# Distinguish between 2D shapes and 3D shapes Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Mathematics Week 10

### Subject : Mathematics

**Class** :Primary 4

**Term** :Third Term

**Week** :Week 10

**Topic** :

Distinguish between 2D shapes and 3D shapes Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Mathematics Week 10

**Previous Lesson** :

**Learning Objectives:**

- Identify and distinguish between 2D shapes and 3D shapes.
- Understand the properties of three-dimensional shapes.
- Recognize examples of real-life objects representing 2D and 3D shapes.

**Embedded Core Skills:**

- Critical thinking
- Observation and identification
- Communication skills
- Problem-solving

**Learning Materials:**

- Chart paper and markers
- Real-life objects representing 2D and 3D shapes
- Printed images of 2D and 3D shapes (optional)
- Worksheets with shape-related activities (optional)

### Content

Good morning, class! Today, we are going to learn about three-dimensional shapes, their types, and properties. Are you ready? Let’s get started!

Three-dimensional shapes are objects that have length, width, and height. They are also known as 3D shapes or solid shapes. Unlike two-dimensional shapes that only have length and width, 3D shapes exist in the real world and can be held and touched.

Now, let’s talk about some common types of three-dimensional shapes:

- Cubes: A cube is a 3D shape with six square faces of equal size. All the angles in a cube are right angles, and all its edges have the same length. Some examples of objects shaped like cubes are dice and sugar cubes.
- Rectangular Prisms: A rectangular prism has six faces, and each face is a rectangle. The opposite faces of a rectangular prism are congruent (same size and shape). Examples of objects shaped like rectangular prisms include shoeboxes and books.
- Spheres: A sphere is a perfectly round 3D shape. It has no edges or vertices. Examples of objects shaped like spheres are balls and oranges.
- Cylinders: A cylinder has two circular faces and a curved surface connecting them. The circular faces are congruent and parallel. Examples of objects shaped like cylinders are cans and some water bottles.
- Pyramids: A pyramid has a polygonal base and triangular faces that meet at a common point called the apex. The shape of the base determines the name of the pyramid. For example, a pyramid with a triangular base is called a triangular pyramid.
- Cones: A cone has a circular base and a curved surface that tapers to a point called the vertex or apex. Examples of objects shaped like cones include ice cream cones and traffic cones.

Now, let’s talk about some properties of these three-dimensional shapes:

- Faces: Faces are the flat surfaces of a 3D shape. Counting the number of faces can help us identify the shape. For example, a cube has six faces, while a pyramid has five faces.
- Edges: Edges are the lines where two faces meet. Counting the number of edges can also help us identify the shape. For example, a cube has 12 edges, while a cylinder has two circular faces and two curved edges.
- Vertices: Vertices are the points where three or more edges meet. Counting the number of vertices can also help us identify the shape. For example, a cube has eight vertices.
- Volume: Volume is the amount of space occupied by a 3D shape. We measure volume in cubic units, such as cubic centimeters (cm³) or cubic meters (m³). Finding the volume of different shapes requires different formulas, which we will learn in more detail as we progress in our mathematics studies.

So, class, to recap, we discussed some common types of three-dimensional shapes like cubes, rectangular prisms, spheres, cylinders, pyramids, and cones. We also talked about the properties of these shapes, including faces, edges, vertices, and volume.

Now, I have a fun activity for all of you. I will show you different objects, and together, we will identify their shapes and discuss their properties. Are you excited? Let’s explore the fascinating world of 3D shapes together!

**Evaluation**

- A cube has ________ square faces. a) four b) six c) eight
- A sphere has ________ edges. a) no b) four c) twelve
- A rectangular prism has ________ faces. a) three b) six c) ten
- A pyramid has ________ vertices. a) four b) six
- A cone has ________ circular faces. a) one b) two c) three
- A cylinder has ________ curved edges. a) zero b) one c) two
- A triangular prism has ________ faces. a) five b) six c) eight
- A cube has ________ vertices. a) four b) six c) eight
- A pyramid has ________ triangular faces. a) two b) three c) four
- A sphere has ________ faces. a) two b) three c) no

Take your time to think about the answers, and when you’re ready, you can share your responses with me.

[mediator_tech]

### Distinguish between 2D shapes and 3D shapes

Good day, class! Today, we are going to learn about the difference between 2D shapes and 3D shapes. Are you ready? Let’s get started!

First, let’s talk about 2D shapes. “2D” stands for two-dimensional. Two-dimensional shapes are flat and have only two dimensions: length and width. They are also called plane shapes. When we draw these shapes on a piece of paper, they do not have any thickness or depth. Some examples of 2D shapes are circles, squares, triangles, rectangles, and hexagons.

Now, let’s move on to 3D shapes. “3D” stands for three-dimensional. Three-dimensional shapes are solid objects that have length, width, and height. Unlike 2D shapes, 3D shapes exist in the real world and can be held and touched. They have volume and take up space. Some examples of 3D shapes are cubes, spheres, pyramids, cylinders, and cones.

To better understand the difference between 2D and 3D shapes, let’s compare their key characteristics:

- Dimensions:
- 2D shapes have two dimensions: length and width.
- 3D shapes have three dimensions: length, width, and height.

- Flat vs. Solid:
- 2D shapes are flat and exist only on a plane (like a piece of paper or a computer screen).
- 3D shapes are solid and have a physical presence in the real world.

- Thickness:
- 2D shapes have no thickness or depth. They are just flat figures.
- 3D shapes have thickness, depth, and occupy space.

- Examples:
- Examples of 2D shapes include circles, squares, triangles, and rectangles.
- Examples of 3D shapes include cubes, spheres, pyramids, cylinders, and cones.

To help you visualize the difference, imagine holding a piece of paper with a drawn circle (2D shape) and a ball (3D shape). The circle lies flat on the paper, while the ball is a solid object that you can hold in your hand.

Remember, 2D shapes are flat and have only length and width, while 3D shapes are solid objects with length, width, and height.

Now, let’s practice! I will show you some shapes, and I want you to tell me if they are 2D or 3D shapes. Are your eady? Let’s go!

[mediator_tech]

- A circle is an example of a ________ shape. a) 2D b) 3D c) Both 2D and 3D
- A cube is an example of a ________ shape. a) 2D b) 3D c) Both 2D and 3D
- Two-dimensional shapes have ________ dimensions. a) one b) two c) three
- Three-dimensional shapes have ________ dimensions. a) one b) two c) three
- A triangle is an example of a ________ shape. a) 2D b) 3D c) Both 2D and 3D
- 2D shapes are flat and exist on a ________. a) plane b) sphere c) cube
- 3D shapes have ________ and occupy space. a) volume b) edges c) faces
- A sphere is an example of a ________ shape. a) 2D b) 3D c) Both 2D and 3D
- 2D shapes have no ________ or depth. a) thickness b) width c) height
- 3D shapes are ________ objects. a) flat b) solid c) transparent

Take your time to think about the answers, and when you’re ready, you can share your responses with me.

[mediator_tech]

### Examples of real live objects of 2D shapes and 3D shapes

Good day, class! Today, we are going to explore examples of real-life objects that represent both 2D shapes and 3D shapes. Are you ready? Let’s get started!

Let’s begin with examples of real-life objects that represent 2D shapes:

- Circle: The wheels of a bicycle or a car are circular and represent the shape of a circle.
- Square: Picture frames, tiles on the floor, or windows can have square shapes.
- Triangle: Road signs, like the yield sign or warning signs with triangular shapes, represent triangles.
- Rectangle: Doors, windows, or the screens of televisions and computers often have rectangular shapes.
- Hexagon: Some beehives have hexagonal cells, representing the shape of a hexagon.

Now, let’s move on to examples of real-life objects that represent 3D shapes:

- Cube: A Rubik’s Cube is a classic example of a cube. It has six square faces and can be held and manipulated.
- Sphere: Think of a ball or an orange. They have a spherical shape that is smooth and round.
- Cylinder: A can of soda or a drinking glass has a cylindrical shape. It has two circular faces and a curved surface.
- Pyramid: The Great Pyramids of Egypt or even a simple pyramid-shaped paperweight are examples of pyramid shapes.
- Cone: Ice cream cones, traffic cones, or party hats have the shape of a cone.

Remember, 2D shapes are flat and exist on surfaces, while 3D shapes are solid objects with length, width, and height. Now that you know some examples of real-life objects for both 2D and 3D shapes, you can start observing your surroundings and identify even more examples!

As a fun activity, I encourage all of you to go on a shape hunt. Look around your home, school, or neighborhood and find objects that represent different 2D and 3D shapes. Make a list and share your findings with the class. It will be an exciting way to learn and apply our knowledge of shapes in the real world.

I hope you enjoyed today’s lesson. Keep exploring and learning about shapes, and I look forward to seeing what objects you discover!

[mediator_tech]

**Evaluation**

1. A ________ represents a real-life example of a 2D shape.

a) book

b) ball

c) bicycle

2. A ________ represents a real-life example of a 3D shape.

a) road sign

b) pizza slice

c) basketball

3. A ________ is an example of a real-life object representing a 2D shape.

a) traffic cone

b) clock

c) soccer ball

4. A ________ is an example of a real-life object representing a 3D shape.

a) painting

b) mug

c) mirror

5. A ________ represents a real-life example of a 2D shape.

a) pyramid

b) pencil

c) basketball court

6. A ________ represents a real-life example of a 3D shape.

a) road map

b) dice

c) skateboard

7. A ________ is an example of a real-life object representing a 2D shape.

a) traffic light

b) soccer field

c) clock tower

8. A ________ is an example of a real-life object representing a 3D shape.

a) postcard

b) watermelon slice

c) cardboard box

9. A ________ represents a real-life example of a 2D shape.

a) soccer goal

b) notebook

c) basketball hoop

10. A ________ represents a real-life example of a 3D shape.

a) poster

b) cone-shaped party hat

c) photograph

Take your time to think about the answers, and when you’re ready, you can share your responses with me.

**Lesson Plan Presentation: Three-Dimensional Shapes**

**Grade Level:** Primary 4

**Duration:** 45 minutes

**Presentation:**

- Begin the lesson by engaging the students in a brief discussion on shapes, reviewing what they have learned about 2D shapes.
- Introduce the concept of three-dimensional shapes and explain that they have length, width, and height.
- Display a chart with examples of 2D and 3D shapes and emphasize the key differences between them.
- Show real-life objects that represent different 2D and 3D shapes, such as circles (2D) and balls (3D). Encourage students to identify and discuss the shapes of these objects.
- Explain the properties of 3D shapes, including faces, edges, vertices, and volume. Use visual aids if available.
- Show images or physical examples of various 3D shapes, such as cubes, spheres, pyramids, cylinders, and cones. Discuss their properties and ask students to identify the number of faces, edges, and vertices.
- Provide opportunities for students to handle and explore the 3D objects, promoting hands-on learning experiences.

[mediator_tech]

**Teacher’s Activities:**

- Facilitate the discussion and provide clear explanations of concepts.
- Show visual aids and real-life objects to enhance understanding.
- Ask questions to encourage critical thinking and active participation.
- Provide examples and anecdotes to make the lesson engaging and relatable.
- Guide the students in observing and analyzing the properties of 3D shapes.

**Learners’ Activities:**

- Actively participate in the discussion and ask questions.
- Observe and identify the differences between 2D and 3D shapes.
- Handle and examine the real-life objects representing different shapes.
- Collaborate with classmates to discuss and share their findings.
- Engage in hands-on activities to reinforce learning, such as creating 3D shapes using modeling clay or building structures using 3D blocks

**Assessment:**

- During the lesson, observe students’ engagement, participation, and ability to distinguish between 2D and 3D shapes.
- Use questioning techniques to assess students’ understanding of the properties of 3D shapes.
- Review and provide feedback on students’ completed worksheets or activities related to 2D and 3D shapes.

**Evaluation Questions:**

- What is the main difference between 2D shapes and 3D shapes?
- Give an example of a 2D shape and a real-life object representing it.
- Explain the concept of volume in relation to 3D shapes.
- How many faces does a cube have?
- Name three properties of 3D shapes.
- Identify a real-life object representing a cone shape.
- How can you differentiate between a square (2D) and a cube (3D)?
- What are the dimensions of 2D shapes?
- Give an example of a 3D shape and a real-life object representing it.
- How many edges does a cylinder have?

[mediator_tech]

**Conclusion:** In conclusion, today we explored the fascinating world of three-dimensional shapes. We learned about the differences between 2D shapes and 3D shapes, understanding that 2D shapes are flat with only length and width, while 3D shapes have length, width, and height, giving them a solid form. We discussed the properties of 3D shapes, including faces, edges, vertices, and volume.

We also discovered real-life objects representing both 2D and 3D shapes. By observing and interacting with these objects, we gained a better understanding of how shapes exist in the world around us.

Remember, shapes are not just abstract concepts, but they play a significant role in our daily lives. Whether it’s the shape of a ball, a book, or a building, recognizing and understanding shapes can help us navigate and understand the world better.

Keep exploring and observing shapes in your surroundings. In our next lesson, we will delve deeper into the properties of specific 3D shapes and learn how to calculate their volume. I’m excited to continue this learning journey with all of you!

Great job today, everyone!