Subject : 


Term :

First Term / 1st Term


Week 3

Class :

JSS 2 / Basic 8





Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

Broken Chords (Arpeggios) in Staff and Solfa

in their previous classes

Behavioural objectives:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • say the meaning of major scales in music
  • give examples of major scales in music

Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures of different types of houses
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks





When learning to read music, one of the first things you’ll need to know is how to identify a major scale. A major scale is a seven-note musical scale with a specific pattern of whole and half steps. To create a major scale, you start on a note, follow a specific pattern of whole and half steps, and end on the octave of the starting note.


There are many different major scales, each with its own unique sound. To find a particular major scale, you must first know its tonic, or starting note. To understand how to construct a major scale, it’s helpful to think of it as starting on a note,



The major scale is one of the most important scales in music. It is the basis for much of Western tonal music, and it’s used in a variety of genres including classical, jazz, rock, and pop. The major scale has seven notes, and each note has a specific purpose in the scale. The first note is the root note, and the last note is the octave. The notes in between are called the scale degrees.

The major scale is a great starting point for learning music theory. It’s simple and easy to understand, but it also has a lot of depth. There are many different ways to play the major scale, and each one has a unique sound. You can also use the major scale to create your own melodies.

Here are some examples of the major scale in music:


Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67: The opening four notes of the main theme are all from the C major scale.


Miles Davis’ “So What”: The melody of this famous jazz standard is based on the D-flat major scale.


The Beatles’ “A Hard Day’s Night”: The opening chord progression is based on the C major scale.


Katy Perry’s “Firework

Construction of key G major scale with key signature
G major uses one sharp as key signature. This sharp is written at the beginning of the staff after the clef. Then the scale is written beginning with the tonic G and runs through to the octave (the upper tonic) G.



Another method of scale construction is without key signature. In this method, the key signature is not written at the beginning of the staff, rather the accidentals (sharps or flats) are written inside the staff beside the notes that require them. Examples:

G Major Without Key Signature

D Major Scale With and Without Key Signature


Calando/ Morendo Becoming softer and slower
Mocando/Smorzando Dying away
Ppp Pianississimo As soft as possible
Fff Fortississimo As loud as possible.



  1. Without key signature, construct key E major scale on the manuscript.
  2. With the signature, construct key E major scale on the manuscript.
  3. Construct the B major scale without key signature.

Major Keys with Flat Signs

Major Keys with Flats

There are seven keys with flats namely F major, Bflat, E flat, A flat, Dflat, G flat, and C flat.

To remember this order, mnemonics are formed from those notes.

F = Father

B flat = Bright

E flat = Eats

A flat = Apple

D flat = During

G flat = Games

C flat = Comfortably OR Flat Becomes Easy After Direct Guide Comfort.


Methods of Constructing Scales

There are two methods of constructing scales, namely With and Without key signatures. To construct a scale with key signature, the key signature is written at the beginning of the staff after the clef.

Fixing of Major Keys with Sharp Key Signature into Staff or Stave

E flat major: From the table of keys we will notice that the E flat major uses three flats as the key signature, in the construction of this scale with key signature the flat signs will appear at the beginning of the staff;

The notes are as follows; Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C, D, Eb. Note that the flats are written according to the key signature.

E flat Major without the signature is constructed thus;



Lento Very slow
Largo Slow and broad
Andante Moderately slow (At a walking pace)
Moderato At a moderate pace


  1. How many flats are in key Eb major?
  2. Differentiate between Eb major with key signature and Eb major without the key signature.






The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.