghamSHIRE.
As ROBin Hood IN the FORest STOOD,
All UNder the GREENwood TREE,
There WAS he WARE of a BRAVE young MAN,
As FINE as FINE can BE.
[Note: The capitalized syllables are stressed.]
[These stressed syllables create the BEATS.]
The poet uses free form to make the poem fit the contents and to express the mood or feeling of his intentions or purposes. The length of the lines is irregular, the indentation of the lines may also vary from one to the next, it does use rhythm, but it seldom uses end rhyme nor regular stanzas. Capitalization of the first letter in each line and proper nouns is unorthodox or conveniently changed. Punctuation is equally affected, and the distribution of the lines and words is entirely in the hands of the writer. Most poetry we read today, therefore, is Free Verse
CONTENT:- This sound is a neutral vowel. It is used to represent the weak form of other vowel sound.
Why the schwa is the most common sound
In stress-timed languages such as English, stresses occur at regular intervals. The words which are most important for communication of the message, that is, nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs, are normally stressed in connected speech. Grammar words such as auxiliary verbs, pronouns, articles, linkers and prepositions are not usually stressed, and are reduced to keep the stress pattern regular. This means that they are said faster and at a lower volume than stressed syllables, and the vowel sounds lose their purity, often becoming a schwa. The first is with every word stressed and the second is faster and more natural with vowels being reduced. The same thing happens with individual words. While stressed syllables maintain the full vowel sound, unstressed syllables are weakened. For example, the letters in bold in the following words can all be pronounced with a schwa (depending on the speaker’s accent): support, b a nana , button, exc e ll e nt, exper i ment, col our , sist er , pict ure . It is also used when a sound is a combination of a vowel and a consonant e.g water /wᴐ:tӘ/ The vowel is a short version of the /ӡ:/ sound (vowel number eleven). One peculiar feature of this vowel is that it is always found in unstressed syllables. That is, it never has any stress wherever of occurs. Examples are: – common spelling of /Ә/ sound (i) initial position e.g. agree, about, alone (ii) middle position e.g. comfort, contain, column (iii) final position e.g. measure, Africa, sailor
EVALUATION: Transcribe the following words and identify the vowel /Ә/ (i) manner (ii) library (iii) other (iv) Wonder (v) forward
ASSIGNMENT: Transcribe the following words and identify the vowel /Ә/ (i) backward (ii) harder (iii) sector (iv) failure (v) potato (vii) captor (viii) quiet



Week 3
Grammar:Adverbs of Frequency:
What are adverbs of frequency?
Adverbs that change or qualify the meaning of a sentence by telling us how often or how frequently something happens are defined as adverbs of frequency.
An adverb of frequency is exactly what it sounds like – an adverb of time. Adverbs of frequency always describe how often something occurs, either in definite or indefinite terms.
An adverb that describes definite frequency is one such as weekly, daily, or yearly. An adverb describing indefinite frequency doesn’t specify an exact time frame; examples are sometimes, often, and rarely.
Adverbs of Frequency Rules
These simple rules for adverbs of frequency will help you to use them correctly: Always use adverbs of frequency to discuss how often something happens. Adverbs of frequency are often used to indicate routine or repeated activities, so they are often used with the present simple tense.
If a sentence has only one verb , place the adverb of frequency in the middle of the sentence so that it is positioned after the subject but before the verb.
Example: Tom never flies. He always takes the bus.
When a sentence contains more than one verb, place the adverb of frequency before the main verb. For example:
They have often visited Europe.
When using an adverb of frequency in the negative or in forming a question, place it before the main verb.
Examples: Do you usually get up so late?
Examples of Adverbs of Frequency
Each sentence contains an example of an adverb of frequency; the examples are italicized for easy identification.
1. The incubator turns each egg hourly.
2. We take a vacation at least once annually .
3. I usually shop for groceries on Saturday mornings.
4. He is often late for work.
5. We seldom see John.
6. My dentist told me I should floss twice daily.
Adverbs of Frequency Exercises
Understanding about how adverbs of frequency work. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.
1. I ________________ late on Saturdays.
a. Get up usually
b. Get usually up
c. Usually get up
2. Jared ______________ late for work.
a. Never is
b. Is never
3. _______________ on weekends?
a. Often do you travel
b. Do you often travel
c. Often you do travel
4. Susan ________________ early for class.
a. Often is
b. Are often
c. Often are
d. Is often
5. When do you ____________ go on vacation each year?
a. Always
b. Never
c. Usually
d. Ever

Speech Work:Stress and Intonation
Stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence. In English, stressed syllables are louder than non-stressed syllables. Also, they are longer and have a higher pitch.English is a stress-timed language. That means that stressed syllables appear at a roughly steady tempo, whereas non-stressed syllables are shortened. Look at the examples of stress in words. The stressed syllables are represented by bold writing.
ho liday, a lone, admi ra tion, con fi den tial, degree, weak er, ner vous, parents
In spoken language, grammatical words (auxiliary verbs, prepositions, pronouns, articles, …) usually do not receive any stress. Lexical words, however, (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, …) must have at least one stressed syllable. There is no rule, however, about which syllable is stressed in a word with more than one syllable. You will need to learn the stress of words by heart. Tip: You can look up the word in a dictionary that provides IPA transcript. The symbol ‘ in front of a syllable indicates that the following syllable is stressed. Look at some examples of IPA transcripts: [ˈɡɑːdən] garden the first syllable is stressed: gar den [ˈmɛdəʊ] meadow the first syllable is stressed: mea dow [ˈmʌʃˌrum] mushroom the first syllable is stressed: mush room
[θərˈməˌmitɚ] thermometer the second syllable is stressed: thermo meter [juː’mɪdɪ.ti] humidity the second syllable is stressed: hu mi dity
Practise the pronunciation of the words above. Speak them out loud several times.
In the English language, there is one phenomenon concerning stress that you can observe: There are many verbs that consist of two syllables. Mostly, the stress is on the second syllable. Due to historical developments, the same word has become a noun. The noun, however, is stressed differently: the stress is on the first syllable. Look at the examples: to re cord a re cord
to per mit a per mit
to ad dress an address
to ex port an ex port
to trans port a trans port
to trans fer a trans fer

The entire variation of pitch while speaking is called intonation. A very obvious difference in intonation can be observed when looking at statements and questions. Take for example American English: When someone utters an echo or asks declarative questions (like He found it on the street? ), the intonation (i.e. the voice) is rising to a higher pitch at the end. When someone asks a wh-question (like Where did he find it? ) or utters a statement (like He found it on the street. ), the intonation (i.e. the voice) is falling to a lower pitch at the end. Yes or no questions ( Did he find it on the street? ) often have a rising end, but not always. Intonation also deals with the stress of words. Words are stressed to make a certain emphasis. A sentence can be spoken differently, depending on the speaker’s intention. Look at the following sentences. Speak them out loud and especially stress the word that is in bold writing. Then think about how the meaning of the utterance changes.
I did not read anything about the disaster.
I did not read anything about the disaster.
I did not read anything about the disaster.
I did not read anything about the disaster.
I did not read anything about the disaster.
I did not read anything about the disaster .
Week 4
Grammar:Positive statement to Negative
Sentence transformation: affirmative to negative
Change the following affirmative sentences into negatives.
In the simple present tense, we make negative forms by putting ‘not’ after ‘do’ or ‘ does’. Note that ‘do’ is used when the subject is a plural noun or pronoun. The first person pronoun ‘I’ also takes the verb ‘do’. ‘Does’ is used when the subject is a singular noun or pronoun. In the simple past tense, we make negatives by putting ‘did not’ before the base form of the verb.
1. My sister lives with my parents.
2. I know the answer.
3. I want to leave now.
4. My mother works at a bank.
5. Supriya sings really well.
6. Martin gets along with his brother-in-law.
7. The boy killed the spider with his shoe.
8. She recognized him at once.
9. He apologized for his conduct.
10. She threw a tantrum when she was told that she wouldn’t be able to go.
1. My sister does not live with my parents.
2. I do not know the answer.
3. I do not want to leave now.
4. My mother does not work at a bank.
5. Supriya does not sing very well.
6. Martin does not get along with his brother-in-law.
7. The boy did not kill the spider with his shoe.
8. She did not recognize him at once.
9. He did not apologize for his conduct.
10. She did not throw a tantrum when she was told that she wouldn’t be able to go..
Literature in English:Introduction to Rhyme Scheme
Rhyme Scheme
Definition of Rhyme Scheme
Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyme that comes at the end of each verse or line in poetry. In other words, it is the structure of end words of a verse or line that a poet needs to create when writing a poem. Many poems are written in free verse style . Some other poems follow non-rhyming structures, paying attention only to the number of syllables. The Japanese genre of Haiku is a case in point. Thus, it shows that the poets write poems in a specific type of rhyme scheme or rhyming pattern. There are several types of rhyme schemes as given below.
Types of Rhyme Scheme
There are a number of rhyme schemes used in poetry; some of the most popular of which include:
Alternate rhyme : It is also known as ABAB rhyme scheme, it rhymes as “ABAB CDCD EFEF GHGH.”
Ballade : It contains three stanzas with the rhyme scheme of “ABABBCBC” followed by “BCBC.”
Monorhyme : It is a poem in which every line uses the same rhyme scheme.
Couplet : It contains two-line stanzas with the “AA” rhyme
scheme, which often appears as “AA BB CC and DD…”
Triplet: It often repeats like a couplet, uses rhyme scheme of
“AAA.” Enclosed rhyme : It uses rhyme scheme of “ABBA”Terza rima rhyme scheme : It uses tercets, three lines stanzas. Its interlocking pattern on end words follows: ABA BCB CDC DED and so on. Keats Odes rhyme scheme : In his famous odes, Keats has used a specific rhyme scheme, which is “ABABCDECDE.”
Limerick : A poem uses five lines with a rhyme scheme of “AABBA.”
Villanelle : A nineteen-line poem consisting of five tercets and a final quatrain . It uses a rhyme scheme of “A1bA2, abA1, abA2, abA1, abA2, abA1A2.”
Short Examples of Rhyme Scheme
1. The sun is shining bright
This is a lovely sight.
2. You are like a day of May
And I as worthless as hay.
3. This is poor Mr. Potter Walking a road with his daughter.
4. Sometimes, your unspoken word
Is more important than that heard.
5. Little boy wants to eat cakes
Whenever he from sleep awakes.
6. I saw a tree that to God doth say
I want the Lord to accept my pray.
7. I think I can never see
Something as free as a sea.
8. After so many days of drought down poured the rain
It took so long is if came from Spain.
9. The green garden lets its shade fall
Over the red old school hall.
10. There flows the river
That’s amongst the greatest giver.
Examples of Rhyme Scheme in Literature
Let us take a few examples of most widely used rhyme schemes in literature:
Example 1: Neither Out Far nor in Deep (By Robert Frost)
The people along the sand (A)
All turn and look one way. (B)
They turn their back on the land. (A)
They look at the sea all day. (B)
As long as it takes to pass (C)
A ship keeps raising its hull; (C)
The wetter ground like glass (D)
Reflects a standing gull. (D)
This is an ABAB pattern of rhyme scheme, in which each stanza applies this format. For instance, in the first stanza, “sand” rhymes with the word “land,” and “way” rhymes with the word “day.”
Example 2: Twinkle Twinkle Little Star (By Donald Barthelme)
Twinkle, twinkle, little star, (A)
How I wonder what you are. (A)
Up above the world so high, (B)
Like a diamond in the sky. (B)
The following example uses an AABB rhyme scheme. Here, the first line ends in the word “star,” which rhymes with the final word of the second line, “are.” Since both words rhyme with each other, they are signified with letter “A.”
Example 3: Divine Comedy (By Dante Alighieri)
As I drew nearer to the end of all desire, (A)
I brought my longing’s ardor to a final height, (B)
Just as I ought. My vision, becoming pure, (A)
Entered more and more the beam of that high light (B)
That shines on its own truth. From then, my seeing (C)
Became too large for speech, which fails at a sight… (B)
Dante has used terza rima tercet rhyming patterns (ABA, BCB, CDC …) in this poem, giving an impression of irresistible movement, as well as dynamism.
Example 4: A Monorhyme for the Shower (By Dick Davis)
Lifting her arms to soap her hair (A)
Her pretty breasts respond – and there (A)
The movement of that buoyant pair (A)
Is like a spell to make me swear… (A)
This poem presents a perfect example of monorhyme, in which you’ll notice that every line ends in a similar rhyme, “AAAA” like these words, “hair, there, pair, and swear.”
Example 5: Nature’s Way (By Heidi Campbell)
Upon a nice mid-spring day, A
Let’s take a look at Nature’s way. A
Breathe the scent of nice fresh air, B
Feel the breeze within your hair. B
The grass will poke between your toes, C
Smell the flowers with your nose. C
Clouds form shapes within the skies, D
And light will glisten from your eyes D
This extract from a poem by Heidi Campbell has a beautiful rhyme scheme AA, BB, CC and DD.
Example 6: A Poison Tree (By William Blake)
I was angry with my friend: A
I told my wrath, my wrath did end. A
I was angry with my foe: B
I told it not, my wrath did grow. B
And I watered it in fears C
Night and morning with my tears; C
And I sunned it with smiles, D
And with soft deceitful wiles. D
This extract from William Blake’s poem has an excellent rhyme scheme as AA, BB, CC, and DD.
Example 7: The One (By Crystal R. Adame)
The one who brought me down to earth, A
And held me every day. B
The one who gracefully gave me birth, A
And said, I love you in every way. B
The one who taught me everything, C
Like how to crawl and walk. D
The one who taught me how to sing C
After learning how to talk. D
Here, poet Crystal R. Adame makes dexterous use of rhyme scheme. The scheme runs like this: ABAB and CDCD.
Example 8: To A Terrific Dad (By David L. Helm)
To a dad who is terrific, A
To a dad who’s real neat. B
To a dad who makes the best of things, C
Even when they’re not so sweet! B
To a dad who’s growing older, D
To a dad who’s going gray. E
To a dad who just gets smarter, D
It would seem from day to day! E
These lines from the poem To a Terrific Dad have yet another kind of rhyme scheme, which is different from all of the preceding examples. The rhyme scheme of this poem is ABCBDEDE.
Function of Rhyme Scheme
Rhyme scheme is an integral part of the constitution of a poem, which includes meter, length of phrase, and rhythm . In fact, rhyme scheme, like other writing tools, is used to create balance and relieve tension, manage flow, create rhythm, and highlight important ideas. Its basic function is to form units of sound and suggest units of sense. It also communicates the idea in a more effective way.
What are modal verbs?
Modals (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verb s, modal auxiliaries ) are special verbs which behave irregularly in English. They are different from normal verbs like “work, play visit…” They give additional information about the function of the main verb that follows it. They have a great variety of communicative functions .
Here are some characteristics of modal verbs:
They never change their form. You can’t add “s”, “ed”, “ing”…
They are always followed by an infinitive without “to” (e.i. the bare infinitive.)
They are used to indicate modality allow speakers to express certainty, possibility, willingness, obligation, necessity, ability
List of modal verbs: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must .The verbs or expressions dare , ought to, had better , and need not behave like modal auxiliaries to a large extent and my be added to the above list
Use of modal verbs:
Modal verbs are used to express functions such as:
1. Permission
2. Ability
3. Obligation
4. Prohibition
5. Lack of necessity
6. Advice
7. possibility
8. probability
Examples of modal verbs
Here is a list of modals with examples:
Strong obligation : You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.
logical conclusion / Certainty He must be very tired. He’s been working all day long. must not prohibition : You must not smoke in the hospital.
ABILITY: I can swim.
PERMISSION : Can I use your phone please?
POSSIBILITY :Smoking can cause cancer.
ABILITY IN THE PAST: When I was younger I could run fast.
POLITE PERMISSION: Excuse me, could I just saysomething?
POSSIBILITY: It could rain tomorrow!
PERMISSION: May I use your phone please?
PROBABILITY: It may rain tomorrow!
POLITE PERMISSION: Might I suggest an idea?
PROBABILITY: I might go on holiday to Australia next year.
need not lack of necessity/vabsence of obligation
I need not buy tomatoes.
There are plenty of tomatoes in the fridge.
50 % OBLIGATION: I should / ought to see a doctor. I have a terrible headache.
ADVICE : You should / ought to revise your lessons
LOGICAL CONCLUSION: He should / ought to be very tired. He’s been working all day long. NOTE:
Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without “to”, also called the bare infinitive.
You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.
You should see to the doctor.
There are a lot of tomatoes in the fridge. You need not buy any.

Letter writing is an act of communicating information, feelings, ideas or opinions to somebody who is absent or resides in a distance. A letter should contain full details of the issue one is writing about in order to bring about the same reaction that would have occurred if the message contained in it had been a spoken one.
Types of letter writing
1. Informal letter
2. Semi formal letter
3. Formal letter
An informal letter is also known as personal letter. These are letters written to a close relative, friends and close ones.
1. Address of the writer and date: this must be well – punctuated. The address must appear on the top right hand corner of the page. Example:
36, Adebayo Street,
Abule – Egba,
24th May, 2017. Greeting/salutation: this is usually “Dear” plus the first name of the person you are writing to e.g. Dear Tolu, Dear John. This is so because informal letter must reflect the cordial relationship between the writer and the receiver.
Complimentary close: ‘Yours sincerely’: is the most appropriate. Followed
by the writers first name. Example: Yours sincerely,
EVALUATION: write a letter to your father asking him to send you some money, give him three reason for your request.
ASSIGNMENT: Write a letter to your friend living outside the country telling him/her three reasons why you like your school.

Adjectives: -ed or -ing? English contains numerous -ed or -ing adjective pairs derived from verbs. To avoid mixing these up,remember that the -ed adjectives are used to describe how you feel, and the -ing adjectives are used for what it is that makes you feel that way. Here are some examples: I feel tired . – Working in the garden all day is very tiring . I am bored . – This grammar lesson is boring . She was disappointed . – Her math test score was disappointing . I’m interested in Ancient Egypt. – I think Ancient Egypt is interesting . He was shocked . – He found your behaviour shocking . I’m very confused by this film. – This film is very confusing .
Adjective or adverb? In English most (but not all) adverbs have a different form (spelling) than their corresponding adjective. It is important, therefore, that you know whether you need an adjective or an adverb in the sentences you want to say or write. Generally, adjectives are used to describe nouns and adverbs are used with verbs to say how things are done. In the following
examples, the adjectives are red and the adverbs are blue:
He’s a beautiful singer. – He sings beautifully .
She’s a very quick runner. – She can run very quickly .
He’s a careless writer. – He writes carelessly .
She’s a good worker. – She works well .
Adverbs are also used to give extra information about adjectives (or other adverbs), as in the following examples:
I am extremely happy in my new job.
She’s in hospital with a seriously injured neck.
It’s incredibly easy to make a mistake when knitting.
The girl climbed dangerously high up the tree.
Because of the thick fog I drove extremely carefully .
After certain verbs (e.g. be, become, seem, look, taste, smell , etc.) the adjective, not the adverb, is used:
She doesn’t seem happy today.
Don’t be stupid!
This meat tastes bad.
Those flowers smell strange .
Write out five words that can be used as adjectives and adverbs.
Introduction: writing is the means of communication. We shall revisit the formal and informal letter in this lesson.
A. A formal letter is refers to the business, letter or an official letter e.g. for casual leave by staff in offices or an application for a job.
The features of the formal letter
The address: this should be written at the top of a letter on the right hand corner. Remember to write the name of you state and date. Write the date in full and put a full stop after abbreviation.
8, Adesanya street,
Ile – Epo,
Oke – Ode,
22nd October, 2017.
The principal,
Elias International School,
Ile – Epo,
Oke – Odo,
ii. The recipients address: the recipient’s address should be written on the left hand side below the writer’s address. The example is written above. iii. Salutation (greetings)
The name in salutation is followed by a comma. Example, Dear sir, Dear madam, Sir, Dear, Mr. Akpan, Gentlemen, etc.
iv. Tittle – A formal letter should have a tittle. Example:
A letter of Apology
The causes of Road Accident
The importance of Agriculture etc
v. Introduction: the introduction should show what the letter is all about
vi. The body of the letter: Write clear and simple English. Mind your tenses. Pay attention to spelling and puntuations. Try to be specific.
vii. Conclusion: The conclusion should draw together the idea and its relationship with the major points
viii. Subscription: Subscription comes at the end of the letter. This is followed by a comma. Remember to write ‘Y’ in capital letter.
Note that: faithfully is written with small letter but not capital. Example
Yours faithfully ,
ix. Signature and name: put your name below Ayodele Oke the signature.

Informal letter refers to the letters we write to our brothers, friends, parents, sons, daughters, husbands, relations, etc. informal letters are also known as private letters.
The features of the informal letter
i. Writer’s address: This should be written at the top of a letter on the right hand corner. Remember to write your state and date.
3, Ayodele Cresent,
13th August, 2017
ii. Salu tation: (greetings) example My dear, father, dear, mummy, my dear mother, dear Sarah, dear brother, dear Uncle Oliver, my dear sister, my darling etc.
iii. Introduction: the introduction should show what the letter is all about.
iv. The body of the letter: this is one of the most important aspect of a letter. Write a clear and simple English – try to avoid “pompous” language. Mind your tenses. Pay attention to spelling and punctuation. Try to develop paragraph around your main points.
v. Conclusion: the conclusion should draw together the idea and its relationship with the major points.
vi. Subscription: this comes at the end of the letter. This is followed by a comma. Remember to write ‘Y’ in capital letter. Note that affectionately, friend, loving and sincerely are written with small letters but capital letters.
Examples: yours sincerely,
Yours ever,
Yours loving son,
Your friend,
Yours affectionately,
viii Name: put your name below the subscripted, an example.
Yours sincerely,
Write a letter to your friend in another school, tell him/her the changes which have taken place in your school in the recent time.

Reading to understand the writer’s purpose.
Content: comprehension is a process of reading, understanding and explaining what is written in a passage. For every comprehension exercise, there must be a passage to be read.
The purpose of comprehension exercise is to test student’s understanding of a given passage. In comprehension, the thoughts of the writer’s are presented to student for reading, understanding and explaining.
Instruction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. No 1: unit four, Reference: New oxford English course for junior secondary school (upper Basic 3 Education).
As we already know, there are forty-four speech sounds on English. While twenty of them is vowels, the remaining twenty four are consonants. A consonant is produced with the flow if air from the lungs is in erupted somewhere in the ducal clarity (mouth). A consonant is therefore a speech sound which produced with the obstruction of airstream is. The obstruction could be ‘partial ‘or ‘total’, The important thing about the production of a consonant, therefore, is that there is always a degree of obstruction of the airstream from the lungs. The degree of obstruction of air is one of the three important factors used in classifying the English consonants.
These factors are usually considered in the classification of consonants. These are:
Place of articulation.
Manner of articulation.
State of glottis.
Here are the lists of consonant sound with examples.
/p/ as in pan,prefect,nap
/b/ as in bud, rubber, rubs.
/t/ as in tea, seat, heater.
/k/ as in come, marking, pack.
/d/ as in dip, hide, riddles.
/g/ as in get, target, rag.
/f/ as in fork, suffer, cough.
/v/ as in van, river, live.
/0/ as in anthem, think, both.
/∂ / as in this, father, breathes.
/s/ as in sip, racing, place.
/z/ as in Zink, razor, has.
/S/ as in ship, lashes, fish.
// as in genre, vision, garage.
/h/ as in hat, behave
/tS/ as in cheap, richer, teach.
/d/ as in joy, rejoice, page.
/l/ as in lock, follow, sell.
/r/ as in rag, borrow,______
/w/ as in win, rewind,______
/j/ as in yes, _______.
/m/ as in man, remain, him.
/n/ as in net, runner, rain.
/J/ as in singer, bang, ______

Adverbs of Manner
What is an adverb of manner?
Adverbs of manner describe how something happens. For example, it is possible to walk or run at different speeds. The words used to describe walking or running at different speeds (quickly or slowly for example) are excellent examples of adverbs of manner. They help the reader gain greater insight into the way a written scene is playing out. Comparing the following sentences will help you to understand how these adverbs change the overall meaning of the sentences they’re found in.
The boys ran. (There is no adverb of manner in this sentence, so we can only imagine how fast the boys are running.) The boys ran quickly. (The adverb of manner is quickly. It tells us that the boys are in a hurry.) The boys were tired, so they ran more slowly than before. (The adverb of manner is slowly. It tells us that the boys are running, but they aren’t covering as much ground as they were before.) There are a few rules to remember regarding adverbs of manner: When using these adverbs, be careful not to place them between the object and the verb. They often fit best after the sentence’s object or main verb. If there is a preposition before the object, the adverb of manner may be placed either before the preposition or after the sentence’s object. Add emphasis by placing an adverb of manner before both the verb and object, and when these adverbs are placed at the beginning of a sentence, they catch the reader’s attention. As you read the following examples of adverbs of manner, you will notice how the same adverb can lend different meanings to sentences containing nearly the exact same set of words.
Examples of Adverbs of Manner
The adverb of manner in each example has been italicized for easy identification.
He quickly agreed to go to the store for milk. (His agreement was quick)
He agreed to go to the store for milk quickly. (He would go to the store quickly) She quietly asked me to leave the room. (Her request was quiet) She asked me to leave the room quietly. (I am not going to make noise when I leave) The doctor woke the gently sleeping patient. (The patient was sleeping gently) The doctor gently woke the sleeping patient. (The doctor was gentle while waking the patient)
The following exercises will help you gain greater
understanding about how adverbs of manner work. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.
1. The excited baby pounded the table _______________.
a. Badly
b. Hungrily
c. Normally
d. Variously

2. Walk ______________ or you may miss the bus.
a. Quickly
b. Slowly
c. Personally
d. Happily
3. Reading ______________ helps you to understand concepts better.
a. Rapidly
b. Briefly
c. Carefully
d. Always
4. Playing music too _______________ can damage your hearing.
a. Slowly
b. Cheerfully
c. Carelessly
d. Loudly

5. A tortoise walks _______________.
a. Mostly
b. Slowly
c. Happily
d. Eagerly
What is an Argumentative Essay?
Argument essays seek to state a position on an issue and give several reasons, supported by evidence, for agreeing with that position.
Argument essay topics can be found everywhere. Check the headlines of a newspaper, or just listen in to a conversation at you local Starbucks. Chances are, you will hear someone trying to persuade another person to believe in their claim about:
What caused this?
How important is it?
What should we do about it?
5 Types of Argument Claims
1. Fact: Is it true or not?
2. Definition: What does it really mean?
3. Value: How important is it?
4. Cause and Effect: What is the cause? What are the effects?
5. Policy: What should we do about it?
How to Write Your Thesis
Question/Answer format: To make your topic idea into a thesis youneed to turn the topic idea into a question first. Examples:
Does divorce cause serious problems for the children? (fact)
What is “domestic violence?” (definition)
What are the causes of divorce? (cause)
How important is it for couples to avoid divorce? (value)
What can you do to make your marriage divorce-proof?
Answer: Your question often can be the title of your paper, or it can be the last line of the introduction. Your answer to this question is your thesis.
Refute Objections: You might want to put an introductory phrase in the first part of your thesis to show that you are refuting other ideas about the answer.
Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof 9your marriage, studies have shown that there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment.
Roadmap: An additional way to make a strong thesis is to do a “Roadmap” which tells in just a few words the three or more main points you will cover.
Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage, studies have shown that there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment by taking time to get to know the other person before becoming engaged, spending time with
one another’s family and friends, talking about hot-button issues like finances, and getting extensive premarital counseling.
Introduction and Conclusion: Introduction Ideas Conclusion Ideas Use a true story What will happen if your solution is adopted or people accept your argument. Scenario: imaginary story which illustrates the problem
Revise the scenario showing what will happen if the audience adopts your ideas.
Startling quotation, fact or statistic. Use a real-life example of how your idea works. Explain the problem . Tell the audience what they need to think, do, feel or believe. Describe vividly Appeal to the audience emotions, character, or reason. Frame story or flashback Finish the frame story. Argumentative essays are fairly straightforward in their organization. In your paper, you will need to do the following
1. Interest the audience the situation and make them think it is worth learning more about.
2. Explain the controversy or problem clearly.
3. Explain the sides of the debate.
4. Tell them your side.
5. Convince them that your side is the best one to take.
6. Refute any objections they may be thinking about as they read.
7. Urge the audience to adopt our point of view to do, think or believe something.
I. Introduction: Explain the subject, the controversy, and end with your thesis. Here are some tips:
Use the title to present your point of view. Often the title can be a question.
Think about your audience—what aspects of this issue would most interest or convince them?
Make sure you have a clear thesis which answers the question. The thesis should tell your position and is usually the last sentence of your introduction.
III. Body : Explains the reasons your audience should agree with your thesis. Your body needs to also refute objections or other points of view.
1. Reasons and support: Usually, you will have three or more reasons why the audience should accept your position. These will be your topic sentences. Support each of these reasons with argument, examples, statistics, authorities or anecdotes To make your reasons seem plausible, connect them back to your position by using “if…then” reasoning
2. Anticipate opposing positions and objections
What objections will your readers have? Answer them with argument or evidence.
What other positions do people take on this subject? What is your reason for rejecting these positions?
Conclusion: Make a final point which tells the reader what to think or do.
Why should the audience adopt your point of view?
You might use the anticipating objections in the conclusion.
What are idioms?
An idiom (also called idiomatic expression ) is an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning conventionally understood by native speakers. This meaning is different from the literal meaning of the idiom individual elements. In other words, idioms don’t mean exactly what the words say. They have, however, hidden meaning.
“Kick the bucket”
“Spill the beans”
The meaning of these expressions is different from the literalmeaning or definition of the words of which they are made. Their meaning are however used figuratively. They mean respectively:
“to die ”
“to tell people secret information”
Idiomatic expressions are a type of informal English that have a meaning different from the meaning of the words in the expression.
Here’s an example of an idiomatic expression.
Hold your tongue.
This idiom does not actually mean that you should stick your fingers in your mouth and grab a hold of your tongue. It means that you shouldn’t talk. People “hold their tongues” when they are in situations where they want to talk, but it would be better if they didn’t. So, while their tongue is ready to do some talking, they “hold” it and don’t say anything.
Every language has idioms, and they can be difficult to learn if you’re not a native speaker of that language.
20 Common Idiomatic Expressions & Their Meanings
1. She was tickled pink by the good news.
Made very happy
2. You were hands down the best player on the team.
There was no competition
3. I’ve been feeling pretty down in the dumps lately.
Sad or depressed
4. I’m feeling sick as a dog!
Very sick
5. I’ve been feeling under the weather .
Not well
6. Rise and shine!
Wake up and be happy!
7. Close, but no cigar .
You were very close, but you did not make it.
8. I could play outside till the cows come home .
For a very long time
9. Wow! It’s raining cats and dogs out there!
Very hard rain
10. That sound is driving me up the wall !
Making me very annoyed
11 . This assignment is a piece of cake.
Very easy
12. Although he broke the rules, he was only given a slap on the wrist .
A mild punishment
13. Yikes! This shirt costs an arm and a leg .
It is extremely expensive.
14. No, I was just pulling your leg .
Just joking
15. It’s Greek to me !
I don’t understand.
16. Keep your chin up .
Be happy.
17. Hold your horses .
Be patient.
18. We’re all in the same boat .
All of us are in the same position.
19. He’s a bit of a loose cannon .
20. I will clean my room when pigs fly.
Write with meaning twenty Idiomatic expression.
Writers use the descriptive essay to create a vivid picture ofa person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay, which reveals meaning through a personal story, the purpose of a descriptive essay is to reveal the meaning of a subject through detailed, sensory observation. The descriptive essay employs the power of language and all the human senses to bring a subject to life for the reader. If readers come away from a descriptive essay with the feeling that they have really met a person, gone to a particular place, or held a certain object, the writer has done a good job. If readers also feel an emotional connection and deep appreciation for the subject’s significance, the writer has done a great job.
The Five-Step Writing Process for Descriptive Essays. Professional writers know one thing: Writing takes work, Understanding and following the proven steps of the writing process helps all writers, including students. Here are descriptive essay writing tips for each phase of the writing process:
1. Prewriting for the Descriptive Essay:
In the prewriting phase of descriptive essay writing, students should take time to think about who or what they want to describe and why. Do they want to write about a person of significance in their lives, or an object or place that holds meaning? The topic doesn’t have to be famous or unusual.
The person could be a grandparent, the object, a favorite toy, and the place, a tree house.
Once a topic is chosen, students should spend time thinking about the qualities they want to describe. Brainstorm about all the details associated with the topic. Even when not writing about a place, reflect on the surroundings. Where is the object located? Where does the person live? Consider not just physical characteristics, but also what memories, feelings, and ideas the subject evokes. Memory and emotion play an important role in conveying the subject’s
significance. Plan the focus of each paragraph and create an outline that puts these details into a logical sequence.
2. Drafting a Descriptive Essay:
When creating the initial draft of a descriptive essay, follow the outline, but remember, the goal is to give the reader a rich experience of the subject. Keep in mind, the most important watchword of writing a descriptive essay is show, don’t tell. One of the best ways to show is to involve all of the senses— not just sight, but also hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Write so the reader will see the sunset, hear the song, smell the flowers, taste the pie, or feel the touch of a hand.
Don’t Tell…Show! Use descriptive and figurative language, as well as concrete images to describe the subject. Similes and metaphors workwell. Here are some examples:
Telling the house was old.
Showing ,The house frowned with a wrinkled brow, and inside it creaked with each step, releasing a scent of neglected
Enjoy the process of describing the subject—it can be a rewarding experience. A descriptive essay doesn’t rely on facts and examples, but on the writer’s ability to create a mental picture for the reader.
3. Revising a Descriptive Essay:
In the revision phase, students review, modify, and reorganize their work with the goal of making it the best it can be. In revising a descriptive essay, students should reread their work with these considerations in mind:
Does the essay unfold in a way that helps the reader tofully appreciate the subject?
Do any paragraphs confuse more than describe?
Does the word choice and figurative language involve the five senses and convey emotion and meaning?
Are there enough details to give the reader a complete picture?
Has a connection been made between the descriptionand its meaning to the writer? Will the reader be able to identify with the conclusion made?
Always keep the reader in mind from opening to concluding paragraph. A descriptive essay must be precise in its detail, yet not get ahead of itself. It’s better to go from the general to the specific. Otherwise, the reader will have trouble building the image in their mind’s eye. For example, don’t describe a glossy coat of fur before telling the reader that the essay is about a dog!
4. Editing a Descriptive Essay
At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics. It’s also the time to improve style and clarity. Watch out for clichés and loading up on adjectives and adverbs.
Adverbs of Reasons and Adverbs of cause
Adverbs of Reasons = Adverbs of Cause:
These adverbs express the reason for or a purpose of an action.
Examples :
Krishna was hence neglected by the teachers.
She thus opened the door applying little visible force.
He, therefore , does not want to talk to me.
The teacher is ill and therefore is unable to come to school.
Write out five sentences and identify the adverb of reason .

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