JSS 1 SECOND HOME ECONOMICS LESSON NOTE
SECOND TERM E-NOTES FOR J.S.S. One HOME ECONOMICS
WEEK ONE TO WEEK TWELVE
SCHEME OF WORK
|1||Revision of last term’s work|
|2||The family: meaning and types of the family, the family tree|
|3||The Home: meaning and characteristics of a home, difference between a home and a house, domestic violence|
|4||Care of the family house: reasons for care of the family house, equipments, tools and materials needed to care for the house, daily and weekly care of the house, waste disposal|
|5||Production of homemade cleaning agents: preparation of cleaning agent (home made vim)|
|6||Cosmetics and deodorants: types, materials and tools required for making cosmetics|
|7||Safety, quality and regulatory control of cosmetics products in Nigeria, Roles of regulatory bodies of NAFDAC, SON|
|8||Family needs, goals and standard: meaning and types of family needs and wants, meaning of family goals and standards|
|9||Relationship among family needs, goals and standard, uses of family needs, goals and standard in resource management|
|10||Decision making in the family: meaning and steps in decision making, making simple personal and family decisions.|
TOPIC: REVISION OF LAST TERM’S WORK
TOPIC: THE FAMILY
SUB-TOPIC: THE FAMILY TREE
DEFINITION OF A FAMILY
A family is a group of persons who live together as one and are united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption. Family members are each other kins.
TYPES OF FAMILY
THE NUCLEAR FAMILY:This is made up of a man, his wife and their children. It is also sometimes called a monogamous family because it arises from one man and one wife only.
POLYGAMOUS FAMILY: This is made up of a man, his wives and their several children. In a polygamous family, a man is legally married to more than one wife.
EXTENDED FAMILY: This type of family is made up of husband, his wife or wives, their children and other relations like uncles, aunts, cousins, grand parentse.t.c.
In the different types of family, members relate to each other in special ways. This relationship can be called kinship pattern. A family tree is a graph or diagram that shows the kinship pattern of a family. It shows how family members are related to each other.
FAMILY RELATIONSHIP OR KINSHIP PATTERNS
Parents Father and Mother
Siblings Brothers and Sisters
Grand- parents Parent’s parents
Great- grand- parents Grand- parents of parents
Uncles Father’s or Mother’s brothers
Aunts Father’s or Mother’s sisters
Nephews Brother’s or Sister’s sons
Nieces Brother’s or Sister’s daughter
First cousins Uncle’s or Aunt’s children
Grand children A person’s children’s children
Great- grand- children A person’s grand children’s children
- What is family?
- differentiate between monogamous and polygamous family
Draw the family tree of your extended family
TOPIC: THE HOME
SUB-TOPIC: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Meaning of a Home
A home is a house in which a family lives. A home is therefore an abode or dwelling place for a family. It is more than a house. A home is where the family members can share their interests, joy, love, activities and troubles. It is a place where they can relax, be at ease, live and work together for the benefits of each other and the whole family.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A HOME
- A home normally belongs to a family which owns it.
- It is a dwelling place for a family.
- It must provide comfort and security for the family.
- There must be communication among family members in the home.
- Family members share love, companionship and intimacies in the home.
- Families sometimes experience different types of violence in the home.
Difference between a home and a house
A house is just a building or structure which can be used for various purposes. A house that offers opportunities to meet the needs of a family love becomes a home.
Violence is the physical force used to harm someone or something. Violence may lead to physical injury, damages to property and can even result in death.
Domestic violence is the type of violence that occurs in the home. It can be between husband and wife or among siblings or from parents to children or other people living in the home.
- State the difference between a home and a house
- State six qualities of a peaceful home
Mention five ways of resolving domestic violence at home
TOPIC: CARE OF THE FAMILY HOUSE
SUB-TOPIC: METHOS OF WASTE DISPOSAL
Reasons for care of the family house
- To maintain clean appearance
- To maintain good hygiene
- To maintain good health
- To prevent the spoilage of household equipment, tools, furniture, linen e.t.c.
- To make for orderliness in the house
- To prevent household pests and disease-carrying insects such as mosquitoes
- To prolong the lifespan of the house and its content
Equipment, tools and materials for care of the family house
- Brooms and brushes
- Dust pans
- Buckets and pails
- Dust bin
- Soap and detergent
- Vacuum cleaner
- Carpet sweeper
DAILY CLEANING OF FAMILY HOUSE
- Open all windows
- Remove cobwebs with broom from walls and ceiling
- Sweep the floor
- Dust the furniture
- Arrange the rooms neatly
- Replace cleaning materials to necessary area.
WEEKLY CLEANING OF FAMILY HOUSE
- Open all windows to air the rooms
- Take out all movable furniture from the rooms
- Remove cobwebs with broom from walls and ceiling
- Sweep the floor
- Treat the floor according to the type
- Clean and polish furniture
- Clean windows and other items in the rooms
- Return all furniture to their normal places
- Empty the dust bin and clean the equipment used.
- Discribe the daily and the weekly cleaning of a particular functional area in the home
State five cleaning agents and their uses
TOPIC: PRODUCTION OF CLEANING AGENTS
TYPES OF HOMEMADE CLEANING AGENTS
- Fine sand: this can be used as an abrasive for cleaning pots. It should not be used on smooth surfaces to avoid scratching.
- Edo powder: this is a yellow coloured substance that is common in Nigerian markets. It has a fine smooth texture. It can be used for cleaning ornaments such as copper, gold and brass
- Finely ground charcoal: this can be used for cleaning smooth metal surfaces
- Pawpaw leaves: fresh pawpaw leaves can be used for cleaning dirty galvanized pails and blackened aluminium pans and pots.
- Local sand-paper leaves (Asisa leaves): these leaves have rough sandy surfaces. They can be used as abrasive for cleaning plain wood surface, blackened pots e.t.c.
- Home-made ‘vim’ or scouring powder (abrasive)
PREPARATION OF HOME-MADE VIM
Materials needed for making this powder at home include: egg shells, broken china ware (if available) and detergent powder.
- Grind the egg shells and pieces of china ware into very fine powder
- Sift the mixture to ensure a smooth powder
- Mix the powder thoroughly with the detergent powder
- Store in a dry container with a good lid.
Ways of cleaning our homes and surroundings
Get the following materials while coming to the next class for the preparation of home-made vim
- Egg shells
- Broken china ware (if available)
- Detergent powder.
TOPIC: COSMETICS AND DEODORANTS
Cosmetics are make-ups or substances applied on the body, mainly on the face in order to improve the natural features of the body.
Deodorants are substances applied on the skin to prevent or control body odour when a person sweats. Deodorants come in form of ‘roll-on’, spray or sticks, with different types of fragrances or perfume.
IMPORTANCE OF COSMETICS AND DEODORANTS
- They are used to improve natural features
- They can be used to hide a person’s poor feature
- Some make-ups can be used as treatment for skin problems such as pimples
- When properly used, they can make one look more attractive
- Some make-ups can help protect the skin.
The following are various types of cosmetics
- Assorted types of body creams
- Nail polish and vanish
- Perfumes and deodorants
- Hair make-ups
- Face make-ups, such as:
- Powders which comes in various colours and textures
- Eye liners
- Eye shadow
- Eyebrow liner
- Rouge applied lightly on the cheek
- Lipstick and lip liner.
We also have indigenous cosmetics. Indigenous cosmetics are simple preparation containing natural ingredients which are used by women to make them look more beautiful.They are ofetn gotten from leaves, roots, soil, barkof trees, herbs and shrubs.
TYPES OF INDIGENOUS COSMETICS
- Eye make-up “Tiro”: it is applied as eye liner using a special thin stick reserved for the purpose
- Cam wood powder ; “uhe”(Igbo) or “oshun”(Yoruba)”
- Body paint “uri”(Igbo)
- “Lali”or “Lalle”
- “Nzu”(Igbo) or “efun”(Yoruba)
TOOLS FOR MAKING POMADE:
Sauce pan, mixing spoon, Bottle or plastic pomade containers
RECIPE FOR MAKING POMADE
2 cups of petroleum jelly, ¾ cup of mineral oil, 1mineral wax for thickening, 1 table spoon of lanoline, Colour (as desired) and Perfume (as desired).
- Differentiate between indigenous and modern cosmetics
- State five effect of bleaching cream on the skin
Outline the procedures for making pomade.
TOPIC: SAFETY, QUALITY AND REGULATORY CONTROL OF COSMETICS PRODUCTS IN NIGERIA
SUB-TOPIC: ROLES OF REULATORY BODIES OF NAFDAC AND SON
STANDARD OF ORGANIZATION OF NIGERIA (SON)
The Nigerian Standard Organization Acts 1971, established as an integral part of the Federal Ministries of Industries are to carry out the following functions:
- To designate, establish and approve standard in respect of meteorology, materials, commodities, structures and processes for the certification of products in Commerce and Industries throughout Nigeria.
- To provide necessary measures for quality control of raw materials and products in conformity with the standard specification.
- To compile Nigerian standard specifications.
- To ensure compliance with the designated standard.
- To establish a quality assurance system including certifications of factories, products and laboratories.
- To develop methods for testing of materials, supplies and equipment items purchased for use by public and private establishments.
- To undertake preparation and distribution of standard samples.
- To establish and maintain laboratories necessary for the performance of its functions.
NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUGS ADMINISTRATION
AND DRUG CONTROL (NAFDAC)
NAFDAC was established in 1993 with functions to regulate and control the importation, exportation, manufacturing, advertisement, distribution, sale and use of foods, drugs and cosmetics, medical devices, bottle water and chemicals.
No drug products, cosmetics or medical devices shall be manufactured, imported, exported, advertised, sold or distributed in Nigeria unless it has been registered in accordance with the provisions and regulations made under a 1993 Act
State five Nafdac rules guiding the production of cosmetics
Look out for 10 different cosmetics, check their NAFDAC NO, production dates and expiry dates and write them out.
WEEK: EIGHT AND NINE
TOPIC: FAMILY NEEDS, GOALS AND STANDARDS
SUB-TOPIC: RELATIONSHIP AMONG FAMILY NEEDS, GOALS AND STANDARD
MEANING OF FAMILY NEEDS, WANTS, GOALS AND STANDARDS
Family needs are things that are essential, that is, very important for family members health and they cannot do without it. The family members have physical, emotional, mental and social needs.
Wants are those things you desire though they are not essential for one’s health and well-being. For instance, basic clothing is a need for survival but extra clothing is want. A family may have a need for transport and buy a small car, when they make more money, they may want or desire to buy a bigger one.
Goal is defined as an objective condition or something you desired to achieve or attain at any given period of time. Family goals are the ways in which families live and carry out their family vision and family mission statement. Family goals are a very powerful way to build trust and communication as well as a great way to teach kids how to set and achieve personal goals.
Standard is a scale of measurement of values. They are set of measure of values used in determining the amount and kind of interest in something and the satisfaction we received. Standard serve as a measure or ways of doing things.
TYPES OF NEEDS
- BASIC OR PRIMARY NEEDS: These are needs that are very important needs which the family cannot do without. They are those things which every family must have for survival. These include. Food, housing, clothing and health care.
- SECONDARY NEEDS: These are those things the family wants. They are not as important as the primary needs. The family can therefore exist without the secondary needs, the secondary needs include; recreation, personal allowance or pocket money, extra clothing, family care etc.
RELATIONSHIP AMONG FAMILY NEEDS, GOALS AND STANDARD
Goals like values, play an important role in our lives. Values give meaning to your life, goals on the other hand points the direction you want your pattern to follow. Thus, it can said that values and goals are inter related. Values are the vehicles and goals are the highways used to attain your desired quality of life. Using kitchen as selected area of the house, the concept of values, goals and standard can be illustrated as follows:
Value Goal Standard
(Cleanliness) (Well maintained hygiene) (Cleaning standard)
Value Goal Standard
(Health) (Maintaining good health) (Set standard of food and exercise)
Resource management is the process in which individuals and families use what they have to get what they want. In begins with thinking and planning and ends with the evaluation of actions taken.
- Explain the meaning of needs, goals and standards,2. list and explain the types of family needs
Assignment: State and explain types of family need with examples
TOPIC: DECISION MAKING IN THE FAMILY
MEANING OF DECISION MAKING
Decision making is the act of making a choice from alternatives courses of actions or things. Decision making can only take place when there are two things to choose from. When you are faced with only one course of action, there will be no decision making.
STEPS IN DECISION MAKING
The steps in decision making are:
- Identify the decision to be made: this involves defining a decision. For example, your problem could be to buy a new pair of shoes, you have to decide on what you will use the shoe for, the type of shoes, the colour, where to buy the shoes e.t.c. then you have to consider your other needs and the money available.
- List the alternatives: alternatives are different ways of doing a thing. Using the example in step 1, the alternatives could be to buy from second hand shops, from the market, shopping malls or from a boutigue. You also have to list alternative colour of shoes, types of shoe e.t.c.
- Choose the best alternatives. To do this, you have to think about your values, goals, wants, money available and needs.
- Act on your decision: carry out your decision to the best of your ability. This means going to buy the shoes.
- Evaluate your decision: this involves judging the quality of the decision made or how well it works for you. For instance does the pair of shoes you selected go well with many of the dresses in your wardrobe? Sometimes, if the outcome of a decision is not what you expected or hope for, you may have to make a new decision.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DECISION MAKING
- Needs and wants.
- Define decision making
- Mention factors that affect decision making
Make a simple personal decision, list the methods or steps you followed to achieve your goals.