PRELUDE TO APARTHEID
PRELUDE TO APARTHEID
PATTERN OF NATIONALIST MOVEMENT AND THE REGAINING OF INDEPENDENCE
- To understand the meaning of Apartheid
- To identify the prelude to Apartheid in South Africa
- To analyze the impact of Apartheid on South Africa
- Whiteboard and markers
- Handouts on the history of South Africa
- Pictures of pre-Apartheid and Apartheid South Africa
Apartheid was a system of institutionalized racial segregation and discrimination that existed in South Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. However, the roots of apartheid can be traced back to the colonial period, when the Dutch and later British colonizers enforced policies of racial discrimination and segregation.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many African and Asian countries were colonized by European powers. In South Africa, the Dutch East India Company established a trading post at the Cape of Good Hope in the mid-17th century. The Dutch settlers, known as Boers, established independent republics in the 19th century, which were later taken over by the British. These colonial powers enforced policies of racial segregation and discrimination, which were later formalized into the system of apartheid.
The apartheid system was based on the principle of racial segregation, with the white minority having political, economic, and social power over the black majority. The government created laws that separated people of different races in all aspects of life, including education, healthcare, and public amenities. Non-whites were denied many basic rights, including the right to vote, to own property, and to move freely.
The National Party, which came to power in South Africa in 1948, implemented a series of laws and policies that further entrenched the system of apartheid. The Group Areas Act of 1950 designated certain areas of the country for specific racial groups, and forced millions of non-white South Africans to move from their homes and communities. The Bantu Education Act of 1953 established a separate and inferior education system for black South Africans.
The African National Congress (ANC) was formed in 1912 to fight for the rights of black South Africans. The ANC led many protests and campaigns against apartheid, and was eventually banned by the government. Nelson Mandela, a leading member of the ANC, was imprisoned for 27 years before being released in 1990. He later became the first democratically elected president of South Africa in 1994, after the end of apartheid.
In conclusion, the prelude to apartheid can be traced back to the colonial period, when European powers enforced policies of racial segregation and discrimination. The apartheid system was based on the principle of racial segregation and discrimination, and was formalized into law by the National Party in 1948. The African National Congress led many protests and campaigns against apartheid, eventually leading to the end of the system in the early 1990s.
- Which of the following is a prelude to apartheid in South Africa? a) The Great Trek b) The Anglo-Boer War c) The National Party’s rise to power d) The Freedom Charter
- Who were the Afrikaners? a) Indigenous people of South Africa b) Descendants of Dutch settlers in South Africa c) British colonizers in South Africa d) Indian immigrants in South Africa
- What was the main goal of the apartheid system? a) To promote racial equality b) To ensure economic prosperity c) To enforce racial segregation and discrimination d) To encourage immigration to South Africa
- When did the apartheid system officially begin in South Africa? a) 1948 b) 1960 c) 1976 d) 1994
- Which of the following was NOT a major policy under apartheid? a) Group Areas Act b) Pass Laws c) Universal suffrage d) Bantu Education Act
- What did the Pass Laws require black South Africans to carry with them at all times? a) A passport b) A passbook c) A birth certificate d) A driver’s license
- What was the Sharpeville Massacre? a) A peaceful protest against apartheid that turned violent b) An attack by the South African government on a black township c) A massacre of white settlers by black South Africans d) A student-led protest against the Bantu Education Act
- Who was Nelson Mandela? a) A white South African who fought against apartheid b) A black South African who fought against apartheid c) A British colonial governor of South Africa d) A leader of the National Party
- Which of the following was a major international boycott against apartheid? a) The Sharpeville Declaration b) The Soweto Uprising c) The Great Trek d) The Anti-Apartheid Movement
- When did apartheid officially end in South Africa? a) 1948 b) 1960 c) 1990 d) 1994
Lesson Plan Presentation: Colonial Policies and African Discontent
Introduction (10 minutes):
- Begin by asking students if they have ever heard of Apartheid in South Africa.
- Explain that Apartheid was a system of segregation and discrimination based on race that existed in South Africa for many years.
- Show pictures of pre-Apartheid and Apartheid South Africa to give students an idea of what life was like for different races under the Apartheid regime.
Body (30 minutes):
- Provide a brief history of South Africa, including the arrival of the Dutch in the 1600s and the establishment of British rule in the 1800s.
- Discuss the Land Act of 1913, which limited land ownership for Black South Africans, and the Native Urban Areas Act of 1923, which forced Black South Africans to live in separate areas from Whites.
- Explain the creation of the National Party in 1948 and the introduction of Apartheid policies, including the Group Areas Act, which forced different races to live in designated areas, and the Pass Laws, which restricted the movement of Black South Africans.
- Discuss the resistance to Apartheid, including the formation of the African National Congress and the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.
- Provide examples of notable figures who fought against Apartheid, such as Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu.
Conclusion (10 minutes):
- Ask students what they learned about the prelude to Apartheid and its impact on South Africa.
- Discuss how Apartheid affected the country, including economic disparities and social inequality.
- Encourage students to think about the importance of equality and respect for all individuals.
- Distribute handouts on the history of South Africa and have students answer questions related to the prelude to Apartheid and its impact on the country.
- Ask students to write a short paragraph on what they learned about Apartheid and its effects on South Africa.
- Apartheid was a system of __________ racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa.
- The National Party introduced apartheid laws in ________.
- The system of apartheid was designed to maintain _________ domination over other races.
- The Population Registration Act of 1950 classified individuals into _______ racial groups.
- The Group Areas Act of 1950 allocated specific areas for residence and economic activity based on a person’s __________.
- The Bantu Education Act of 1953 established a separate education system for __________ children.
- The Pass Laws required black South Africans to carry a special document, called a __________, at all times.
- The Sharpeville Massacre of 1960 resulted in the deaths of __________ unarmed protestors.
- The international community imposed economic and cultural __________ on South Africa to protest against apartheid.
- Nelson Mandela, a prominent anti-apartheid activist, was imprisoned for _______ years before being released in 1990.
- What is apartheid?
- What was the purpose of the Native Land Act of 1913?
- What was the significance of the National Party’s victory in the 1948 elections?
- What were the main policies implemented by the National Party under apartheid?
- How did the Group Areas Act of 1950 affect the lives of black South Africans?
- What was the Sharpeville Massacre?
- How did the international community respond to apartheid in South Africa?
- Who was Nelson Mandela and what was his role in the anti-apartheid movement?
- What was the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and what was its purpose?
- When did apartheid officially end in South Africa and who was the country’s first black president?