SUBJECT: PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION
CLASS: J.S.S. THREE
SCHEME OF WORK
- Family Health: Diseases vector,
- Taekwondo: History and development in Nigeria, Nature of Taekwondo, Equipment, Basic skills and techniques, importance, Rules and regulations, officials.
- Practical of Taekwondo
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), HIV- Human immune-deficiency, [AIDS] acquired immune deficiency syndrome
- DRUG EDUCATION: USE, MIS USE AND ABUSE, DEFINATION, TYPES, SELF MEDICATION E.TC
7& 8. Revision and Examination
Sub – Topic : meaning of Diseases vector
Diseases simply refer to the illness or disorder of the body or mind.
The agent causing diseases are called pathogens. The science and the study of disease is called PATHOLOGY
Diseases causative agents are the following;
What are vectors?
Vectors are animals which transmit disease causing organisms (pathogens) from an infected person to an uninfected person without being infected. Examples are: mosquito, rat, house fly etc.
Type of vectors
There are two type of vector s these are :
- Biological vector
- Mechanical vector
Diseases can be grouped into two:-
(A) COMMUNICABLE DISEASES;- are the diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another. Mode of transmission can be through direct contact, infected air or vectors. Communicable diseases are also refers to infectious diseases
Types of disease and modes of transfer/ communicable diseases are the following
(a) Air-borne disease
(b) Food/Water-borne disease
(c) Contagious skin disease
(d) Animal/ insect bites disease
(e) Sexually – transmitted disease
WAYS OF ENTRY INTO THE BODY
(1) Through the mouth or nose
(2) Through the intestine
(3) Through the skin
Examples of common communicable diseases are the following
GENERAL PREVENTION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
(1) Wash the hands properly before eating and after using the toilet
(2) Ensure quarantine regulation
(3) Maintain personal cleanliness,
(4) Ensure good environmental sanitation in and around the house.
(5) Cook your foods well before you eat them
(6) Keep your fingers clean and cut short finger nails.
(7) Treat wounds and sores and never leave them exposed
(8) Fumigate your surroundings regularly
(9) Regular medical checkup is very important
(B) Non-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES:- are diseases that cannot be transmitted from one person to another. They have many causes but are never caused by germs, bacteria or other living organisms that attack the body.
They are rather caused by;
i. Atomic fallouts
ii. Chemical fallout
iii. Physiological failures of the tissues
iv. Brain damage
v. Dietary imbalance
EXAMPLES OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES ARE THE FOLLOWING;
-Birth mark etc
PREVENTION OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
I. By engaging in physical exercise
II. Eat balanced diet
III. Do not live in a dusty environment
IV. Live a healthy life-style
V. Do not be driven into stress
VI. Maintain personal cleanliness
VII. Have regular medical check-up
VIII. Avoid sedentary or careless life-style
IX. Avoid over-working self. Etc
1. Differentiate between communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases
2. Define disease
3. Outline (7) diseases causative agent
4. Outline (5) ways of preventing communicable from spreading
• Find out the meaning of the following non-communicable diseases
SUB-TOPIC: HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA, NATURE OF TAEKWONDO, EQUIPMENT, BASIC SKILLS, IMPORTANCE.
Taekwondo is a Korean national sport. Taek means to “Kick or destroy with the foot” Kwon means “to punch with eh fist” and “do” means “way of art”. Hence Taekwondo is loosely translated as the art of “Kicking and punching or the way of the foot and the fist”.
Father of modern taekwondo General Choi Hong Hi taught a combination of Karate and taekyon to his soldiers. He founded international Taekwondo Federation Canada (ITF) in 1966.
The world Taekwondo Federation (WTF) was founded in 1973 by South Korea to rival international Taekwondo Federation (ITF) with the first World Taekwondo Championship in May 1973.
General Choi Hang Hi died in 2002. Since his death, the international Taekwondo Federation (ITF) has splintered into three major groups:
ITF Canada, ITF Austria and ITF North Korea.
Taekwondo in Nigeria
Taekwondo was introduced into Nigeria by the avorian Master Aikpa Aime in 1975 and was embraced by many people. Two associations later evolved in Nigeria the NNTA and UNTA.
In 1986 Taekwondo Association of Nigeria (T. A. N) was formed.
NATURE OF TAEKWONDO
Taekwondo as a sport and exercise is popular with people of both sexes and of many ages. Physical Taekwondo develops strength, speed balance, flexibility and stamina.
The five tenets of Taekwondo are (courtesy, integrity, self-control, indomitable spirit) reflect that taekwondo is a mental discipline as well as a physical one.
EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES
1. Competition area measures 10m by 10m
2. Trunk protector (hogu)
3. Head protector
4. Groin guard
5. Fore-arm guard
6. Shin guard
7. Mouth piece
Basic skills and techniques
1. Stance: ready stance, riding/horse stance, frog/walking stance, back/L stance/ Fighting stance, Cat Stance
2. Hand attacks punches open hand technique
3. Kicks: jump kick, spin kick, spin kick, jump, spin kicks, multi-rotation spin, kicks or jump spin kick
Taekwondo helps students develop and improve awareness, confidence, focus, discipline, memory and respect.
1. Briefly describe Taekwondo
2. Mention three equipment in Taekwondo
3. List three basic skills in Taekwondo
1 Taekwondo is a …………………. National sport
2 State any three rules and regulations in Taekwondo
3 Give the officials in Taekwondo
4 The father of modern Taekwondo is called…………….
5 The art of kicking and punching is called? ……………..
Practical on Taekwondo
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases that are spread through sexual intercourse. There are many STDs that affect both male and female. The germs that causes STD could be protozoa, fungi or viruses
In Nigeria, syphilis and gonorrhea are common. Majority of the STDs can be cured if treated early, but AlDS cannot be cured once a person has been infected.
HIV means human immune-deficiency virus
AIDS means acquired immune deficiency syndrome
DEFINITION OF HIV
HIV- Human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] is a virus that lives in the human body and produce new copies of itself. It does not lives in a lower animals ,insects or water. It lives within the host and multiply.
A virus is a very small germ that cannot be seen with the naked eyes. Once HIV gets into human body system it cannot be removed.
[Human immune deficiency virus] causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]
HIV attacks the immune system,weakens it and exposes the body to infections. HIV is detected through the anti-bodies present in the body of the affected person
DEFINITION OF AIDS
[AIDS] acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is a condition when the immune system In the body of a person has become weak or in effective given to a development of signs and symptoms [called syndrome].
When this happens, the doctors might decide to perform series of test for HIV.
SIGNS AND SYMTOMS OF AIDS
1. Coughing for more than one month
2. Itching skin itches, swollen glands at two or more sites
3. Tiredness, fever that has refused to go away
4. Rapid unexplained weight loss
5. Diarrhea [on and off or all the time]
6. Prolonged malaria
7. Loss of appetite
8. Blisters on the mouth or private parts
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
1. through unprotected sex
2. through infected mother to her baby
3. through sharp cutting objects e.g. Knifes and razor blades
4. through infected blood
WAYS AIDS CANNOT BE SPREAD OR TRANSMITTED
Aids cannot be spread or transmitted when you participate in the following
1. through eating
3. Sharing clothes
5. Sleeping with family members or others in the same room
6. Sharing plates and cups
7. Sharing toilets and bedrooms
WAYS OF PREVENTING HIV/AIDS
1. Avoid sex before marriage or refuse sex outside marriage
2. Do not share needles or syringe with anyone
3. Accept a blood transfusion only when the blood has been tested and decleareded safe from HIV
4. Avoid sharing razor blades or other skin cutting objects e.g. nail cutting ,tribal markings ,dressing and circumcision
5. Always make use of hand gloves while treating a patient injury
6. Attend hospital for testing and counseling if you are worried about AIDs
7. Attend clinics and hospitals for testing and counseling if you are worried about AIDS especially when planning to marry
8. Do not be pregnant if you are an HIV/AIDS patient
9. Wear plastic gloves when treating a patient injury
10. Treat and cover with a waterproof dressing any wound sustained by the patient with AIDS
11. Provide persons living with AIDS spiritual counseling and pray for them
EFFECTS/CAUSEQUENCES OF CONTRACTING HIV/AIDs ON AN INDIVIDUAL
1. Weakens the body cell
2. Damages the body system
3. Causes untimely death
4. Damages the nervous system
5. Doesn’t allow the body to fight infections in the body
6. Brings about chronic diarrhea
1. Give the full meaning meaning of HIV, STI, STDs & AIDS
2. Mention four signs and symptoms of AIDs
3. Outline four ways of helping people infected with AIDs
4. State three effects of HIV/AIDs
Boxing is mainly art of self-defense .it is a sport in which two competitors try to hit each other with their glove enclosed fists while trying to avoid each other blow.
Fist fighting was first organized in Olympic games in about 688b.c .only one fist is wrapped. Punches are directed mostly to the face with the wrapped fist, the free hand used as a shield for defense.
Boxing in the past result in bloody clash but was revived in the 18th century in England .Boxing became a workman sport and prize fight in which attracted participants and spectators from the working class. Modern boxing started in 1866 when MARQUEES OF QUEEN BERRY gave new set of rules of minutes rounds with one minute rest in between.
Boxing is supervised by a referee and is engaged during a series of one to three -minutes intervals called ROUNDs
Victory is recorded if the opponent is knockdown and unable to get up before the referee counts to ten seconds, this is a knock-out or if the opponent is considered to be too injured to continue the bout, this is called Technical knockout.
If there is no stoppage of the fight before an agreed number of rounds, a winner is determined either by the referee’s decision or by judge’s scorecards.
TYPE OF BOXINGS
- Amateur boxing
- Professional boxing
PUNCHES – There are four basic punches in boxing
1. The jab
2. The cross
3. The hook
4. The uppercut
DEFENSE- There are several basic movements a boxer can use in order to block punches, these include;
4. Cover up (with the gloves)
6. Guard – low guard
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT OF BOXING ARE AS FOLLOWS
1. A square ring measuring 24ft [7.3m]
2. Boxing gloves
3. Medicine balls
4. Head gear
5. Boxing shoes
6. Boxing robes
7. Jump ropes
8. Hand wraps
9. Focus pads
10. Boxing shorts
11. Speed bag
12. Tooth guard
M AJOR CLASSES OF BOXERS
1. Fly weight up to 50kg
2. Bantam weight up to 53.5kg
3. Feather weight up to 57.2kg
4. Light weight up to 61.2kg
5. Welter weight up to 66.7kg
6. Middle weight up to 72.6kg
7. Light heavy weight up to 79.4kg
8. Heavy weight up to unlimited
The rules and regulations of boxing are as follows
1. The use of feet is not allowed
2. Injurious materials on the wraps is not allowed
3. Boxers are not allowed to use holding tactics to prevent their opponents
4. Holding an opponent repeatedly can lead to a boxer being disqualified.
5. A bout is stopped if the boxer is seriously injured
6. A punch that land on the head or torso is awarded a points
7. Boxers are not allowed to hit their opponents with their heads, shoulders,, forearms or elbows
1. Four officials
2. The references
3. The timekeepers
4. Two scorers
1. Differentiate between professionals and Amateur boxers
2. Which international body controls boxing?
- Mention the basic skills and techniques of boxing
- State three rule and regulation of boxing
SUB-TOPIC: USE, MIS USE AND ABUSE, DEFINATION, TYPES, SELF MEDICATION E.TC
Drug refers to any biologically active substance that is foreign to the body which is deliberately introduced to affect its functioning.
Drug use can be defined as the process of taking drugs in a way that the desired effects are attained with minimal or no health hazard.
Drug Misuse is using a prescribed drug for a purpose other than the one for which it was prescribed. Or this is taking of drug without doctor advice.
Drug Abuse.:This is improper use of drug with regard to accepted medical practice.
TYPES OF DRUGS
6. Prescription drugs
It is the purchase and consumption of medicines/drugs without the prescription of a qualified medical doctor
This is a situation where the use becomes physically dependent on a drug to the extent that he suffers physical discomfort if he is deprived of the drug.
This is a temporary physical illness that occurs when someone who is physically dependent on a drug no longer receives it.
This is the capacity for talking of drug in a large amount of drug with harmful effect.
RESONS WHY PEOPLE ABUSE DRUGS
- Availability of the drug in the society
- Pressure from friend and peer
- Broken homes( e.g separation, divorce of parent)
- Self medication
1. What are the differences between drug use, misuse and abuse?
2. Mention four types of drugs.
1. ………………………refers as any biologically active substance that is foreign to the body which deliberately introduced to affect its functioning
2. Highlight two dangers of self medication
3. ……………………are drugs that help to relieve anxiety
4. ………………are drugs used to relieve mid fatigue and keep the users awake
5. ………………….. is a situation where the body of a drug user becomes addicted to the regular uses and requires an ever ever-increasing doses to achieve the same response that smaller dose elicit
WEEKS SEVEN AND EIGHT
REVISON AND EXAMINATION