SS 3













  • To understand the pattern of nationalist movement in Africa
  • To understand the different methods used by nationalists to achieve independence
  • To understand the role of key figures in the nationalist movement

Materials Needed:

  • Whiteboard and markers
  • Handouts with key terms and names
  • Pictures of key figures in the nationalist movement







Nationalist movements are movements towards independence, autonomy, or greater self-determination for a particular group or nation. The pattern of nationalist movements varies depending on the specific historical, social, and political context of the region or country in question.

In general, nationalist movements often involve the following stages:

  1. Consciousness raising: The first stage of a nationalist movement is often the development of a collective identity and consciousness among a group of people who feel oppressed or marginalized. This may involve a growing awareness of shared cultural, linguistic, or historical traditions, as well as the recognition of shared experiences of discrimination or oppression.
  2. Mobilization: Once a group has developed a sense of collective identity and shared purpose, they may begin to mobilize around a specific political agenda or goal. This often involves the formation of political parties, social movements, or other organized groups that work to advance the cause of national liberation.
  3. Resistance: As nationalist movements gain momentum, they often face resistance from the ruling powers or dominant groups in society. This can take the form of state repression, violent conflict, or other forms of coercion and suppression.
  4. Negotiation: In some cases, nationalist movements are able to achieve their goals through negotiation or peaceful means. This may involve diplomatic efforts, international mediation, or negotiations with the ruling powers to secure greater autonomy or independence.
  5. Regaining of independence: Finally, if a nationalist movement is successful in achieving its goals, it may result in the regaining of independence, the establishment of a new state, or other forms of political transformation.

Examples of nationalist movements that have led to the regaining of independence include the Indian independence movement, the Algerian War of Independence, and the African decolonization movement in the mid-20th century.


  1. Which of the following is NOT a form of nationalist movement? a) Armed struggle b) Diplomatic negotiation c) Religious conflict d) Civil disobedience
  2. The Pan-African movement was aimed at a) unifying all African countries under one government b) creating a common African identity and promoting unity among Africans c) promoting trade between African countries and Europe d) resisting colonial rule in Africa
  3. Who led the independence movement in Ghana? a) Kwame Nkrumah b) Nelson Mandela c) Jomo Kenyatta d) Patrice Lumumba
  4. The Indian nationalist movement was led by a) Mahatma Gandhi b) Jawaharlal Nehru c) Subhas Chandra Bose d) Rajendra Prasad
  5. Which of the following was NOT a tactic used by nationalist movements in Africa? a) Armed struggle b) Diplomatic negotiation c) Non-violent resistance d) Religious conflict
  6. What was the significance of the Bandung Conference of 1955? a) It marked the beginning of the African nationalist movement b) It was the first meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement c) It was a conference of European powers to divide Africa d) It was a conference to discuss the establishment of the United Nations
  7. Who was the first president of Kenya? a) Jomo Kenyatta b) Nelson Mandela c) Kwame Nkrumah d) Patrice Lumumba
  8. The nationalist movement in Algeria was led by a) Nelson Mandela b) Patrice Lumumba c) Ahmed Ben Bella d) Mobutu Sese Seko
  9. The nationalist movement in Angola was led by a) Samora Machel b) Julius Nyerere c) Agostinho Neto d) Robert Mugabe
  10. The nationalist movement in Zimbabwe was led by a) Jomo Kenyatta b) Patrice Lumumba c) Robert Mugabe d) Nelson Mandela

Lesson Plan Presentation: Colonial Policies and African Discontent

Introduction (5 minutes):

  • Begin by asking students if they have ever heard of the term “nationalist movement.”
  • Write the term on the board and have students brainstorm what they think it means.
  • Explain that a nationalist movement is a group of people who work together to gain independence for their country from a colonial power.
  • Show pictures of key figures in the nationalist movement and ask if they recognize any of them.

Lesson Body (25 minutes):

  • Discuss the different patterns of nationalist movements in Africa, such as:
    • Civil disobedience and non-violent protests (e.g. Gandhi in India)
    • Political activism and lobbying (e.g. ANC in South Africa)
    • Guerrilla warfare and armed struggle (e.g. FLN in Algeria)
  • Discuss the different methods used by nationalists to achieve independence, such as:
    • Negotiations with the colonial power (e.g. Ghana)
    • Unilateral declaration of independence (e.g. Zimbabwe)
    • Armed struggle (e.g. Algeria)
  • Discuss key figures in the nationalist movement, such as:
    • Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana)
    • Nelson Mandela (South Africa)
    • Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya)
    • Patrice Lumumba (Congo)
  • Hand out key terms and names for students to study and review.

Conclusion (5 minutes):

  • Review the key terms and names with the students.
  • Ask the students if they can identify any patterns or methods used by the nationalists to achieve independence.
  • Ask the students to identify key figures in the nationalist movement and their roles in achieving independence.


  • Ask students to write a short paragraph on one of the key figures in the nationalist movement and their role in achieving independence.
  1. The pattern of nationalist movement involved the struggle for ________.
  2. The nationalist movement emerged in response to _______ domination.
  3. The first African country to gain independence was ________.
  4. The adoption of non-violent methods was advocated by _______.
  5. The Pan-African movement aimed to unite all _______ people.
  6. Kwame Nkrumah was the leader of the nationalist movement in _______.
  7. The _______ declaration granted independence to many African countries.
  8. The armed struggle for independence was led by _______.
  9. The _______ conference was held to divide Africa among European powers.
  10. The nationalist movement faced opposition from the _______ government.
Weekly Assessment/Test


  1. What is the meaning of nationalist movement?
  2. What was the main goal of the nationalist movement?
  3. Which countries were involved in the decolonization process in Africa?
  4. How did the nationalist movement impact the political landscape of Africa?
  5. What role did external influences play in the nationalist movement?
  6. What was the role of the United Nations in the decolonization process in Africa?
  7. Who were some of the key figures in the nationalist movement in Africa?
  8. How did the media contribute to the nationalist movement?
  9. What were some of the challenges faced by the nationalist movement?
  10. What were the long-term effects of the nationalist movement on Africa?