Meaning of Physical Fitness
Physical fitness is the ability of an individual to carry out his or her daily activities without undue or unnecessary fatigue or tiredness and still have enough energy for any emergency.
Physical fitness is all about one’s physical capacity to do any physical task or activity. Physical fitness is thus an aspect of total fitness.
Meaning of Body Conditioning
Body conditioning is engaging the body in regular and carefully selected physical activities to promote physical fitness and health.
Benefits Derived from Physical Fitness Exercises
(i) It aids circulation of blood.
(ii) It improves the heart regulating mechanism.
(iii) It strengthens the heart.
(iv) It relieves internal congestion.
(v) It aids relaxation rest and sleep.
(vi) It aids flexibility at the joint.
(vii) It promotes endurance.
Health Related Benefits Derived from Physical Fitness Exercises
(iii) Body composition.
(iv) Cardiovascular endurance
(v) Muscular endurance.
(vi) Muscular strength.
(viii) Good posture.
(ix) Aesthetic values and positive self image.
Performance Related Benefits Derived from Physical Fitness Exercises
(ii) Agility (quick movements).
(iv) Fast reaction time.
(vii) High productivity.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PHYSICAL FITNESS
Several factors influence physical fitness. They include:
(iii) Regular exercises.
(iv) Body type.
(v) Health status.
(vi) Regular medical check up.
(vii) Rest and sleep.
Body Conditioning Activities
Body conditioning is engaging the body in regular and carefully selected physical activities to promote physical fitness and health.
Body conditioning activities include the following:
(i) Weight training.
(ii) Repetition training.
(iii) Circuit training.
(iv) Anaerobic exercise.
(v) Aerobic exercise.
(vi) Long distance and road walking.
- Define body conditioning.
- List five body conditioning activities.
- Enumerate five factors that influence
PRE-COLONIAL OR FOLK DANCES
Meaning of Folk Dances
Folk dance is a traditional dance of a given locality or village. It is more serious than a singing game. It has its own set music and set movements. Often it tells a story or dramatises an occupation.
Pre-colonial or folk dance is indigenous dance in a locality. It is characterised by:
(i) a defined pattern of music and movement.
(ii) a defined pattern of dressing.
(iii) dramatising to portray the culture of the people in locality.
Nigeria has so many cultural dances which differ from one ethnic group to another. Examples of traditional dance are:
1. Folk Dances in Igbo Land
In Igbo land, the folk dances are:
(a) Atilogwu dance.
(e) Ohafia war dance.
2. Folk Dances in Hausa Land
In Hausa land the folk dances are:
(a) Sharo dance.
(d) Nakiya da garuma.
(f) Swage (Tiv).
3. Folk Dances in Yoruba Land
In Yoruba land the folk dances are:
(b) Bata dance.
Definition of Social Dances
Social dances are indigenous dances and other foreign dances that are imported.
Examples of foreign social dance:
(i) Break dance.
(iv) Hip hop.
- What is folk dance?
- Mention three foreign dances?
- Mention one example each of Yoruba, Hausa and Igbo folk dance.
Types of Computer Games
The types of computer games include the following:
(i) Nature Park
(ii) Beach Rally
(iii) Vehicle Rally
(ix) Tennis, etc.
Value of Computer Games
The value of computer games are as follows:
(iii) Educational purpose
(v) Reduction of tension
(vi) For relaxation
- List five types of computer games.
- Enumerate five values of computer games.
FIELD EVENTS – POLE VAULT
Definition of Pole Vault
Pole Vault is a field event which involves jumping over a horizontal placed obstacle (bar) that is supported by two uprights. The competition is performed by both male and female athletes, and the competitor is called a Pole vaulter.
Requirements/Qualities of a Good Pole Vaulter
(5) Muscular Strength
The Equipment Used in Pole Vault
Specifications of the Equipment Used in Pole Vault
(i) The uprights: The components are made of iron metal.
Strength and height: The two uprights must be rigid and sufficiently high.
Spacing: Positioned at least 3.66m apart.
Movability: Movable up to 60cm forward and backward from the back of the box.
(ii) The crossbar: It is made of aluminium metal. It can be circular or triangular in shape.
The length should be between 4.48m—4.52m. It should have a minimum weight of 2.25kilos.
(iii) Supports of the crossbar: Must be uniform and of 13mm in diameter. Must extend 7.5mm
horizontally in the direction of the landing area.
The runaway: It shall be between 40m and 45m long. It shall have a width of 1.22m and 1.25m
(maximum). It shall be marked by white lines of 5cm wide.
The box: It shall be 1m long. It shall be 60cm wide. And should have an angle of 105 formed
between the base and the stop board.
Phases of Pole Vault
This is the order of Pole Vaulting;
(i) The grip
(ii) run up
(iii) The plant
(iv) The take off
(v) The bar clearance and
(vi) The landing.
- State 5 basic requirements/qualities of a good Pole Vaulter.
- Itemize in order the six phases of Pole Vaulting.
- Mention four features of the crossbar in Pole Vault.
Techniques/Skills Involved in Pole Vault
(i) The grip
(ii) The run-up
(iii) The hand shift and plant
(iv) The take off
(v) The hang
(vi) The swing up
(vii) The turning
(viii) the clearance
(ix) the landing
Description of Pole Vault Techniques/Skills
(i) The Grip: For a right hand athlete, right hand placed at the top of the pole with the palm holding over and the thumb kept outside. The left hand holds the lower part of the pole with the fingers curling round it.
(ii) Carriage: (a) Pole must be kept at the right hand side. (b) At the hip joint level (c) The pole is not swayed while running.
(iii) Run up: (a) Feet should be parallel when starting off. (b) Take off foot is taken first and acceleration gradual. (c) Running action is similar to printing. (d) Length of the run up is about 11-15 strides.
(iv) Hand shift and the plant: (a) Lower hand is brought up, close to the upper hand and during the last three steps. (b) The pole is planted in the box, while the take off leg is slightly flexed at the take off.
(v) Take off: Take off is planted flat,should not be far from the box as the free leg is brought forward and backward.
(vi) The hang: The vaulter leaves the ground with the pole in front, then hangs on to the pole as the body is elongated.
(vii) The swing up: As the pole assumes vertical position, the vaulter flexes his legs and swing them up to clear the pole.
(viii) The pull-up: As the pelvis reaches the grip level, the arms are flexed to pull up the body.
(ix) The turn: As the body is pulled up, the body is also turned, so that he faces downward.
(x) The push up: The arms are extended to get the body to a hand- stand position on the pole immediately after the turn.
(xi) The clearance: As the leg start to descend, the pole is released and clears over the crossbar.
(xii) The landing: The legs are permitted to swing downward so that the back faces downward and allow the body to land in a semi-sitting position.
Rules and Regulations of Pole Vault
(i) Take off should be from one foot (single take off).
(ii) A vaulter should continue jumping until he/she has forfeited the right to continue further.
(iii) A failure is recorded if a vaulter, dislodges the bar, touch the ground or touch the landing area without clearing the bar.
(iv) A vaulter is out of competition when he dislodges the bar three consecutive times at a particular height.
(v) Measurement is made from the ground to the middle of the bar.
Officials in Pole Vault
1. The Referee
2. The chief field judge and
3. The two field judges.
(1) List out 5 skills allowed in pole vault.
(2) Mention 5 rules and regulations governing pole vault as a field event.
BALL GAMES: HOCKEY
Definition of Hockey
Hockey is a field event played between two teams comprising of eleven players each. The game is played with hockey sticks and a ball.
History and Development of Hockey
There is no clear record of the origin of hockey, but records show that the people of ancient Greece, Romans and Persians played the game as at 541 BC. Modern hockey started in 1876 AD when a new set of rules and regulations was formed in 1887.
– In 1900, the International Federation of Hockey formed in England.
– In 1901, hockey was introduced to USA
– In 1952, the first major international hockey competition held.
Basic Skills and Techniques Used in Hockey
The following are the basic skills and techniques used in hockey:
(i) The dribble/dribbling
(ii) The drive/hit/hitting
(iii) The stopping
(iv) The passing
(v) The Scooping
(vi) The flick
(vii) The goal keeping
(viii) The tackling.
(ix) The push
(x) The bully/centre pass
Facilities Used in Hockey Game
Facilities used in hockey game are as follows:
(i) The hockey pitch
(ii) The goal posts
(iii) The side boards
(iv) The back boards
(v) The nets
(vi) The flag posts.
Equipment Used in Hockey
Equipment used in hockey are as follows:
(i) The hockey sticks
(ii) The hockey balls
(iii) The pads
(iv) The gloves
(v) The studded shoes
(vi) The knee caps
(vii) the groin protectors
(viii) The shin guards
(ix) The face mask
(x) The chest pad
(xi) The kickers.
1. Trace the history of hockey by filling the following:
(i) The first three nations that played hockey and when?
(ii) When did the modern hockey started and where?
(iii) The date of the first international hockey competition.
Rules and Regulations in Hockey
The following are the rules and regulations in hockey game:
(i) A team consists of 11 players while a squad is made up of 16 players. 22 players play the game at a time.
(2) The game is started by a centre pass.
(3) Goals can be scored from within the striking circle.
(4) Players jerseys are numbered front and back.
(5) No player is allowed to play without stick.
(6) The ball must not be deliberately kicked by a player.
(7) All player must be at their own half of the pitch during the centre pass.
Officials in Hockey and their Duties
Officials in hockey games are:
(i) Two umpires, one for each half of the field.
(ii) Two assistant umpires.
(iii) The Referee.
Duties of the Two Umpires
The two umpires in hockey perform the following duties:
(i) They give final verdict (decision).
(ii) Inspect the equipment for eligibility.
(iii) Conduct toss for the choice of ends.
(iv) Blow the whistles to indicate any foul.
(v) Authorised to disqualify any player for unsportsmanlike behavior.
Duties of the Assistant Umpires
The assistant umpires in hockey have the following duties:
(i) Assist the umpires.
(ii) Indicate with the flags when the ball is out.
(iii) Indicate any other infringements.
NOTE: Students are expected draw hockey stick and hockey pitch with necessary labels and dimensions under the guidance of subject teacher.
1. State five (5) rules and regulations in hockey.
2. Mention five (5) duties of the two umpires in hockey.
COMBINED EVENTS: PENTATHLON AND DECATHLON
Definition of Combined Events
Combined events are combination of track and field events. They originated from the ancient Olympic games to test the total fitness of competitors.
Groups or Types of Combined Events
There are two types of combined events, namely
(a) Pentathlon (for men)
(b) Decathlon (for men)
Events Under Each Group/Type of Combined Events
(a) Pentathlon: There are five (5) events done in it, these are
(i) Long Jump
(ii) Javelin throw
(iii) 200m race
(iv) Discus throw and
(v) 1500m race.
These events are held in a day.
(b) Decathlon: There are ten (10) events done in it and they are held in two consecutive days as follows:
Scoring in Combined Competitions
The scoring is done by calculating the number of medals scored in the order of importance as gold, silver and bronze.
Equipment and Facilities Used in Combined Events
The equipment and facilities used in combined events are:
(i) Starter hearing protector
(ii) Stop watch
(iii) Track and field score sheet
(v) Flag(white for valid throw, red for invalid throw)
(vi) The baton
(vii) Sport wear
(viii) The shot
(ix) The discus
(x) The javelin
(xi) The track
(xii) The field, etc.
Rules and Regulations in Combined Events
The rules and regulations in combined events are as follows:
(i) A competitor must take off from one foot (single take off). – Pole vault
(ii) A competitor is out of the competition when he dislodges the bar three consecutive times at a particular height. Pole vault
(iii) A competitor is allowed three trials. – Long jump
(iv) The foot must not extend beyond the take-off board and must land inside the pit. Otherwise it will be no jump or invalid jump Long jump.
(v) Athletes are disqualified in relay race if they commit offense(s) like pushing or assisting during takeover.
(vi) Throwing of baton instead of passing.
(vii) Picking of a dropped baton by an athlete other than the athlete that dropped it.
Officials in Athletic Events
These are the officials in athletic events:
(1) The Referee
(2) The chief track judge
(3) The track judges
(4) The chief field judge
(5) The field judges
(6) The Starter
(7) The recall starter
(8) The lap recorders
(9) The marksman/assistant starter
(10) The announcer
(11) The umpires
(12) The recorders
(13) The time keepers
(14) The press
(15) The security officers
(16) The stewards
(17) The first aiders
(18) The clerk of the course
- Mention the name of the two groups of combined events for men.
- How many events are being held on the pentathlon group?
CAREER GUIDANCE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Qualifications of Specialists in Physical Education
Before you can be qualified as a Physical and Health Education specialist, you must have obtained one of the following:
(i) Diploma in Physical and Health Education
(ii) NCE in Physical and Health Education
(iii) B.Ed/ B.A/B.Sc in Physical Education and human kinetics
(iv) Master of Education (M.Ed), Master of Arts (M.A), Master of Science (M.Sc) in Physical and Health Education
(v) Ph.D in Physical and Health Education
Functions of Physical Education Specialists
(i) Teaching: Physical Education specialists are good in teaching the subject in schools and colleges. They are in charge of building young students from the grass root
(ii) Coaching: They are good in coaching groups of people or individuals. They give training to teams and athletes to prepare them for competitions
(iii) Physical Training: This is another part of Physical Education which deals with training in different types of exercises.
(iv) Sport Psychologists: These are specialists who deal with the mental aspects of the game. They concentrate on exercises which develop mind
(v) Sports Marketers: These are specialists in marketing sports. They are in charge of the publicity, ticketing, purchasing of sports equipment.
(vi) Exercise Therapists: These are specialists in exercises only. They master exercises and know which exercise is suitable for a particular disease or incident.
Functions of Specialists in Health Education
(i) Teaching: The health officers teach in health schools. They make sure schools are neat and clean.
(ii) Community: The specialists play the role of health officers who are in charge of the cleanliness of every surrounding. They have the right to sue any defaulter to the appropriate authority for further action.
(iii) Health Journalism: The specialists publicise matters affecting or concerning sport and the people’s health.
(iv) Consultancy: The specialists grant people consultancy services. People go to them for consultancy, to settle in their office when they help people on what to do to improve their health.
(v) Grounds men: They function as workers who take care of the ground, place of play and recreational grounds. They take care of the cleanliness of the areas, cut the bushes and grasses, and water the flowers and other odd jobs in the terrain.
(vi) Sport administrator: A sport administrator is the person in charge of a particular sport. Example; Football administrators is the person in charge of all football matters in the country.
- List five (5) functions of a Physical Education specialist.
- What are the qualifications required to become a specialist in Physical and Health Education?
NIGERIAN SPORTS HEROES AND PROFESSIONALS
The beginning of Physical and Health Education in Nigeria can be traced back to 1900 when the colonial masters first came into the country. Although some physical activities have been carried out in an informal ways before the emergence of the colonial master. Activities such as fishing, riding of horse, hunting, swimming, moon light games, wrestling, climbing hills, traditional boxing, archery, spear throwing etc have been practiced primitively. But physical training came into Nigeria through the colonial masters. All the above mentioned primitive physical activities were formalized with rules and regulations, training then were being carried out to develop some people such as Police Force, Army Force and Soldiers.
Later on, Physical education was introduced to school curriculum in some polytechnic and tertiary institutions such as Yaba-Tech, University of Ibadan, University of Zaria, University of Ife etc. among the first graduate of physical education are –
1. Prof M.O. Ajisafe, from Nzuka University
2. H.J. Akperigin, Isaac Akioye, M.T. Adiuku, Awoture Eleyae, Anthony Omo Osagie, etc.
Physical Education became popular through the above mentioned names because they ensure that it was included in the school curriculum. Today physical education has been taught at various levels from primary schools to tertiary institutions.
Sports Heroes/Professionals in Nigeria and their Contributions
1. H.J. Ekperigin:
He was popularly called the father of physical education in Nigeria. He was born Ugori in Warri Local Government area of Delta State. He attended the following schools; Government College Ibadan, Loughbrough Training College in England.
(i) He was the first professionally trained physical and health educationist in Nigeria and from Loughbrough, the training he undergone opened ground for some notable people such as Prof. M.O. ajisafe, Isaac Akioye.
(ii) He helped to establish both grade II and grade III teachers college
(iii) He was a significant figure among the officials that led Nigeria continent to the first outing of the commonwealth games at Cardiff, Wales in 1958.
(iv) He helped to form the Nigeria Association of Physical and Health Education & Recreation (NAPHER)
2. Isaac Okioye:
He was also trained at the famous Loughbrough Training College. He was member of the Nigeria football team in 1949. When he returned from Britain to Nigeria, he joined the Western Region Ministry of Education and took over from H.J Ekperigin.
(i) He was the first professor to be appointed Director of sports at the National Sport Commission.
(ii) During his tenure, the Nigeria Polytechnic Games Association (NIPOGA), the Nigeria Colleges of Education Game Association (NICEGA) and the Nigeria m School Sports Federation (NSSF) were founded.
(iii) He abolished the playing of Netball in preference to Basket ball in Nigerian Schools
(iv) He was the Secretary General and later President of Nigerian Association for Physical Health Education and Recreation (NAPHER)
3. Prof. M.O. Ajisafe:
Professor M.O. Ajisafe one of the pioneers of Physical education in Nigeria is a professor of curriculum and instructions in physical education. His contributions towards the development of physical education in Nigeria are noteworthy.
(i) In 1969, he with others successfully canvassed for the adoption of a syllabus that will reflect the geo-cultural background of Nigeria to replace the 1933 syllabus imported to the country by the British government. This gave birth to the current 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria
(ii) In July 1974, he was the secretary to the group that was called by the federal government to formulate the physical education syllabus of the Universal Basic Education (UPE)
(iii) He published a book on Teaching Physical and Health Education which contained the outcome of his federal government sponsored research into indigenous activities suitable for the physical education programme of Nigerian primary schools.
4. Falilat Adekoya:
She was born on 12th May, 1968. She is a Nigerian athlete, Ogunkoya has won a number of national championships, including a gold medal in 1996 in the 400 metres, gold in 200 metres and 400 metres in 1998 and gold again in 1999 and 2001 in the 400m. At the 1996 summer Olympics she won a bronze medal in the 400m in a personal best and African record of 49.10, which is currently the twelfth fastest of all time.
5. Mary Onyali-Omagbemi
She was born on 2nd February, 1968. She is a Nigerian sprinter who won the bronze medal in 4 × 100 metres relay at the 1992 summer Olympics and in 200 metres at the 1996 summer Olympics. She also won the 1994 commonwealth games.
6. Patrick Olusegun Odegbami
He was born on 27th August, 1952 in Lagos. He won 46 caps and scored 23 goals for the country, and guided Nigeria to its first African Nations title at the 1980 African Nation Cup.
7. Teslim ‘Thunder’ Balogun
The first Nigerian to play professional football in England at Peterborough United, Holbeach United and Queens Park Rangers and also the first Nigerian coach to lead the national team to the Olympic games at Mexico in 1968.
- List four (4) qualities of Physical and Health Education specialists
- Mention four (4) functions of a specialist in Physical Health
- Enumerate five (5) Nigerian Heroes in sport.
CONTACT GAMES – TAEKWONDO
Definition of Contact Games
Contact games are sports that emphasize or require physical contact between players. Examples are martial arts, rugby and football which requires tackling.
Basic Techniques in Taekwondo
(i) Rising kick to head with leg fully extended
(ii) Heel kick (kakato geri)
(iii) Back kick(Uchiro geri)
(iv) Round house knee kick (Mawashi hiza geri)
(v) Front kick (mae geri)
(vi) Law front kick (kingeri)
(vii) Knee kick (hiza geri)
(viii) Side kick (Yoko kiage)
Origin of Taekwondo
Taekwondo is a Korean National sport. Taekwondo is founded by Koreans in the 20th Century.
Taek means to kick or to destroy with foot; kwon means to punch with the fist and do means way or art. It was exposed to Japanese between 1910 and 1945.
History of Taekwondo in Nigeria
Taekwondo was introduced into Nigeria by the Ivorian Master Aikpa Aime in 1975 and was embraced by many people, two associations later evolved in Nigeria – the NNTA and the UNTA.
In 1983 the federal government requested the Korean government to send two Korean experts Mr. Moo Cheun Kim and Mr. Jhoo Rae Pak (both of the WTF) to instruct the Nigeria Army. In 1986, Taekwondo Association of Nigeria (TAN) was formed.
Importance of Taekwondo
(i) It develops an appreciation for taekwondo as a sports and an art.
(ii) It achieves physical fitness through positive participation.
(iii) It improves mental discipline and emotional equanimity.
(iv) It helps to learn self defence skills.
(v) It develops a sense of responsibility for one self and others.
Rules and Regulations of Taekwondo
(i) A player should not fight on the street.
(ii) A beginner should always use what he was taught during the practice and combat.
(iii) Player should feel better before going into fighting.
(iv) He must follow or obey referee instructions.
(v) He must not abuse the referee.
(vi) He must not complain during the fight.
(vii) He should always look in the eyes of the opponent before and during the combat and especially when greeting at the beginning of the combat.
(viii) A player must knot his belt very well.
Officials in Taekwondo
THE REFEREE: He has the final say. He starts and stops the game. He penalizes and awards points.
THE JUDGES: They assist the referee in the match.
THE RECORDER: They keep the records of the events.
- Define contact and non-contact games.
- List five (5) basic techniques in taekwondo.
- Briefly trace the origin of taekwondo in Nigeria.
- State five (5) importance of taekwondo.
- Highlight five (5) rules and regulations of taekwondo.
- List three officials in taekwondo and their function
CONTACT GAMES – BOXING
Definition of Boxing
Boxing is also called the manly art of self defence. It is a sport in which two competitors or contestants try to hit each other with their glove encased fist while trying to avoid each other’s blows.
The competition is divided into a specified number of rounds usually three (3) minutes long with one minute rest period between rounds, although amateur boxing is widespread.
History of Boxing
Boxing is as old as man. It began when a person first lifted a fist against another in play. Fist fighting was first played in the Olympic Games in about 688 B.C.
Early boxers fought with leather bands around their fist for protection and sometimes wore metal filled leather hand covering called Cesti.
Boxing became a workman sports as prize fight attracted participants and spectators from the working class.
Modern boxing started in 1866 when Marques of Queen Berry gave new set of rules of three (3) minutes rounds with one (1) minute rest in-between.
Skills and Techniques in Boxing
(i) The stance
(ii) Foot work
(vi) Straight knuckle
Rules and Regulations of Boxing
(i) No boxer is allowed to be with dangerous objects.
(ii) There should be no hitting below the belt.
(iii) There should be no slapping with the palm.
(iv) Dragging or pushing of an opponent is not allowed.
(v) Kicking in boxing is not allowed.
(vi) The referee command should be strictly obeyed.
(vii) Each boxer must greet the trainer of his opponent after the bout.
(viii) A boxer shall only be allowed to engaged an opponent within the same weight category.
(ix) The head butt is not allowed in boxing.
(x) Every amateur boxer should wear a head protector.
- Give a brief history of boxing.
- Mention five skills in boxing.
- State five rules and regulations of boxing.
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