# Mastering Indices: An Introduction for JSS 2 Students Mathematics JSS 2 First Term Lesson Notes Week 2

Subject: Mathematics
Class: JSS 2 (Basic 8)
Term: First Term
Week: Week 2
Previous Lesson: Whole Numbers Notation and Numeration of Numbers
Topic: Introduction to Indices
Age: 12-13 years
Duration: 40 minutes

### Behavioural Objectives:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

1. Define indices and understand its basic concepts.
2. Express numbers using indices.
3. Identify and apply the laws of indices in simplifying expressions.
4. Solve simple problems involving indices.

### Keywords:

• Indices
• Exponent
• Base
• Power
• Laws of Indices

### Set Induction:

The teacher will start the lesson by asking the pupils to multiply 2 by itself three times (2 times 2 times 2). The teacher then explains that this multiplication can be written in a shorter form using indices.

### Entry Behaviour:

The pupils should have basic knowledge of multiplication and whole numbers.

### Learning Resources and Materials:

• Flashcards with different numbers and their indexed forms.
• Charts showing the laws of indices.
• Whiteboard and marker.

### Building Background/Connection to Prior Knowledge:

The teacher will connect the lesson to pupils’ previous knowledge of multiplication by showing how repeated multiplication can be represented using indices.

### Embedded Core Skills:

• Critical thinking
• Problem-solving
• Numerical skills

### Learning Materials:

• Mathematics textbooks
• Exercise books
• Index cards

### Reference Books:

• New General Mathematics for Junior Secondary Schools 2
• Lagos State Scheme of Work for Mathematics JSS 2

### Instructional Materials:

• Charts on laws of indices
• Flashcards with indices examples
• Whiteboard and marker

### Content:

1. Definition of Indices: Indices refer to the number of times a number (called the base) is multiplied by itself. It is also known as the exponent or power.
2. Representation: For example, 2 raised to the power of 3 (written as 2^3) means 2 is multiplied by itself 3 times (2 times 2 times 2), which equals 8.
3. Laws of Indices:
• Multiplication Law: When you multiply the same base, add the exponents. For example, a^m times a^n equals a^(m+n).
• Division Law: When you divide the same base, subtract the exponents. For example, a^m divided by a^n equals a^(m-n).
• Power of a Power Law: When raising a power to another power, multiply the exponents. For example, (a^m)^n equals a^(m*n).
• Zero Exponent Law: Any number raised to the power of zero equals 1. For example, a^0 equals 1.
• Negative Exponent Law: A negative exponent means taking the reciprocal of the base. For example, a^(-n) equals 1/a^n.
4. Examples:
• 2^4 = 2 times 2 times 2 times 2 = 16
• 3^3 = 3 times 3 times 3 = 27
• 5^2 = 5 times 5 = 25
• a^2 times a^3 = a^(2+3) = a^5

### Presentation:

Step 1: Introduction to Indices
The teacher introduces the concept of indices by explaining that it represents repeated multiplication of the same number.

Step 2: Explaining Laws of Indices
The teacher explains the laws of indices with examples, writing them on the board and demonstrating how they are applied.

Step 3: Solving Problems Involving Indices
The teacher provides sample problems for the pupils to solve, applying the laws of indices.

### Teacher’s Activities:

• Define and explain indices.
• Demonstrate the laws of indices using examples.
• Guide pupils through solving problems involving indices.

### Learners’ Activities:

• Listen to the teacher’s explanation.
• Participate in class discussions and examples.
• Solve given problems on indices.

### Assessment:

1. Express 3 times 3 times 3 times 3 as an index.
2. Simplify 5^3 times 5^2.
3. What is the value of 2^4?
4. Simplify 7^5 divided by 7^2.
5. What is the result of 10^0?

### Evaluation Questions:

1. What are indices?
2. Express 4 times 4 times 4 as an index.
3. State the multiplication law of indices.
4. Simplify 2^3 times 2^2.
5. What does a^(-3) represent?
6. Calculate the value of 6^2.
7. Simplify (3^2)^3.
8. What is the result of 7^0?
9. Write 5^(-2) in fractional form.
10. Solve 8^4 divided by 8^2.

### Conclusion:

The teacher will summarize the lesson, emphasizing the key points about indices, and then go around to check and mark the pupils’ work, providing feedback where necessary.

Spread the word if you find this helpful! Click on any social media icon to share