Table of Contents

Subject :


Class :

SS 1

Term :


Week :

Week 8

Topic :


Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of



that was taught as a topic in their previous lesson

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Define socialism
  • Define capitalism
  • Explain the major features of socialism
  • Highlight the advantages and disadvantages of capitalism
  • List the merits and demerits of capitalism

Teaching and Learning Resources :  .

  • Online materials
  • Schemes of work
  • Textbooks
  • Newspaper
  • Films that are related to the topic
  • Pictures
  • Activity charts




  1. Capitalism: Features, merits and demerits
  2. Socialism: features, merits and demerits, differences between capitalism and socialism.

Sub-Topic 1:

MEANING OF CAPITALISM: It is an economic system in which private individuals or businesses own capital goods. The production of goods and services is based on market decisions of both individual consumers and producers rather than on central planning. ( investopedia)

In a capitalist economy, the invisible hand of the market coordinates production through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households. (khan academy)

The following are the features of capitalism-

1. Private Property: Under capitalism, private individuals own the factors of production. This includes land, natural resources, businesses, and investments.

2. Decentralized Decision Making: There is no central authority making decisions about what will be produced and how it will be produced. Instead

Capitalism is a political and economic system in which the means of production, distributing and exchange are owned and controlled by private individuals and in which the economic activity of the government is at a minimum level. Some of the countries of the world that practice and adopt capitalism are U.S.A, Britain, Nigeria, France, Japan etc.


  1. There is private ownership and control of the means of production and distribution.
  2. Profit motive is the guiding principle.
  3. The economy is subjected to the market forces of demand and supply.
  4. There is freedom of choice for consumers, workers and owners of capital. v. It has highly developed occupational specialization.
  5. There are many producers as well as buyers.
  6. .It is characterised by competition and economy rivalries.
  7. Labour is a marketable commodity.


  1. It encourages and provides opportunities for private investments and risk-taking which lead to innovations, new products and services, and increased efficiency.
  2. It leads to economic growth and development as a result of increased production, higher incomes, and more investment.
  3. There is freedom of choice for both consumers and producers. iv.ItIt is a system of economic freedom which provides ample opportunities for individuals to pursue their own goals. It results in efficient allocation and utilization of resources since it is the market that determines what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce.Under capitalism, private property


  1. It encourages faster economic development.
  2. There is freedom of choice for consumers, workers and producers. iii. It leads to specialization which will eventually lead to increase in productivity. iv. The existence of competition brings about increase in the quality of goods produced. v. It creates room for effective use of talents.


  1. It widens the gap between the rich and the poor.
  2. It encourages exploitation especially in the relationship between the owners of capital

(bourgeoisie) and the workers (proletariats) iii. Profits are made even at the expense of human life iv. It brings about unhealthy rivalry among the capitalists. v. It creates atmosphere of job insecurity.

Sub-Topic 2:


Socialism is a political and economic system in which all or a large part of the means of production and distribution are collectively owned and controlled by the state. Karl Marx a German scholar was the founder of modern socialism. The basic reason why the government has the possession of the wealth of the society is for its redistribution in a way that the gap between the haves and the have-nots (capitalism) would be bridged. The system has been practiced at one time or the other by countries such as the former Soviet Union, Cuba, Poland, China, etc.


  1. State ownership and control of all or greater part of means of production and distribution.
  2. It is democratic in nature because it allows for greater participation of citizens in decision making process as regards production and distribution of goods and services in the country.
  3. Labour is not a marketable commodity since all citizens are guaranteed gainful employment so as to ensure full utilization of both human and non-human means of production.
  4. Profit making is not the major motive.
  5. There is equitable distribution of income. vi. Existence of one-party system.


  1. It leads to equitable distribution of resources.
  2. There is absent of economic rivalry. iii. It bridges the gap between the rich and the poor.
  3. There is job security
  4. It brings about stability in government.
  5. It is democratic in nature.

vii.Certain evils of capitalism such as hoarding, discrimination, etc. are not allowed to flourish in a socialist state.


  1. It suppresses individual initiatives.
  2. It does not encourage faster economic development.
  3. Absent of economic competition tends to lower the quality of goods and services produced.
  4. It does not encourage specialization. v. It does not encourage invention. vi. There is no freedom of choice.
  5. The existence of one-party makes the government of socialist states to become oppressive and dictatorial.


1. In capitalism, private individuals or businesses own the means of production, while in socialism, the state owns the means of production.

2. In capitalism, decisions about what to produce and how to produce are made by market forces, while in socialism, these decisions are made centrally by the state.

3. In capitalism, production is organized for profit, while in socialism, production is organized to meet the needs of society.

4. In capitalism, there is competition among businesses, while in socialism, there is no competition as the state owns all businesses.

5. In capitalism, prices are determined by supply and demand, while in socialism, prices are set by the state.

6. In capitalism, businesses can fail and workers can be unemployed, while in socialism, the state guarantees full employment.

7. In capitalism, property is privately owned, while in socialism, property is owned by the state.

8. In capitalism, there is a separation of powers between the government and the economy, while in socialism, the government controls the economy.

9. In capitalism, there is a free market, while in socialism, the state regulates the economy.

10. In capitalism, individuals can become very wealthy, while in socialism, there is more equality of income.


  1. What is capitalism?
  2. Mention 5 features of capitalism.
  3. State 4 merits and 4 demerits of capitalism.
  4. Define socialism
  5. Outline 4 features of socialism.
  6. State 6 merits of socialism
  7. Highlight 3 demerits of socialism.
  8. Differentiate between capitalism and socialism.


  1. Define capitalism.
  2. State five features of capitalism.
  3. Highlight five merits and five demerits of capitalism.
  4. What is socialism?
  5. State five differences between capitalism and socialism.


  1. Which of the following is true about capitalist state?
  2. Private individuals control the economy.
  3. The workers are not exploited
  4. Government controls the means of production.
  5. There is no class struggle.
  6. An open market economy is a unique feature of__________
  7. Welfare State (b) Socialism (c) Feudalism (d) Capitalism
  8. Which of the following is a feature of capitalism?
  9. Removal of social inequalities
  10. Equitable re-distribution of property
  11. Maximization of profit
  12. Protection of workers
  13. Production and distribution of goods and service are controlled by the state in (a) Capitalism (b) Mixed economy (c) Socialism (c) Communalism.
  14. The highest stage of socialism is (a) Fascism (b) Communalism

(d) Communism (d) Feudalism


  1. State five differences between capitalism and socialism.
  2. State five features of capitalism.

READING ASSIGNMENT: Read Comprehensive Government Pages 18-20.

PRE-READING ASSIGNMENT: Read about oligarchy and communism.Wh


  1. The system was based on hierarchical order of land ownership.
  2. Ownership of land was vested in the king, monarch or emperor.
  3. The serfs (tenants) pay their overlords annual tributes in money or kind.
  4. The overlords were duty bound to protect the serf.
  5. Feudal tenants give military service to the overlords.
  6. Only a vassal of the lord can receive land.
  7. The vassal keeps the land as long as he performs his feudal duties.E.g. payment of tributes, military service etc.
  8. The lord or monarch is the law maker, judge and commander over the vassals.


  1. There is creation of the ruling class with the king or landlord.
  2. It laid the foundation for capitalism. It brings about freedom, love, and self –reliance among the ruling class.
  3. It provides a level of security in which the vassals provide military services to the landlord.
  4. It creates orderliness and set criterion for political power acquisition.
  5. It encourages decentralization of powers among the big landlords/ land owners.


  1. The system weakens the sovereignty of the state since every lord wields some political power.
  2. There were constant wars among the lords for the search of more territories. There was no security of land ownership.
  3. The system was exploitative. The slaves/serfs/vassals and peasants were used and dumped.
  4. It encouraged injustice because the lord presided over disagreements between himself and the land tenants.
  5. The system encouraged domination. It produced very powerful lords who controlled and dictated the economic lives of the tenants.


  1. What is the meaning of communalism?
  2. Outline three features of communalism.
  3. Define feudalism.
  4. State five demerits of feudalism.
  5. Highlight five features of feudalism.


The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics which was



Step 2.

He introduces the new topic leading the discussion that relates to feudalism and communalism.

Teacher’s activities

He or she may ask leading questions that are related to the topic of discussion.

  • What is feudalism?
  • What is communalism?
  • Who is a landlord?
  • What are the merits that are attached to being a landlord?
  • Is joint ownership of land OK?
  • Will you like to share your personal property with other people in the community?


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise.

Students’ activities 

  • students should ask questions when they are confused
  • Try to make some jotting while the subject teacher is explaining some key points
  • Relate the topic to the to the present day landlords
  • Contribute to the discussion and take notes



  1. Define communalism
  2. Highlight five features of communalism.
  3. What is feudalism.
  4. Mention three demerits of feudalism.
  5. Discuss five features of feudalism.


Objective Test:

  1. Communalism ensures that everybody within the society is PROVIDED (a) means of transportation (b) with a chieftaincy title(c) with a formal education (d) a land to farm
  1. Which of the following best describe feudalism?_____(A) few people monopolise the ownership of land (b) Mass ownership of property is prevalent (c) State ownership of capital is prevalent (d) Workers administer the society
  2. Which of the following is the lowest class of people in the hierarchy of a feudal system? (a) Nobles (b) Serf (c) Lords(d) Minors
  1. The type of government in which citizens right and duties were based on a system of land tenure was known as (a) feudalism (b) oligarchy (c) democracy (c) autocracy.
  2. Which of the following is related to government as a process of governing (a) implementation and adjudication (b) the role of pressure group within the state (c) disagreement between the state and local government (d) abrogation of fundamental human rights
  3. A society without constituted authority is called (a) federal state (b) stateless society (c) government in exile (d) backward society
  4. Absence of government in a state is referred to as (a) anarchy (b) confusion (c) coup d’etat (d) instability
  5. One of the following implements the laws in the state (a) judiciary (b) Legislature (c) executive (d) public commission.
  6. Which of the following best describes the subject matter government? (a) Election (b) People (c) Political party (d) Political power
  7. In the study of government, public administration covers the (a) Army, prison officers and the police (b) Civil service, public corporation and local government (c) Ministries of Education, health and agriculture (d) Schools, Hospitals and health centres
  8. Government as an academic field of study refers to the (a) president and his ministers (b) study of political institutions and processes (c) working of the organs (d) membership of international organisations.
  9. The study of government in school is important because the students can (a) be assisted by political leaders (b) learn about their rights (c) qualify for elections (d) be nominated for trip abroad

Essay Questions:

  1. Define feudalism and state 5 demerits of feudalism.
  2. Outline three features of communalism.
  3. Mention five branches of government.
  4. Explain two of the branches mentioned.
  5. Outline the three organs of government and their major functions
  6. Describe government as an art or process of governing.


ASSIGNMENT: Read about capitalism and socialism.



The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.