# Capacity Basic Unit of Measurement Addition and Subtraction in Litres Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Mathematics Week 6

### Subject : Mathematics

**Class** :Primary 4

**Term** :Third Term

**Week** :Week 6

**Topic** : Capacity Basic Unit of Measurement Addition and Subtraction in Litres Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Mathematics Week 6

**Previous Lesson** : Time Measurement ; Calendar, date Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Mathematics Week 5

### Behavioural Objectives :

Learning Objectives: By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

- Define capacity and understand its importance in measuring liquids.
- Identify litres as the basic unit of measurement for capacity.
- Perform addition and subtraction operations using litres as the unit of measurement.
- Apply their knowledge of capacity and litres to solve real-life problems.
- Demonstrate an understanding of estimation in capacity measurements.

### Embedded Core Skills:

- Critical thinking
- Numerical reasoning
- Problem-solving
- Measurement skills
- Estimation skills

### Learning Materials:

- Whiteboard or blackboard
- Markers or chalk
- Capacity measuring tools (jugs, cups, bottles, etc.)
- Worksheets with capacity-related questions
- Examples of different containers (bottles, buckets, etc.)

### Content :

First Lesson

Lesson Topic: Capacity – Basic Unit of Measurement (Litres) and Addition/Subtraction

Class, today we will be learning about capacity, specifically the basic unit of measurement, which is litres. We will also explore addition and subtraction using litres. So, let’s get started!

**Introduction to Capacity**: Capacity refers to the amount of space that an object or container can hold. We measure capacity using different units, such as litres, millilitres, gallons, and so on. In this lesson, we will focus on litres as our basic unit of measurement.**Understanding Litres**: Litres are used to measure the capacity of liquid substances. For example, we measure the capacity of a bottle of water, a bucket, or a tank in litres. The symbol for litres is ‘L’. When we see ‘1L’, it means one litre.**Addition of Litres**: Now, let’s move on to addition using litres. When we add litres, we are combining the capacities of different containers or objects. For instance, if we have a jug with 2L of water and another jug with 3L of water, when we add them together, we get a total of 5L.

Let’s take another example: If we have a bottle with 1L of juice and another bottle with 500mL of juice, we need to convert the millilitres to litres before adding. Since 1L is equal to 1000mL, we can say that 500mL is equal to 0.5L. Therefore, the total capacity when we add them together is 1.5L.

Remember, when adding litres, we must make sure we convert any smaller units, such as millilitres, to litres to ensure accurate calculations.

**Subtraction of Litres**: Next, let’s discuss subtraction using litres. Subtraction helps us find the difference between the capacities of two containers or objects.

For example, if we have a tank filled with 10L of petrol and we use 3L of petrol, we can find the remaining capacity by subtracting 3L from 10L. The remaining capacity would be 7L.

Let’s take another example: If we have a bottle containing 2L of milk and we pour out 500mL of milk, we need to convert the millilitres to litres before subtracting. Since 1L is equal to 1000mL, we can say that 500mL is equal to 0.5L. Therefore, the remaining capacity after pouring out 500mL would be 1.5L.

**Practice Exercises**: Now, let’s practice what we’ve learned through some exercises. I will give you a few scenarios, and you need to calculate the total capacity by adding or find the remaining capacity by subtracting.

Exercise 1: A container has 2L of orange juice, and another container has 1.5L of apple juice. What is the total capacity when we combine them?

Exercise 2: A bottle contains 1L of shampoo, and 300mL of shampoo is used. What is the remaining capacity?

Take your time to solve the exercises, and let me know when you’re ready for the answers.

- Summary: To summarize, today we learned about capacity, focusing on litres as the basic unit of measurement. We practiced addition and subtraction using litres, ensuring we convert any smaller units to litres for accurate calculations.

Remember, capacity is all about measuring the amount of space an object or container can hold, and litres help us express that measurement. Keep practicing, and you’ll become experts in working with capacity and litres!

That concludes our lesson for today. Well done, everyone!

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Second Lesson

### Lesson Topic: Capacity – Basic Unit of Measurement

Class, today we will be learning about capacity and its basic unit of measurement. Capacity refers to the amount of space that an object or container can hold. It helps us measure liquids and other substances. So, let’s dive into the world of capacity!

- Introduction to Capacity: Capacity is a term that tells us how much a container can hold. Think about the different containers you see around you, such as bottles, glasses, buckets, and even swimming pools. All of these have different capacities.
- Basic Unit of Measurement – Litres: In our lesson, we will focus on litres as the basic unit of measurement for capacity. The symbol for litres is ‘L’. When we see ‘1L’, it means one litre.
- Understanding Litres: Litres are used to measure the capacity of liquid substances. For example, we use litres to measure the amount of water in a bottle, the amount of milk in a carton, or the amount of juice in a glass. So, when we talk about capacity in everyday life, we often use litres.
- Comparing Different Capacities: Now, let’s explore how we compare different capacities. Imagine we have two containers: Container A and Container B. Container A has a capacity of 2L, while Container B has a capacity of 5L.

We can say that Container B has a greater capacity than Container A because 5L is more than 2L. We use the terms “greater than” and “less than” to compare capacities. In this case, we say 5L is greater than 2L.

- Estimating Capacity: Sometimes, we may not have measuring instruments to determine the exact capacity of a container. In such cases, we can estimate the capacity using our senses and prior knowledge.

For example, if you see a small cup, you can estimate that its capacity is less than 1L. If you see a big drum, you can estimate that its capacity is more than 10L. Estimation helps us make a reasonable guess about capacity based on what we observe.

- Practice Exercise: Let’s do a quick exercise to apply what we’ve learned. I will give you a few examples of containers, and you need to estimate their capacities. Remember to use your observations and prior knowledge.

Example 1: A regular-sized water bottle – Estimate its capacity in litres.

Example 2: A large cooking pot – Estimate its capacity in litres.

Take a moment to think about your estimates, and let me know when you’re ready.

- Summary: Today, we learned about capacity and its basic unit of measurement, which is litres. We explored how we compare different capacities and discussed estimating capacity when we don’t have measuring instruments.

Remember, capacity helps us understand how much a container can hold. Keep practicing and observing different containers to improve your understanding of capacity and litres.

That concludes our lesson for today. Great job, everyone!

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Evaluation

- The basic unit of measurement for capacity is _______. a) Kilograms b) Litres c) Centimeters
- The symbol used for litres is _______. a) L b) K c) C
- Capacity refers to the amount of _______ an object or container can hold. a) Weight b) Length c) Space
- 1L is equal to _______ millilitres. a) 10 b) 100 c) 1000
- When we add capacities, we are combining the _______ of different containers or objects. a) Weights b) Volumes c) Lengths
- If we have a jug with 3L of water and another jug with 2L of water, the total capacity would be _______. a) 5L b) 1L c) 10L
- When subtracting capacities, we find the _______ between the capacities of two containers or objects. a) Sum b) Difference c) Product
- If we have a bottle with 2L of juice and we pour out 500mL of juice, the remaining capacity would be _______. a) 2.5L b) 1.5L c) 3.5L
- Estimating capacity helps us make a _______ about the capacity of a container. a) Guess b) Measurement c) Calculation
- Capacity is measured using units such as litres, millilitres, and _______. a) Kilometers b) Grams c) Gallons

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Lesson Topic: Capacity – Addition of Numbers in Litres, Centiliters, and Millilitres

Class, today we will be learning about capacity and how to add numbers in litres, centiliters, and millilitres. We will explore how to perform addition operations with different units of capacity. So, let’s get started!

1. Introduction to Capacity and Units:

Capacity refers to the amount of space or volume that an object or container can hold. We measure capacity using different units, such as litres, centiliters, and millilitres.

– Litres (L): Litres are used to measure large capacities. For example, we measure the capacity of a water tank or a swimming pool in litres.

– Centiliters (cL): Centiliters are smaller units than litres. They are often used to measure the capacity of smaller containers, like cups or glasses.

– Millilitres (mL): Millilitres are even smaller units of capacity. We use millilitres to measure very small quantities, such as the capacity of a medicine dropper or a syringe.

2. Adding Numbers in Litres:

When we add numbers in litres, it means we are combining the capacities of different containers or objects. Let’s look at an example:

If we have a bottle with 2L of milk and another bottle with 3L of milk, when we add them together, we get a total of 5L. So, 2L + 3L = 5L.

3. Adding Numbers in Centiliters:

Now, let’s move on to adding numbers in centiliters. We use the same principle as adding litres, but with smaller units. For example:

If we have a glass with 50cL of juice and another glass with 30cL of juice, when we add them together, we get a total of 80cL. So, 50cL + 30cL = 80cL.

4. Adding Numbers in Millilitres:

Finally, let’s discuss adding numbers in millilitres. Again, we use the same concept as adding litres and centiliters, but with an even smaller unit. For example:

If we have a medicine dropper with 20mL of medicine and another medicine dropper with 10mL of medicine, when we add them together, we get a total of 30mL. So, 20mL + 10mL = 30mL.

5. Practice Exercises:

Now, let’s practice what we’ve learned through some exercises. I will give you a few scenarios, and you need to add the capacities and write the answers in the appropriate units.

Exercise 1:

A jug contains 1L of water, and a cup contains 250mL of water. What is the total capacity when we add them together?

Exercise 2:

A bottle has 350mL of juice, and a glass has 150cL of juice. What is the total capacity when we combine them?

Take your time to solve the exercises, and let me know when you’re ready for the answers.

6. Summary:

To summarize, today we learned about adding numbers in litres, centiliters, and millilitres. We practiced combining the capacities of different containers and objects using the appropriate units.

Remember, when adding capacities, it’s important to consider the units of measurement and perform the addition operation accordingly. Keep practicing, and you’ll become more confident in adding numbers in different units of capacity!

That concludes our lesson for today. Well done, everyone!

[mediator_tech]

Evaluation

- Adding capacities involves combining the _______ of different containers or objects. a) Weights b) Volumes c) Lengths
- The basic unit of measurement for large capacities is _______. a) Centilitres b) Millilitres c) Litres
- When adding numbers in litres, we focus on the _______ of the containers or objects. a) Lengths b) Weights c) Capacities
- 1L + 2L = _______. a) 3L b) 12L c) 0.5L
- When adding numbers in centilitres, we use the unit _______. a) mL b) cL c) L
- 50cL + 30cL = _______. a) 80cL b) 80mL c) 80L
- Adding numbers in millilitres involves using the unit _______. a) cL b) mL c) L
- 20mL + 10mL = _______. a) 30mL b) 30L c) 30cL
- When adding capacities, it’s important to consider the _______ of measurement. a) Units b) Shapes c) Colors
- The sum of 1L + 500mL can be written as _______. a) 1500mL b) 1.5L c) 150cL

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### Subtraction in Litres

Lesson Topic: Subtraction in Litres

Class, today we will be learning about subtraction in litres. Subtraction helps us find the difference in capacities between two containers or objects. We will focus on subtracting litres to understand how to determine the remaining capacity. Let’s begin!

1. Introduction to Subtraction in Litres:

Subtraction is a mathematical operation that helps us find the difference between two quantities. When we apply subtraction to capacities, we are finding the remaining capacity after removing or using a certain amount of a liquid substance.

2. Understanding Subtraction in Litres:

To better understand subtraction in litres, let’s consider a practical scenario. Imagine you have a bottle filled with 5 litres of water, and you pour out 2 litres of water. By subtracting 2 litres from the initial 5 litres, we find that the remaining capacity is 3 litres.

3. Subtraction Example:

Let’s explore another example to reinforce the concept. Suppose we have a jug containing 10 litres of milk, and we use 5 litres of milk to prepare a recipe. By subtracting 5 litres from the initial 10 litres, we find that the remaining capacity is 5 litres.

4. Practice Exercise:

Now, let’s apply what we’ve learned through a practice exercise. I will give you a scenario, and you need to determine the remaining capacity after the subtraction.

Example:

A tank has 8 litres of petrol, and 3 litres of petrol are used. What is the remaining capacity?

Take a moment to think about your answer, and let me know when you’re ready.

5. Summary:

In summary, subtraction in litres allows us to find the remaining capacity after removing or using a certain quantity of liquid. We subtract the amount that is taken away from the initial capacity to determine the difference.

Remember, subtraction helps us understand how much is left in a container or object. Keep practicing, and you will become more skilled in subtracting litres!

That concludes our lesson for today. Great job, everyone!

[mediator_tech]

Evaluation

- Subtraction helps us find the _______ in capacities between two containers or objects. a) Sum b) Difference c) Product
- When we subtract litres, we are finding the _______ capacity after removing or using a certain amount of liquid. a) Remaining b) Initial c) Total
- If a bottle contains 5 litres of juice and we pour out 2 litres, the remaining capacity is _______ litres. a) 2 b) 3 c) 5
- Subtraction is a _______ operation used to find the difference in capacities. a) Multiplication b) Addition c) Subtraction
- When subtracting litres, we are determining the _______ after removing a specific quantity. a) Sum b) Product c) Difference
- A tank has 12 litres of water, and we use 7 litres. The remaining capacity is _______ litres. a) 5 b) 19 c) 17
- Subtraction in litres helps us understand the _______ left in a container or object. a) Difference b) Total c) Sum
- If a jug contains 8 litres of milk and we pour out 3 litres, the remaining capacity is _______ litres. a) 5 b) 11 c) 3
- Subtraction allows us to find the _______ between the initial capacity and the amount used or removed. a) Sum b) Difference c) Product
- When we subtract litres, we are determining the _______ capacity of a container or object. a) Initial b) Remaining c) Total

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### Lesson Plan Presentation:

Capacity – Basic Unit of Measurement, Addition, and Subtraction in Litres

Grade: Primary 4 Term: Third Term Week: 6 Subject: Mathematics

**Presentation**:

- Begin the lesson by asking students about their knowledge of capacity and how it relates to measuring liquids.
- Define capacity as the amount of space or volume that a container can hold.
- Introduce litres as the basic unit of measurement for capacity.
- Show examples of different containers and discuss their capacities in litres.
- Explain the symbols used for litres and highlight the importance of using correct units in measurements.
- Present examples of addition and subtraction using litres, emphasizing the concept of combining or removing quantities.
- Discuss the importance of converting smaller units, such as millilitres, to litres for accurate calculations.
- Provide real-life examples and scenarios where addition and subtraction in litres are used.
- Demonstrate how estimation can be used to approximate capacities in everyday situations.
- Engage students in interactive discussions, encouraging questions and participation throughout the presentation

**Teacher’s Activities:**

- Explain the concept of capacity and litres clearly and succinctly.
- Use visual aids and real-life examples to enhance understanding.
- Facilitate discussions and encourage students to share their thoughts and experiences.
- Demonstrate addition and subtraction operations using litres step-by-step.
- Monitor students’ engagement and comprehension through questioning and observation.

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Learners’ Activities:

- Listen attentively to the teacher’s explanations and examples.
- Participate actively in class discussions by answering questions and sharing experiences.
- Solve practice exercises individually or in small groups.
- Perform hands-on activities to measure capacities using different containers and units.
- Work collaboratively to solve real-life capacity-related problems

**Assessment**:

- Formative assessment: Observe students’ participation, engagement, and understanding during class discussions and activities.
- Summative assessment: Assign worksheets or problem-solving tasks related to capacity, addition, and subtraction in litres. Assess students’ ability to apply the concepts learned and solve problems accurately.

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**Evaluation Questions:**

- What is capacity, and why is it important in measuring liquids?
- What is the basic unit of measurement for capacity?
- How do you convert millilitres to litres?
- Explain the process of adding capacities in litres.
- If you have a bottle with 3L of juice and pour out 1.5L, what is the remaining capacity?
- Perform the subtraction: 8L – 4.5L.
- When adding litres, what should be done with smaller units, such as millilitres?
- Describe a real-life scenario where subtraction in litres is used.
- How can estimation help in determining capacity without precise measurements?
- Calculate the total capacity when you add 2.5L and 3.75L

**Conclusion**:

- Recap the key points covered in the lesson, emphasizing the learning objectives achieved.
- Summarize the importance of capacity and litres as the basic unit of measurement.
- Reinforce the addition and subtraction operations using litres.
- Highlight the significance of accurate measurement conversions and estimation.
- Encourage students to apply their knowledge of capacity and litres in real-life situations.

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**Homework**:

Assign homework exercises that require students to practice addition and subtraction in litres. Provide a variety of scenarios involving different containers and capacities. Encourage students to show their work and explain their reasoning.

**Follow-up Activities (Optional):**

- Conduct a capacity measurement activity where students bring different containers and estimate their capacities using litres.
- Engage students in a group project where they design and create their own capacity measuring tools using recyclable materials.
- Organize a classroom competition where students solve capacity-related puzzles or quizzes, showcasing their understanding of the topic.

**Additional Resources:**

- Online interactive games or websites that provide practice exercises on capacity and addition/subtraction in litres.
- Capacity-related books or videos for further exploration of the topic

Remember, this lesson plan can be adapted and modified based on the specific needs and abilities of your students. Good luck with your lesson on capacity, addition, and subtraction in litres!

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