JSS 3 Social Research Second Time period 




CONTENT: 1. Strategies of transportation

  1. Kinds of fashionable transportation


Definition of transportation

Transportation is the motion of individuals and items from one location to a different both by land, air or by water.

Strategies of transportation

There are mainly two strategies of transportation specifically;

  1. conventional technique
  2. fashionable technique

Conventional technique

The normal technique takes varieties equivalent to

  1. Human-powered transportation – this includes carrying items both on the top, shoulder or again from one place to a different. It’s normally cost- saving and likewise a method of exercising the physique bodily, particularly in beneath developed communities.
  2. Beast of burden/ animal- powered transportation – that is the usage of working animals to hold items and other people from one place to a different.

Kinds of fashionable technique of transportation

The trendy strategies of transportation are our key focus on this lesson. These fashionable strategies embody:

  1. Land transport

ii) water transport

iii) air transport








  1. Outline transportation.
  2. What are the twotraditional strategies of transportation?
  3. Clarify the human-powered type of conventional transportation.
  4. Point out the three foremost strategies of recent transportation.


Land Transport

Transportation by land includes the motion of individuals and items from one place to a different on land.

It will possibly come within the type of Highway or Rail transport. For street transport, vehicles equivalent to buses, automobile, trunks, motor cycles, and lorriesetc convey folks and items on the trunk A, B, C of the Nigerian roads. The trunk A roads are maintained by the federal authorities, trunk B roads by the state authorities and trunk C roads by the native authorities.

Rail transport employs the usage of trains that are normally powered by locomotive engines utilizing steam, diesel or electrical energy. A practice will also be powered by cables, horses, gasoline generators and gravity pneumatics. Rail transport is the bottom and cheaper technique of land transport.

Going by historical past, the primary railway line on the earth was opened in England in 1825 and is positioned between Darlington and Stockton. Many international locations have since then developed their rail system and Russia owns the world’s longest single railway line between Vladivostok and Moscow.

In Nigeria nonetheless, there have been two main railway strains prior to now. These are

  1. The western railway line from Lagos to Kano and Guru in Yobe state.
  2. The japanese railway line from Port Harcourt to Maiduguri.

Water Transportation

Water transportation is the method of shifting folks & items from one place to a different utilizing water craft, equivalent to boat ,ship,ferriesetc causes or a physique of water .water transport encourages intra- nationwide and worldwide commerce. The physique group that manages our water transport in Nigeria is the Nigeria Port Authority (NPA).


There are two fundamental kind of water transport system specifically.

  1. The ocean navigation neither is by ship on ocean or sea.
  2. The inland water methods.

Motion of products and other people is thru creeks, canals, lagoons and lake inside a nation’s

Boarder utilizing canoes and boats. They don’t seem to be deep sufficient for ships to journey on.

The Nigeria water has remained underdeveloped and under-utilized.


  1. Cargo ships – they carry cumbersome items
  2. Tanker ship for carrying solely crude oil.
  3. Passenger ship for carrying people
  4. Normal ship for carrying several types of items other than liquids and frozen meals.
  5. Fridge ships for carrying solely frozen meals equivalent to fish, fruits, meat and greens.
  6. Multi- goal ships for all types of products.

Water transport is advantageous within the sense that it isn’t as costly as air transport and hulking items are conveniently transported.


This can be a system of transport that enables items and passengers to be moved by means of the usage of plane equivalent to aeroplanes, jets, helicopters. Plane is the second quickest technique of transport after the rocket.Aeroplane was invented and flown in 1903 by the Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur of The United State of America however the world’s First airline was began in 1914 by Tonny James.

It may be stated that air transportation may be very quick, snug however costly.The locations specifically constructed for airplanes to land or take off are known as airports or aerodromes. In Nigeria, now we have each native and worldwide airport and plenty of organizations are answerable for the administration of our air transport operation. These organizations are: Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria (FAAN), Nigerian Airspace Administration Company (NAMA), NCAA (Nigeria Civil Aviation Authority), Nigerian Metrological Providers.

It ought to be borne in thoughts nonetheless that other than the air transport strategies mentioned above, we even have pipeline transportation which includes the conveyance of liquids, oil and gases by means of pipelines that are laid or constructed underground.

Weekend task:

Goal Check:

  1. _________ and _________ are the 2 foremost strategies of transportation.
  2. Land and street (b) conventional and fashionable (c) gasoline and generators (d) locomotive and aerodromes.
  3. The three kinds of transportation are ________, ________ and ________
  4. Land, water and air transport (b) street, canal and jungle transport (c) street, land and rail transport (d) air, sky and water transport.
  5. The transport system that includes the motion of products and other people by means of creeks, lagoons, canals and lakes inside a nation’s boarder utilizing canoes, boat and so on is known as _________
  6. Human- powered transport
  7. Animal- powered transport
  8. Water transport
  9. The inland water methods.
  10. Cargo ships convey
  11. Goats (b) rams (c) cumbersome items (d) human
  12. The quickest of the three kinds of transportation is
  13. Highway transport (b) water transport (c) air transport (d) marine transport
  14. Aeroplane was invented by ________ in ________
  15. Boyles and Charles in 1903 (b) Le’ Chartelia in 1807 (c) the Wright brothers in 1903 (d) Obasanjo and Goodluck in 1997.
  16. Pipeline transportation conveys __________
  17. Cargo (b) human (c) gases, oil and different liquids (d) books and stationeries.
  18. The trunk A roads in Nigeria are managed by ____________ (a) the states (b) the native authorities (c) personal organizations (d) the federal authorities.
  19. Land transportations embody _________ and _________ (a) foremost roads and bushes (b) street and rail transport (c) bicycles and tricycles (d) ocean and inland methods.
  20. ___________ is the motion of products and other people from one location to a different.

Essay Check:

  1. Point out 5 (5) seaports in Nigeria
  2. Listing 5 (5) airways working in Nigeria
  3. When was the primary air route (Lagos – Kano) in Nigeria established?