Subject: English Grammar
Topic: Grammar Review: Indirect Speech, Punctuation, and Pronoun Usage
Duration: 1 hour
Term: First Term
Week :Week 5
Previous Lesson: Verb Forms and Tenses
Learning Objectives: By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:
- Define indirect speech and understand its purpose.
- Identify indirect speech in passages.
- Use appropriate punctuation in indirect speech.
- Omit quotation marks when using indirect speech.
- End sentences with a full stop when using indirect speech.
- Apply correct pronoun usage in indirect speech.
Embedded Core Skills:
- Reading comprehension
- Writing skills
- Language comprehension
- Critical thinking
- Whiteboard and markers or chalkboard and chalk
- Visual aids (examples of indirect speech)
- Sample passages with indirect speech
- Handouts with exercises
- Blank sheets of paper and pencils for students
- Begin by explaining the concept of indirect speech and its purpose.
- Discuss the importance of appropriate punctuation, omitting quotation marks, and ending sentences with full stops in indirect speech.
- Teach students about using pronouns correctly in indirect speech.
What is Indirect Speech? Indirect speech is a way of telling what someone else said without quoting their exact words. Instead of repeating the exact words, we report what was said in our own words.
Example 1 – Direct Speech:
- Direct: Tom said, “I am going to the park.”
- Indirect: Tom said that he was going to the park.
In this example, we change the words “I am going to the park” to “he was going to the park.”
Example 2 – Direct Speech:
- Direct: Mary said, “I like ice cream.”
- Indirect: Mary said that she liked ice cream.
Here, we change “I like ice cream” to “she liked ice cream.”
Identifying Indirect Speech: To identify indirect speech in a passage, look for sentences where someone is talking about what someone else said. In indirect speech, you will often see words like “said that,” “told me,” or “asked if” before the reported speech.
Example in a Passage:
- Direct: Sarah said, “I have a cat.”
- Indirect: Sarah said that she had a cat.
In this passage, “said that” and the change from “have” to “had” show that it’s indirect speech.
So, when you read a passage and see someone talking about what someone else said, you’re likely looking at indirect speech. It helps us report what others say in our own words, and it’s important to understand when reading and writing
Here’s how to do it while omitting quotation marks and ending the sentence with a full stop:
- Use Commas for Direct Speech: When you have a direct quotation (someone’s exact words), use a comma to introduce the speech, but no quotation marks. For example:
- Original: She said, “I’ll be there.”
- Revised: She said, I’ll be there.
- End with a Full Stop: Always end the sentence that contains the direct speech with a full stop. This shows the sentence’s completion.
- Maintain Punctuation Inside the Speech: If there’s punctuation (like a comma, question mark, or exclamation point) within the direct speech, leave it unchanged. For example:
- Original: He asked, “Can you help me?”
- Revised: He asked, Can you help me?
- Use Capital Letters: Begin the first word of the direct speech with a capital letter, just like you would for any sentence. For example:
- Original: She said, “hello.”
- Revised: She said, Hello.
Here’s a recap:
- Use a comma to introduce the direct speech.
- Omit quotation marks.
- End the sentence that contains direct speech with a full stop.
- Maintain any punctuation within the direct speech.
- Start the first word of the direct speech with a capital letter.
These guidelines help maintain clarity and readability in your writing
Direct Speech (Original Quote): “I am going to the store,” she said.
Indirect Speech (Reported Speech): She said that she was going to the store.
In this example, you can see that the pronoun “I” in the direct speech is changed to “she” in the indirect speech. This change is necessary because we are reporting what someone else said, and we need to adjust the pronoun to match the perspective of the reporting speaker.
Here are some key points to keep in mind:
- Change Pronouns for Person: Adjust the pronouns in the indirect speech to match the person speaking in the original (direct) speech. For example:
- Direct Speech: “You should study.”
- Indirect Speech: He told me that I should study.
- Shift Pronouns for Gender and Number: If the reported speech involves a different person or group of people, adjust the pronouns accordingly. For instance:
- Direct Speech: “They are coming.”
- Indirect Speech: She said that they were coming.
- Adjust Pronouns for Tense: Change the tense of the pronouns to match the tense shift required in indirect speech. For example:
- Direct Speech: “I will call you.”
- Indirect Speech: He said that he would call me.
- Maintain Pronoun Consistency: Be consistent with your pronoun usage throughout the indirect speech portion of your sentence. If you start with “he,” continue to use “he” throughout, and avoid unnecessary shifts.
Remember that the main goal of using pronouns in indirect speech is to accurately convey what someone else said while adjusting for changes in perspective, tense, and context. This helps readers or listeners understand who said what in a clear and coherent manner
Define Indirect Speech:
- Indirect speech is a way of telling what someone else said without using ________. a) pictures b) numbers c) exact words d) new words
- In indirect speech, we report what was said in our ________ words. a) own b) different c) strange d) loud
- Instead of repeating the exact words, we use ________ words in indirect speech. a) shorter b) longer c) different d) confusing
Identify Indirect Speech:
- In a passage, if you see someone talking about what someone else said, you are likely looking at ________ speech. a) direct b) invisible c) indirect d) strange
- To identify indirect speech, look for sentences where someone reports what was said using words like “______ that.” a) said b) say c) telling d) telling me
Use of Punctuation:
- In direct speech, use a ________ to introduce the speech. a) comma b) period c) question mark d) exclamation point
- Always end the sentence that contains direct speech with a ________. a) comma b) exclamation point c) full stop d) question mark
- When there is punctuation within direct speech, you should ________ it unchanged. a) change b) make up c) leave d) ignore
- When converting from direct speech to indirect speech, change the pronouns to match the ________ speaking. a) sun b) moon c) person d) dog
- Adjust the pronouns in indirect speech to match the person speaking in the ________ speech. a) direct b) silent c) invisible d) funny
- If the reported speech involves a different person or group, adjust the ________ accordingly. a) pronouns b) colors c) numbers d) animals
- In indirect speech, change the tense of the pronouns to match the tense ________. a) shift b) change c) stay d) disappear
- Be ________ with your pronoun usage in indirect speech to avoid confusion. a) sleepy b) consistent c) surprised d) colorful
- Using pronouns in indirect speech helps convey what someone else said while adjusting for changes in ________, tense, and context. a) color b) perspective c) size d) weather
- The goal of using pronouns in indirect speech is to make sure readers understand who said what in a ________ and clear way. a) confusing b) strange c) fun d) coherent
Step 1 – Introduction (10 minutes)
- Start by discussing the concept of indirect speech using simple language.
- Provide examples of direct speech and explain how indirect speech is different.
Step 2 – Understanding Indirect Speech (15 minutes)
- Show visual aids with examples of indirect speech.
- Discuss why we use indirect speech (reporting what someone else said) and how it helps in communication.
Step 3 – Punctuation and Full Stops (15 minutes)
- Explain the use of appropriate punctuation (like commas and full stops) in indirect speech.
- Emphasize the importance of ending sentences with full stops.
- Clearly explain the concepts using simple language.
- Use visual aids to enhance understanding.
- Encourage questions and discussions.
- Listen attentively to the teacher.
- Participate in discussions by asking questions.
- Analyze examples and practice exercises.
- Evaluate students’ understanding through their participation and responses during the lesson.
- Review students’ completed exercises for correct usage of indirect speech and punctuation.
Fill-in-the-Gap Evaluation Questions:
- Indirect speech helps in ________ what someone else said. a) reporting b) repeating c) shouting d) inventing
- We use appropriate ________ in indirect speech to make it clear. a) numbers b) colors c) punctuation d) animals
- In indirect speech, we usually omit ________ marks. a) exclamation b) quotation c) question d) full stop
- Every sentence with indirect speech should end with a ________. a) comma b) question mark c) exclamation point d) full stop
- Correct pronoun usage in indirect speech helps in maintaining ________. a) confusion b) clarity c) silence d) anger
- Indirect speech is useful for ________ what others have said. a) hiding b) confusing c) reporting d) ignoring
- What is the purpose of using punctuation in indirect speech? a) To make it harder to understand b) To enhance clarity c) To confuse the reader d) To make it longer
- In indirect speech, we ________ the quotation marks used in direct speech. a) change b) double c) omit d) color
- A sentence with indirect speech should always end with a ________. a) comma b) quotation mark c) question mark d) full stop
- Why is it important to use pronouns correctly in indirect speech? a) To make it sound fancy b) To maintain clarity and understanding c) To confuse the listener d) To avoid using punctuation
Conclusion on the Topic: In today’s lesson, we revisited the concept of indirect speech, learned about the importance of using appropriate punctuation, omitting quotation marks, and ending sentences with full stops in indirect speech. We also understood the significance of using pronouns correctly in this form of speech. These skills will help you communicate effectively in writing and ensure that your messages are clear and understandable. Keep practicing to become proficient in using indirect speech in your writing