Week 1 – Meaning, scope and nature of social studies

Week 2 – Objectives and importance of social studies

Week 3 – Physical Environment: Meaning types and features

Week 4 – Resources in our Environment and their uses

Week 5 – Environmental problems – causes, effects and solution

Week 6 – Social Environment: Meaning types, role and responsibilities of members

Week 7 – Friendship

Week 8 – Secondary social groups

Week 9 – Influence of man in an Environment 

Week 10 – Accident in the home and in School 

  • Need for safety

Week 11 Accidents in the home and Schools

  • Measures for safety




Social studies can be define as the study of man and his environment.


Social studies can also be define as the totality of man’s physical and social environment.



The word “man” in the definition given above connotes human beings while man’s environment has a huge influence on mankind in all spheres of life.


Man’s environment affect their language, dressing, food and every other thing one can think of in the society.


Man also interact with two environment which are:

  1. Physical environment (Natural)
  2. Social environment  (Artificial)



The grassland, mountains, rivers, deserts, seas, oceans, valleys are created by God for the benefit of mankind and it has a great influence on man in so many ways.


For example, those who live in riverine areas like the Ijaws and Ilaje’s often take fishing and farming as their occupation while those who are surrounded by forest like those living in the rural area often become hunters.



These are man-made social ways of life which include: religion, tribe, customs, language, ways of dressing, morals, values etc.  For example, if an adult who had never spoken Hausa language relocates from Yoruba land to Northern parts of the country in Nigeria, within few years he may find himself unconsciously taking an Hausa culture just as the way of greeting, eating, language, dressing etc. All these happens because of his daily interaction with the environment he finds himself.



SCIENCE: This is the systematic way of acquiring knowledge through observation and experiment.

TECHNOLOGY: This is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.


The scope of social studies has a wider range in the area of science and technology. This innovation has greatly influence man by making life more comfortable for mankind.


For example, it has helped man to be connected with happenings world-wide through internet, television, cable, telephone etc. It has also helped to dam rivers and from that get electricity which makes life more comfortable for man.



There are subjects that makes-up social studies.  Such subjects includes;

  1. Geography
  2. History
  3. Civics
  4. Government
  5. Sociology
  6. Economics
  • The combination of all these subjects helps in reflecting how man uses the resources within his environment to profound solution to his problems and improve his life generally.


  • Moreso, social studies as a subject studies how man live together in harmony in the society and how people interact and make a great influence on one another. 


  • Furthermore, social studies helps to know about conflicts and its causes in the society.


  • It gives a better understanding of the effects and ways of resolving such conflict in the society.

Evaluation: –

  • Define social studies
  • Man interact with how many environments?
  • Explain the concept of science and technology
  • Highlight the subjects that makes up social studies
  • State 3 importance of social studies 

Assignment: social studies  Melrose workbook for jssone




As explained earlier, social studies is the study of man and his environment.


  1. To make us useful and responsible citizens
  2. To help us understand how our physical environment can be utilized for our benefit.
  3. To teach us how to be patriotic (a having a great love for one’s country) as a citizens.
  4. To train us on how to be a good followers.
  5. To inculcate in us sense of co-operation, honesty and tolerance
  6. To know how to interact peacefully with other people in the society.
  7. To make us understand and appreciate different cultures in our society.
  8. To prepare us for future leadership role in the society.
  9. To give us balanced education.



  1. It helps in exposing individual student to different societies and cultures.
  2. It helps in training our youths to become responsible citizens.
  3. It helps in preparing the youths to become responsible future leaders.
  4. It also makes students to be familiar with their social and physical environments.
  5. It encourages students to be a good citizen.
  6. It emphasizes the importance of peaceful co-existence and tolerance.
  7. It trains us how to meaningfully contribute to the development of our nation.

Evaluation :

  • State five objectives of social studies
  • Highlight four importance of social studies 

Assignment :  explain as a student of social studies five importance of the subject to you



An environment is a natural world in which people, animals and plant live.


Generally, it refers to everything within our surroundings.


Physical Environment therefore refers to all natural and non-natural things around us.


It can also be regarded as our immediate environment.



  1. Natural environment: it includes; valleys forest, desert, hills, mountains, rivers, grass-land, etc.
  2. Non-natural environment or man-made: it includes; bridges, houses, hospitals, roads, vehicles, police station, market, schools etc.

Features of physical environment.

Nigeria physical environment features includes;

  1. Relief
  2. Rivers
  3. Lakes
  4. Seasons
  5. Weather
  6. Vegetation.


RELIEF: This refers to land surface features above the sea level.

Relief can be classified into;

  1. Highland
  2. Low land

HIGHLAND: It can be described as a mountainous or hilly section of a country. Examples are; idanre hill, Adamawa mountains udinsukaplateau mountain.


LOW LAND: Low land can be referred to as plains, the chad Basin plain etc.




  1. They serve as easy defense during war
  2. They serve as tourist centers
  3. They are good source of minerals like gold, tin etc.
  4. Some help in construction of hydro-electric power in Nigeria


  1. They serve as means of transportation e.g. roads, railways port.
  2. They are good for agricultural purposes
  3. Suitable for human habitation
  4. They provide good place for rearing animals


RIVERS: The two major source of rivers in Nigeria are River Niger and Benue. Others are; River Ogun, Osun, ZamfaraAnambara, Cross Rivers, etc.



  1. They are used for domestic purpose such as drinking, washing, cooking etc
  2. They provide employment opportunities for fisher men, ship builders etc.
  3. They are used for generating electricity e.gKangi dam
  4. They are used by industries for production purpose. E.g. for production of soft drinks, bottle water etc.
  5. They provide food for man kind e.g. fishes, crayfish etc.
  6. They are used in construction of sea ports.


LAKES: A lake can be defined as a large area of water surrounded by land


SEASONS: There are two seasons in Nigeria

They are;

  1. Wet season
  2. Dry season

Wet Season: This is a period of rainfall and humidity. It falls between April and October and sometimes to November.


It is normally caused by south –west wind. This is a good period for farming activities in Nigeria.


Dry season: It is caused by North-East wind coming from Sahara desert. It comes with harmattan particularly in the Northern Nigeria. The dry season starts from November to April. 


WEATHER: This refers to the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time.


The atmospheric condition changes from time to time.


CLIMATE: Climate refers to the average weather condition of a particular place over a period of time.



  1. Temperature: This refers to the degree of coldness and hotness of a place at any particular time. 

Temperature is measured by “Thermometer”

  1. Rainfall: It is a situation where excess condensed water vapour in the atmosphere is released to the earth.

It is measured by “rainguage”.

  1. Wind: This is the movement of the air at a particular direction.

It is measured by “Wind vane and Anemometer”

  1. Air Pressure: Pressure can be defined as the force exerted by atmosphere on the earth surface and other objects by air.

It is measured through “Mercury barometer and aneroid barometer”.

  1. Relative Humidity: This is the degree or amount of moisture (water presents in the air) in the atmosphere.

It is measured with a “hygrometer”.

  1. Clouds: These are tiny droplets of water vapour in the atmosphere.
  2. Sunshine: This is the direct light of the sun. It is the brightness of the sun.


VEGETATION: This refers to the ground cover provided by plants. It is influenced by its climate.


There are three types of vegetation belt in Nigeria namely;

  1. Forest
  2. Savanna
  3. Montane 

Forest: It contains trees such as Mangrove swamp forest and rainforest.

Savanna: It consists of tree covered with grasses and flowers located between trees. It can be further sub-divide into Guinea Savanna, Sudan savanna and Sahel Savanna.


Montane Vegetation: These are vegetations with tress and grasses. It can be found in Adamawa, Jos etc.

Evaluation :

  • Define an environment
  • What is physical environment?
  • State the types of physical environment and explain with examples
  • Highlight the features of physical environment and explain with examples

Assignment :  social studies Melrose workbook Jssone





NATURAL RESOURCES: These are resources created by nature (God) for the benefit and use of man-kind.

Natural resources in Nigeria includes; Crude oil, Gold, coal, Iron, tin, Limestone, Lead, etc.


Natural Resources and their uses

1 Cocoa Ondo, Ekiti, Oyo, Ogun Manufacturing of beverages and chocolates.
2 Cotton Kaduna, Kano, Bauchi, Kastina Production of clothes, cotton wool etc.
3 Gold  Sokoto, Osun, Niger Production of bangles, necklaces, wristwatches, chains, rings etc.
4 Groundnut Kano Production of groundnut oil, for cooking and snacks
5 Crude Oil Rivers, Delta, Edo, Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Imo, Ondo Production of aviation fuel, kerosene, petrol etc.
6 Iron Ore Kogi, Delta Production of iron rods, flat iron sheets, construction of bridges, houses, rail, roads, industry machines etc.
7 Limestone Ogun, Ebonyi,  Benue Production of cements and paint. It is also used as a source of calcium in supplements and food activities.
8 Rubber Delta, Edo, ondo, Cross River Production of tyres and other rubber products. etc.


  • What are natural resources?
  • State five natural resources and their uses

Assignment : write six natural resources, their uses and where they can be found




These are problems caused by nature and man within our surroundings.

Environmental problems are of two types:-

  1. Natural environmental problems
  2. Man-made environmental problems



  1. Drought:- This refers to absence of rainfall over of period of time in a particular place.  It has a great effect of plant’s life, animal life and human beings at large.
  2. Earth Quake:- This is a sudden, violent shaking of the earth’s surface as a result of a great release of energy in earth crust.  Earthquake causes damage to  buildings and other infrastructures.
  3. Erosion:- It refers to the washing away or removal of the earth surface (Soil) through consistent flowing of water.
  4. Flooding:- This is a situation  where a large value of water settles on dry land meant  for human transportation.
  5. Volcanic Eruption:- This is the eruption of lava, ashes and gases from the opening (cracks) in a hill or mountain.
  6. Global warming:-  This refers to increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere, oceans and landmass on earth.
  7. Tornado: This is a evident storm with a very strong winds which move in a circle in some cases, there is a long cloud which is narrower at the bottom that the top as a form of narrow funnel 
  8. Hurricane: This is a very powerful storm with story winds and heavy RAINS
  9. Cyclone: This refers to a violent and strong storm in which strong winds rotate in a circle

Man-made environmental problems

  1. Air Pollution: This is a great release of unwanted and dangerous substances like fumes, smokes, dust into the atmosphere such dangerous substances affect health living, it’s effects are skin cancer, eyes irritation, legs cancer, acid rain etc.
  2. Water pollution: This is a release of pollutions i.e. chemicals into water-rivers oceans, seas etc.

This pollution majorly comes from industries during oil spillage, discharge of chemical into water etc. It has effects on aquatic crenels

  1. Land pollution: It wolves continuation of land with toxic substances such as oil spillage. Niger delta area of Nigeria is a typical example of such pollution
  2. Deforestation: This is the indiscriminate felling of trees and clearing of vegetation


Effects of Environmental Problems

  1. Loss of lives and properties: Environmental problems like earthquake, volcano, tomato usually cause irredeemable losses when they occur
  2. Spread of diseases: Air and water pollution will cause the spread of air and water-borne diseases 
  3. Destruction of animals and plants: occur rence of earthquake, tornado, hurricane, land and water pollutions will to destruction of plants and animals
  4. Low agricultural productivity: Natural and non-made environmental problems hinder agricultural activities by formers which eventually lead to tack of food for the populace
  5. Ozone depletion: It exposes people to skin cancer and cataracts. There will also be increase in schematic natural disasters due to global warmly


Solutions to environmental problems

  1. Education: Government should put move efforts at educating the populace about the effects of non-made environmental problems
  2. Legislation: Law should be enacted to prohibit air, water and land pollution and deforestation
  3. Sanction: Any citizen who fails to abide with environmental pollution land enacted by the government should be dealt with to act as a deterrent to others
  4. Tree planting exercises: Government should encourage individuals to plant trees by making the nurseries (where young plant and animals are ground for sale or for planting somewhere else) available at subsidized rates to people
  5. Localization of industries: Industries should be sited in designated areas for easy monitoring of their activates
  6. Proper disposal of wastes aid sewage: Definite sites should be provided at strategically located areas you dumping of refuse by the Government likewise, they should monitor the activities of sewage transportation to ensure proper disposal to the right place

Evaluation :

  •  what are environmental problems?
  • List the types and explain
  • State the effects of environmental problems
  • Highlight the solution 

Assignment:  explain two environmental problems common in Nigeria in detail and profound solution to such environmental problems




Social environment refers to the cutting group of individuals and institutions with whom a person interacts.

Such as customs, language, norms, dressing, primary groups, secondary groups, religious institutions, political institutions, educational institutions, economic institutions.


Social organizations

Social organizations are people in the society who are well organized with characteristic pattern of relationship

Types of social groups

  1. Primary group
  2. Secondary group

Primary group

This refers to people with closer relationship over a long period of time.

Examples of primary group are: Family age group, peer group and kinship groups.

Characteristics of primary group

  1. There is always a face – to – face interaction
  2. It has a small size of people
  3. Group member are loyal to one another
  4. They are emotionally committed to one another
  5. They have a permanent relationship
  6. It is a multi-purpose organization


The family as a primary social group

A family is a group of people who are related by heredity or adoption.

The family is the first social group where a child is taught what is right and what his role is in the society though examples.


Types of family

  1. Nuclear family
  2. Extended family 

Nuclear family: This is made up of father mother and the children.

It can be monogamous i.e. a family made up of the man, his wife and the children. It can also be polygamous i.e. a family made up of the man, more than one wife and the children. 

Extended family: This is a process where family relations such as uncles, grandparents, aunties, live with the nuclear family in the same house or compound. 

Other forums of family are:

  1. Foster family: This is a family in where a couple or adults are acting as parents who may or may not be their relations. (Guardians)
  2. Single parent family: This is a family in which children live with only one of their biological parents (either the father or the mother). This often occurs due to divorce or death of one of the couple.


Role and responsibilities of family members

  • The father:
  1. He provides money for the family sustenance 
  2. He protects and defends the family
  3. He ensures proper up-bringing of children 
  4. He trains the family on good believer through good exemplary life style
  5. He also over sees disciplinary activities at home
  6. He ensures that unity, harmony, love and peace exist between family members.
  • The mother:
  1. She prepares delicious meals for the family
  2. She ensures meatless and cleanliness of the home
  3. Trains the children how to take care of the home, watch clothes & plaits and prepare food
  4. Report every act of indiscipline at home for the husband for necessary action
  5. She also supports the father in meeting family needs
  6. Demon striates acceptable believer to the children through good life style
  • The children:
  1. Obedience to all instruction from their parents
  2. Co-operating with their parents with their parents while they are being trained
  3. Attend School regularly and make their parents proud all the time
  4. Taking good care of the house chores
  5. Be of good behavior everywhere at all tries 
  6. Respect and show love to everyone in the family
  7. Always report important incidents which may need their parents taking immediate action
  8. Seek parents advice and percussion when necessary

Evaluation :  

  • What are social problems?
  • Define social organization
  • List the types of social groups
  • State the characteristics of social groups
  • Define a family as one of the primary social group
  • Highlight the roles of each member that makes a family

Assignment :  social studies Melrose workbook JSSone



This refers to intimate and lasting relationship between two or more people.

It could be of either sex or the some sex but does not lead to immorality.


Types of friendship

  1. Intimate or best friend: This type of friend slip has the ability of greatly of greatly infecting one’s decision, character and goal in life
  2. Ordinary friendship: This is a kind of friendship in which the two parties don’t have so much power to influence their behavior, decision or goal in life
  3. Acquaintance: this is the kind of friendship that exist between anyone we meet while carrying out a task, embarking on a journey or staying in a place for few days.


Factors that determine choice of friends

  1. Gender in
  2. Age
  3. Common character
  4. Common language, nationality or tribe
  5. Good personality aid character.


Qualities and behaviors that enhances friendship

  1. Love: Love is a gift from God and it makes friendship last long
  2. Forgiveness: A forgiving sprint promotes friendship regardless the offence or mistakes comities to each other
  3. Good communication
  4. Reliability
  5. Support in time of need
  6. Loyalty 
  7. Understanding
  8. Respect

Factors that could destroy friendship

  1. Dishonesty
  2. Misunderstanding
  3. Lack of respect for each other
  4. Selfishness
  5. Failure to help in time of need
  6. Gossip 
  7. Suspicion


  • Define friendship
  • List the types of friendship and explain
  • State the factors that determine the choice of friends
  • Highlight the qualities of a  good friend 
  • Mention the factors that can destroy friendship.

Assignment :  Explain three factors that can destroy friendship in detail




This is a formal organization whose member are not related to one another but come together to achieve a common goal.

Forums/types of secondary group

  1. Schools: These include primary schools secondary schools and tertiary institutions (Universities, polytechnics, colleges of education etc).
  2. Comprise: These are cooperate organizations that engages in trading and manufacturing activities. Examples are, UNRULIER NIG. PLC, MTN, GLOBACOM, etc.
  3. Trade unions: These includes workers association like;

NUJ: Nigeria Union of journalist

NUT: Nigeria Union of teachers

NASU: Non-Academic staff union of education and associated institutions

NUP: Nigeria Union of parishioners

NURTW: Nigeria Union of road transport workers

  1. Religions groups: these includes all churches and mosques
  2. Voluntary organizations: These are group of people who renders humanitarian service to the society. Such organization include, man ‘O’ war, Boys Brigades, Red cross, National council of woman societies etc.

Functions of secondary groups

  1. Maintenance of law and order in the society
  2. They unity in the society
  3. It promotes friendliness among its members which results in peaceful relationship
  4. They also encourage division of labour especially in an organization
  5. They help individual members to learn new role for example, workers in an organization could be promoted to higher post which is different from and challenges
  6. They also prepare members for higher leadership roles in the larger society.

In summary, secondary society groups act as training grooms where members are nurture for political leadership.


Conflict within social groups

Conflict refers to misunderstanding or disagreement between two or more people

Causes of conflicts

  1. Selfishness: Deriving of one’s right is very common is social organizations in our society and person created or deprive will negatively react to claim his rights
  2. Lack of cooperation: Failure to work as a team often result to disagreement, misunderstanding and division
  3. Bad leadership: When leaders are greedy and suffering, there will be conflict
  4. Lack of religions to learn: The major role of religions groups is to promote peace in the society. Imposition of religion on actives and physical treat over which religion is the best often result to conflict in our social
  5. Communication gap: when needed information are not supplied at the right time conflict will set in
  6. Laziness and inefficiency: Diligent workers protest when laziness and inefficiency are notice in some members of a group
  7. Criminal activities : Such as kidnapping, murder, frond, immorality will result into serious conflict within a social group in the society


Effects of conflicts in the society

  1. Break down of law and order
  2. Loss of lives and property
  3. Insecurity
  4. Hinders progress in the society
  5. Brigs disunity


Conflict resolution

  1. Dialogue: It involves the two party and a third party who will stand as a mediator of peace to end such conflict
  2. Through the law court: conflicts can also be resolved by using the legal methods
  3. Through the police: conflict between individual, family members, religions group, friends colleagues can be reported to the police for immediate intervention
  4. Government intervention: Government can set up a panel to mediate between groups unloving in conflict 
  5. Through family or village head: Conflict within the family are settled by the family head while the village head settles conflict in this a village
  6. Through wars: This is a negative way of resolving conflict. The move powerful side wins the while the other side surrenders. It causes detection of levees aid properties. A typical example is the Nigerian Civil war between 1967 and 1970. The Nigeria army over powered the Biafra side and eventually the war ended in favour of Nigeria.


  • Define secondary social group
  • List the forms/types and explain
  • State the functions  of secondary social group
  • Define conflict
  • State the causes of conflict
  • Highlight the effects of conflict
  • Explain five conflict resolutions

Assignment :  social studies Melrose workbook JSSone 




There are two major types of environment; they are;

  1. physical environment
  2. social environment

Influence of man in the physical environment

  1. Construction activities: Some highlands have become landlords in the coves of constructing roads. Man has been able to construct bridges on rivers for easy movement. Example of this is the third mainland Bridge in Lagos
  2. Irrigation activities: Man has been able to make water available in the desert for forming purposes
  3. Reclamation of land: Technology has greatly helped man to torn reverie areas to housing estates. The land used in building the popular Victoria Gorden city (VGC) in Ajah,  Lagos was reclaimed from water and it is the most beautiful estates in Nigeria
  4. Drainage: Water movements are been controlled through canals and drainage to prevent floods particularly during raining seasons
  5. A forestation programmes: To prevent desert environment, man has engaged in tree planting programmes


Influence of man on social environment 

  1. Exposure to western education has greatly influenced people’s attitude to polygamy, family size and education of female children 
  2. Modern religions (Christianity and Islamic) have changed the observance of certain rituals superstitions bleeps and outstands
  3. Modern political system (democracy) have changed the role of traditional rulers in our country
  4. Professionals in sport and music has greatly influence the dressing and hairstyles of youths in air country 


  • List the types of environment
  • State the influence of man in the physical environment
  • Highlight the influence of man in its social environment

Assignment :  social studies Melrose workbook JSSONE 





Accident is the sudden occurrence of an unpleasant event which causes lure on an individual or group of people

For any individual or organization that value human lives there is always need for “Safety”  

Safety is a situation which prevents any form of injury when carrying out a task


Reasons/need for safety

  1. To prevent loss of life: When carrying out a task safety ,ensures need to be putting place to prevent death of an individual
  2. To minimize risk: It nominee risk of been injured while carrying out a task
  3. To prevent temporary or prevent disabilities: To prevent disabilities there is always need for safety. Some loss their eyes, limbs, arms and other parts of the body because purport safety measures are not put in place
  4. To prevent damage of properties: Road and fire accident can bring great damage to many properties
  5. To prevent avoidable accident: As many accident in any form, if proper safety measures are putting place all will be eradicated  for instance, if necessary gadgets swimming pool, drowning will be completely eliminated.

Evaluation : 

  • Define the following :
  1. Accident
  2. Safety
  • State the reasons for safety 

Assignment :  how can you prevent yourself from school accident?





There are different accidents that occur while carrying out a task at home or in the school environment that needs necessary safety measures such includes;

  1. Fire out breaks
  2. Pressing iron burns
  3. Hot water burns
  4. Sliding in the bathroom
  5. Knife or razor blade cuts
  6. Electric shocks through electrical opplinces
  7. Bone fractures due to letting of leg on lord objects like stares
  8. Burning of skin due to smash of chemicals during experiments in the school laboratory
  9. Hitting of students eyes by teachers while caning/beating
  10. Falling from the school staircase
  11. Drowning in the school staircase
  12. Drowning in the swimming pool
  13. Fracture while running or playing grounds on the pitch etc.


Safety measures at home

  1. To prevent electric shocks, the house should be properly wired by professionals
  2. Gas cylinders should be properly closed to prevent gas lockage
  3. Petrol and kerosene should be kept for from the reach of the children
  4. The use of candle, mosquito coils, baling rings etc should be avoided if possible
  5. Bathroom floors should be scrubbed regularly while old bathroom tiles should be replaced
  6. All electrical gadgets, sockets should be checked when going out of the house or before going to bed in the right
  7. The bush around should also be constantly cleared to prevent snakes, scorpions and other dangerous animals and insects etc.


Safety measures in a school environment

  1. The school building should be constructed properly with necessary safety measures put in place
  2. Fire extinguishers should be provided is strategic locations particularly in laboratories and office
  3. Sport masters and possibly a nurse should be available during inter-house sport or special sporting events
  4. Life guards and swinging instructors should be around alerter students are using the swimming pools
  5. Dangerous chancels used in laboratories should be kept in special rooms inaccessible to students
  6. School food should be liyglcrucally prepared and served to avoid food poisoning 
  7. School buses should be in good condition and should be driven by professional drivers
  8. First aid kits should be provided in the school clique, laboratories and all depart rants in school environment.


Safety measures at work place

  1. Fire extinguishers should be in strategies place 
  2. Proper wiring of the balding should been door by experts 
  3. Staff should ensure that all electrical gadgets are switched off after office hour
  4. Smoking should be disallowed in all office and restricted to certain areas for instance restaurant 
  5. Safety manager should conduct period training for staff on how to prevent forums of accidents in the work place.

Evaluation : 

  • List likely accident in schools, home and work places
  • State five measures to each 

Assignment :  social studies Melrose JSS One 

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