PRIMARY 4 THIRD TERM LESSON NOTES SOCIAL STUDIES

THIRD TERM

 

PRIMARY 4

1. Employment .

2. Wages and income distribution

3. Communication

4. Forms of accidents

5. Factors which encourage abuse of drugs

6&7. Some substances abuse and their health and socio

Economic effects

8. Characteristics of drug abusers, their treatment and

Rehabilitation.

9. What we can do prevent drug abuse

10. Pollution

11. Agricultural technology

12.Revision

13.Examination

Week 1

Topic: Employment.

Subtitle: Consequences of unemployment.

Resources and Materials:

Building Background/connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

Learning Objectives:By the end of this this lesson,pupils should be able to:

1 define employment.

2 define unemployment.

3 mention five consequences of unemployment in the society.

4 mention four ways you can reduce unemployment.

Content

MEANING OF EMPLOYMENT

Employment means having a job or work to do to earn a living. A person may do

his or her own work or may work for other people, or even the government. If you

are doing your own work, you are said to be self-employed. If you are working

for government or other people, you are called an employee of those people

or the government, and the people or government that employed you are your

employers.

Jobs open to people in the locality

A job is work, for which payment is made when it is completed. Jobs that are open

to people in our community include the following:

1 Trading

2 Carpentry or interior decoration

3 Tailoring/fashion designing

4 Farming

5 Shoemaking

6 Teaching

7 Nursing

8 Banking

9 Printing

10 Engineering

11 Catering and hotel management

12 Publishing

13 Medicine

Some people are self-employed while others are employed by other individuals and

organisations.

People who is self-employed work for themselves, and whatever they produce

becomes their own. They can use the products or sell them to those who need

them.

A person who is employed by another person or an organisation works, and is

paid a salary by his/her employer at the end of the month.

Why people should be employed

People should be employed for the following reasons:

1 So that they can earn a living.

2 To keep them busy and out of trouble.

3 So that they will contribute to the development of society.

4 So that they will be responsible members of society.

5 When people work and earn an income, they are happy.

The meaning of unemployment

Unemployment means not having a job to do. People who do not have a means of

livelihood (i.e., of making money) or that are not engaged in a job are said to be

unemployed. Some people have just left one job and they are yet to get another

job. For example, a bricklayer may have just completed building one house, and

may have to wait to be hired to build another. A person may have been sacked or

removed from one job and is yet to get another one.

During this period of waiting, he or she is unemployed. A school leaver who is

still searching for work is also unemployed.

Consequences (bad results) of unemployment in our society

The following are some of the consequences of unemployment in our society:

1 When people are unemployed, they become sad and idle, and may develop

bad habits such as stealing or prostitution.

2 Some people who do not have work become unhappy and may begin to

take hard drugs, such as Indian hemp and cocaine, thinking this would help

them overcome the frustration of unemployment. Soon they become drug

addicts and problems for themselves and society.

3 Some people who are unemployed may become frustrated and unhappy

and after a while, begin to beg for money. This brings shame to them and

their families.

4 School leavers who fail to get work turn to their parents for support. This may

become a big burden and sorrow for the parents.

5 When people fail to get employment, they may not be able to provide their

needs and solve their problems because they do not have money. They may

begin to think about their problem and worry too much about their condition,

and this may affect their health.

6 Unemployment makes big towns and large cities over-crowded, because

most people who are unemployed go there, thinking they would get jobs.

7 Many youths marry late because they do not have jobs to provide for themselves

and a new family.

Unemployment can be reduced in the following ways:

1 The government and rich people in our society should help create jobs by

setting up factories, industries and business outfits, so that people can work in

such places and be useful to themselves and society.

2 Banks should help people who are not employed to set up their own

businesses by giving them loans under conditions that they can bear.

3 Young people should be advised to study subjects that will make it easy for

them to get work, so that when they leave school, they can become selfemployed

or easily get employed by others.

4 Government should encourage people who are looking for jobs to work on

farm settlements or other similar government projects.

5 Government should set up training organisations to train people in different

fields so as to make them self-employed. People can, for instance, train to make

baskets and furniture, or train to be farmers and food producers.

6 Government should encourage farmers by making it easy for them to get

farmland, farming equipment, fertilisers and electricity.

7 Government should construct good roads in the rural areas and provide

constant electricity for all, so that people can establish workshops and

industries and run such industries without difficulty.

8 Sometimes, wicked and unpatriotic people reserve employment opportunities

only for their relations, some of which are still in school. When such people are

caught, they should be punished severely.

Strategies& Activities:

Step :Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2:Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step 3:Teacher explains the new topic.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 define employment.

2 define unemployment.

3 mention five consequences of unemployment in the society.

4 mention four ways you can reduce unemployment.

Exercise

A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 ____________ means having a job or work to do to earn a living.

A Employment B Occupation C Working

2 We can be employed by working for ____________.

A thugs B the government C nobody

3 One who works for others is known as ____________.

A an employee B an employer C a messenger

4 One who does his own work and not for others is ____________.

A self-reliant B self-employed C sufficient

5 When people work and earn a living, they are ________.

A unhappy B happy C covetous

[mediator_tech]

1. Employment means having a __________ to earn a living.
a) house
b) car
c) job
d) pet

2. If you are working for the government, you are called a(n) __________.
a) employer
b) employee
c) entrepreneur
d) engineer

3. Jobs that are open to people in our community include __________.
a) cooking
b) painting
c) singing
d) trading

4. People who are self-employed work __________.
a) for themselves
b) for the government
c) for their neighbors
d) for their friends

5. A person who is employed by another person or an organization is paid a __________.
a) bonus
b) commission
c) salary
d) loan

6. People should be employed to __________.
a) sleep more
b) contribute to society
c) watch TV
d) be lazy

7. Unemployment means not having a __________ to do.
a) hobby
b) job
c) pet
d) friend

8. Some people who do not have work may develop __________ habits.
a) good
b) bad
c) healthy
d) expensive

9. Unemployment can lead to __________ addiction.
a) drug
b) food
c) exercise
d) reading

10. Unemployment may bring shame to individuals and their __________.
a) friends
b) neighbors
c) families
d) coworkers

11. School leavers who fail to get work may become a burden for their __________.
a) teachers
b) employers
c) parents
d) siblings

12. Unemployed individuals may not be able to provide for their __________.
a) dreams
b) needs
c) hobbies
d) vacations

13. Unemployment makes big towns and cities __________.
a) quieter
b) smaller
c) cleaner
d) over-crowded

14. Government and rich people can help reduce unemployment by setting up __________.
a) schools
b) parks
c) factories
d) hospitals

15. Government should encourage farmers by providing them with __________.
a) music lessons
b) farm animals
c) farmland and equipment
d) sports equipment

Week 2

Topic: Wages and Income

Subtitle: Problems of income distribution in Nigeria

Instructional Materials:

Resources & Materials:

Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson,pupils should be able to:

1 define wages.

2 define salary.

3 say the difference between a wage and a salary.

4 mention at least five reasons why people work.

5 mention at least three ways of rewarding workers.

6 write at least three problems of income distribution in Nigeria.

7 mention ways of solving those problems.

 

Content

Wages

Wages refers to the amount of money paid to a worker in return for the work he or

she has done or the services he or she has rendered. Wages can be paid daily,

weekly, or fortnightly. Wages can also be paid at the end of the month. This is

usually called salary.

Income

An income is the total sum of money which a worker earns. This includes his salary

and all the allowances he receives.

Reasons why people work

1 People work in order to earn money. They use the money to take care of

themselves and members of their family.

2 People work because it is not good to be idle. When people are at work, they

do not have the time to do evil.

3 People work to become responsible and to gain respect from other people in

society.

4 People work in order to keep their body and mind healthy.

5 By working, people render services to their community and the nation.

6 People work in order to practise what they have learnt at school or at a

training outfit.

People do different types of jobs, and they receive different rewards. Some of

these rewards can be seen, while some cannot be seen. Examples of such rewards

include the following:

1 Workers are paid some amount of money at the end of every month. This form

of payment is known as salary or wages.

How workers are rewarded

Workers receiving their salaries from the bank

2 Workers can be rewarded for working hard by promoting them. This means

raising their positions. For instance, a worker can be promoted from a clerk to

a supervisor.

3 Workers can be rewarded by giving them merit awards and prizes, in order to

encourage them and others to work harder.

4 Workers are usually given allowances, such as housing, meal and transport

allowances.

5 They are usually given a salary increment every year.

6 Workers sometimes receive bonuses.

Problems of wages and income distribution

1 Most employees are not satisfied with their income because they regard it as

too small. A lot of people are looking for jobs, and many companies offer little

wages or salaries and are not ready to increase such wages.

2 Many organisations do not pay wages or salaries on time. Sometimes, some

workers may not receive their salaries for two or three months because of one

reason or the other.

3 Some companies may be experiencing difficulty such as poor sales or

mismanagement of funds. Such companies may even close down after some

time, leading to non-payment of workers’ salaries.

4 Workers may decide to go on strike in order to fight for their rights in some

organisations. Such organisations may decide to sack such workers or even

refuse to pay them.

5 Some employers do not recognize their hardworking employees by rewarding

them properly.

6 Some organisations keep many of their workers as casual labourers. This

usually means that they would pay the workers little wages, fail to improve

their welfare and could sack them any time.

1 Employers of labour and the government should offer better salaries to

workers, in order to motivate them to work harder.

2 Employers should pay workers’ salaries on time, so that the employees would

be comfortable and happy.

3 Employers of labour and the government should be concerned about the

welfare of their workers, in order to discourage them from going on strike.

4 The government and other employers of labour should create better working

conditions for workers, in order to make them comfortable, and to motivate

them to work harder.

5 Employing people as casual labourers should stop. All workers should be

employed as permanent workers and free to enjoy every benefit (salary,

allowance, leave, promotion) of a worker.

Solutions to the problems of wages and income

distribution

1 Employers of labour and the government should offer better salaries to

workers, in order to motivate them to work harder.

2 Employers should pay workers’ salaries on time, so that the employees would

be comfortable and happy.

3 Employers of labour and the government should be concerned about the

welfare of their workers, in order to discourage them from going on strike.

4 The government and other employers of labour should create better working

conditions for workers, in order to make them comfortable, and to motivate

them to work harder.

5 Employing people as casual labourers should stop. All workers should be

employed as permanent workers and free to enjoy every benefit (salary,

allowance, leave, promotion) of a worker.

Strategies& Activities:

Step :Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2:Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step 3:Teacher explains the new topic.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation

1 define wages.

2 define salary.

3 say the difference between a wage and a salary.

4 mention at least five reasons why people work.

5 mention at least three ways of rewarding workers.

6 write at least three problems of income distribution in Nigeria.

7 mention ways of solving those problems.

Exercise

A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 The amount of money paid to a particular workers after completing a

particular job is called ____________.

A salary B income C wage

2 The total sum of money which a worker earns at the end of every month is

called ____________.

A salary B income C wage

3 ____________ can be paid daily.

A Salary B Income C Wages

 

4 One of these is not part of the reasons why people work.

A To earn money B For them not to be idle

C To become armed robbers

5 Anybody that does not work can become ____________.

A armed robber B rich C wealthy

6 One of these is a way of rewarding workers for a job well done. _____________.

A giving them query at the end of the month

B giving them bonuses C making them to work overtime

7 Salary increment is part of __________________________________________.

A reward for a hardworking worker B punishment for a lazy worker

C encouraging stealing

8 Strike is _______________________.

A when workers hold meeting together B when workers refuse to work

C when workers demonstrate by carrying placard

9 Strike is a way of ________________________________________.

A showing appreciation to the employers

B increasing the level of productivity C fighting for workers’ rights.

10 Payment of workers’ salaries on time is a way of ___________________________.

A solving the problems of income distribution

B punishing the workers C making the workers lazy.

[mediator_tech]

1. Wages refer to the amount of money paid to a worker in return for the work he or she has done or the services he or she has __________.

a) sold

b) received

c) rendered

d) provided

 

2. An income is the total sum of money which a worker __________.

a) earns

b) saves

c) borrows

d) invests

 

3. People work in order to earn __________.

a) respect

b) rewards

c) money

d) promotions

 

4. Workers can be rewarded for working hard by being __________.

a) demoted

b) dismissed

c) promoted

d) discouraged

 

5. Workers are usually given allowances such as __________.

a) toys

b) books

c) housing

d) gadgets

 

6. Workers sometimes receive __________.

a) penalties

b) warnings

c) bonuses

d) deductions

 

7. Most employees are not satisfied with their income because they regard it as __________.

a) excessive

b) appropriate

c) fair

d) too small

 

8. Some companies may close down, leading to non-payment of __________.

a) bills

b) loans

c) salaries

d) bonuses

 

9. Workers may go on strike to fight for their __________.

a) rights

b) promotions

c) vacations

d) bonuses

 

10. Employers should pay workers’ salaries __________.

a) early

b) in cash

c) on time

d) monthly

 

11. Employers of labor and the government should offer better salaries to __________.

a) customers

b) workers

c) suppliers

d) shareholders

 

12. Employers should be concerned about the welfare of their workers to discourage them from __________.

a) resigning

b) retiring

c) striking

d) protesting

 

13. The government and employers should create better __________ for workers.

a) wages

b) conditions

c) benefits

d) contracts

 

14. Employing people as casual laborers should __________.

a) continue

b) decrease

c) stop

d) increase

 

15. All workers should be employed as __________ workers.

a) temporary

b) casual

c) permanent

d) contractual

Week 3

Topic: Communication.

Subtitle: Types of communication.

Instructional Materials:

Resources & Materials

Learning Objectives: A t the end of the lesson,pupils should be able to:

1 define communication.

2 mention at least two examples of traditional means of communication.

3 mention at least two examples of modern means of communication.

4 list at least five differences between traditional and modern ways of

communication.

5 mention at least five problems of communication in Nigeria.

6 explain at least two ways of solving those problems.

Content

MEANING OF COMMUNICATION

Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages or information.

Messages or information may be in the form of ideas, news and feelings, sent from

one person to another, and from one place to another.

For communication to take place, there must be a sender and a receiver of the

message. The different ways in which messages are sent and received are called

means or systems of communication.

Sender of information → Channel or means → Receiver of information

of communication.

. Traditional means of communication

Traditional means of communication are the means of communication used in

the olden days or in traditional societies. Our forefathers had traditional means of

communicating with each other before the introduction of modern systems.

The traditional means of communication include:

1 The gong: Using the sound of the gong to draw people’s attention, in order

to give them some important information. The Igbo are an example of those

who use the gong.

2 The talking drum: The use of the talking drum is common among the Yoruba.

The talking drum is beaten by a professional drummer. The sounds produced

from this drum form different words, giving information.

3 Town crier: The town criers are messengers sent to deliver messages to people

inside and outside the community. A town crier also usually beats the gong to

attract attention before delivering his message.

4 By using sounds and signs: People can communicate with others this way.

A person may shout in a particular way to inform others that he is in danger, or

needs help. A person may also sigh to show that he or she is worried or fed up

with something.

People carry certain marks on their faces to show what tribe they belong to,

or what title they hold in the community. Certain leaves may be put in front of

a person’s compound, or on the gate of his house, to indicate that nobody

should enter the place.

5 Other traditional means of communication include smoke signals and the

sound from horns, bells and flute.

Modern means of communication

Modern means of communication are more complex and sophisticated than the

traditional means. They include:

1 Printed information: These are ideas, words, and feelings printed or written

down in books, magazines, newspapers, leaflets, bulletins, billboards, letters

and handbills. A lot of people get information by reading printed matters like

books, newspapers and magazines.

A town crier delivering a message

2 Telephone (Telecommunication): Most towns and villages in Nigeria have

telephone services. With the introduction of the global system of mobile telecommunication

(GSM), Nigerians can send and receive information and new

ideas over long distances by their cell phones. The cell phones give greater

range of options such as voice call, text messages, and access to the internet.

Some of the GSM providers in Nigeria are Globacom, Airtel, Etisalat and MTN.

3 Radio: Information such as news and other important messages can be sent

and received through the radio.

4 Fax, email and the Internet: These are the most modern means of sending

and receiving information. The telephone and fax machines are both used in

sending letters and messages from one place to another. The computer, cell

phone and ipad are used in the case of e-mail and the Internet.

In the case of the Internet, millions of computer users around the world can

send information and messages and receive such information at the same

time. Messages are also sent through the facebook and twitter on personal

(mobile) phones today.

The internet is fast, cheap and easy to use. The internet is also used to call.

The skype, facebook and other social media are developed for this purpose.

5 Television: This is also used to send news, advertisements and other messages

to many people at the same time.

6 Satellite systems: People can watch or listen to live events such as football

matches, local and international news, beauty competitions and religious

programmes via the satellite system. The satellite uses a dish or antenna and

a decoder to transmit information to the television and radio set.

Differences between traditional and modern means

of communication

The following are some of the differences between traditional and modern means

of communication.

1 The traditional systems use more of natural and local materials for

communication, (e.g., gongs and drums) while the modern systems use complex

and sophisticated systems such as machines.

2 The traditional systems are simple and easy to use, while the modern systems

are more difficult to use.

3 The traditional systems are very slow in sending messages, while the modern

systems send messages faster.

4 The traditional systems cost little or nothing, while the modern systems cost a

lot of money.

5 The traditional systems can reach only a few people at the same time with the

same message but the modern systems can reach millions of people at the

same time with the same message.

6 The traditional systems cannot preserve the messages and reproduce them if

necessary, but the modern systems can preserve the messages and

reproduce them or present them all over again after a period of time.

7 The traditional systems cannot carry messages to far distances, but the

modern systems can carry messages to far distances.

Problems of communication

1 Modern communication systems are expensive to get. Maintaining the

communication equipment is also expensive.

2 Sometimes our telephone systems offer poor services. This is because the

telephone networks are sometimes bad.

3 Some of our communication systems transmit negative practices and alien

cultures which tend to influence our people especially youths negatively.

4 Some of our communication systems, like the computer and the fax machine,

the internet and cell phones such as the androids are very complicated and

sophisticated and cannot be used by everybody.

5 Sometimes people cannot use some modern communication equipment

because of poor electricity supply.

6 Some people defraud others through the Internet.

SOLUTIONS

1 Government should make laws against poor services rendered by telecommunication

service providers.

2 Government should set up a body or an effective organisation to monitor and

control the quality, nature and content of programmes and films transmitted

by television and satellite operators. This is to prevent the transmission of

negative practices and other social vices.

3 Government should encourage the production of locally made telecommunication

gadgets, in order to make communication more affordable,

and easier to use.

4 Telecommunication service providers should make their services very effective

and regular.

Strategies& Activities:

Step :Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2:Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step 3:Teacher explains the new topic.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 define communication.

2 mention at least two examples of traditional means of communication.

3 mention at least two examples of modern means of communication.

4 list at least five differences between traditional and modern ways of

communication.

5 mention at least five problems of communication in Nigeria.

6 explain at least two ways of solving those problems.

Exercise

A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 The process of sending and receiving messages or information is known as

_____________.

A transportation B communication C text messaging

2 For communication to take place there must be __________________________.

A a sender and a communicator B a receiver and a channel

C a sender and a receiver

3 The person that starts the communication is called ___________________.

A a sender B a receiver C a channel

4 The means of communication is also known as ________________.

A sender B receiver C channel

5 The use of talking drum is a _____________ means of communication.

A modern B traditional C faster

6 The systems of communication used by our forefathers is ____________ means.

A modern B traditional C electronic

7 Messengers that are sent to deliver information to people inside and outside

the community are called ____________________.

A town criers B clerks C information officers

[mediator_tech]

1. Communication is the process of sending and receiving __________ or information.
a) signals
b) messages
c) gifts
d) money

2. Traditional means of communication are the means used in __________.
a) modern societies
b) rural areas
c) developed countries
d) olden days or traditional societies

3. The gong is used to draw people’s attention and give them __________.
a) instructions
b) gifts
c) information
d) warnings

4. The talking drum is commonly used among the __________.
a) Hausa
b) Igbo
c) Yoruba
d) Fulani

5. Town criers deliver messages by beating the gong to __________.
a) attract attention
b) create music
c) entertain people
d) scare away animals

6. People can communicate through __________ and signs.
a) writing
b) sounds
c) body language
d) telepathy

7. Printed information can be found in __________.
a) books, magazines, and newspapers
b) paintings and sculptures
c) movies and music videos
d) video games and apps

8. The telephone is a modern means of communication that allows people to __________.
a) send emails
b) watch television
c) make voice calls
d) read books

9. Radio is used to transmit __________.
a) text messages
b) emails
c) news and messages
d) video calls

10. Fax, email, and the internet are modern means of communication that involve __________.
a) sending physical letters
b) making phone calls
c) using paper and ink
d) sending messages electronically

11. Television is used to send __________.
a) books and novels
b) news and advertisements
c) paintings and drawings
d) scientific experiments

12. Satellite systems allow people to watch live events and programs via __________.
a) radio waves
b) telephone lines
c) satellite signals
d) fiber optic cables

13. Traditional means of communication use __________ materials, while modern means use sophisticated systems.
a) natural and local
b) imported and expensive
c) synthetic and artificial
d) digital and electronic

14. Traditional means of communication are slower in sending messages compared to __________ means.
a) outdated
b) ancient
c) modern
d) digital

15. Modern means of communication can reach __________ of people at the same time, while traditional means reach only a few.
a) millions
b) hundreds
c) thousands
d) dozens

[mediator_tech]

WEEK 5

Topic :Accident

Subtitle : Types of Accident

Instructional Materials:

Resources & Materials

 

Learning Objectives: A t the end of the lesson,pupils should be able to:

1 define accident.

2 mention different types of accident and their causes.

3 mention different types of first aid treatment to be given to various accident

victims.

4 explain the meaning of burns, scalds and bruises.

5 mention at least three ways of preventing burns, scalds, bruises and bites.

6 mention at least five reasons for using road signs.

Content

MEANING OF ACCIDENT

An accident is a sudden or unplanned situation in which people are injured and

property is damaged. There are many types of accidents with different causes.

Types of transport accidents and their causes Types of transport accidents and their causes

1 Road transport accidents: These happen on the road, especially when

drivers, motorcyclists or pedestrians are careless. Road accidents may also

occur because the roads are bad. Sometimes accidents occur when road

users are drunk and cannot think clearly. Neglect of road signs also causes

road accidents.

2 Air crash: An aeroplane may drop from the air suddenly, thereby destroying

lives and property. This is called an air crash. It can happen if the aeroplane is

faulty or if the pilot is careless. A very bad weather or military attack may also

cause air accidents or crashes.

3 Marine accidents: These happen when a canoe, a boat or a ship travelling

on water capsizes or sinks. Marine accidents can occur for the following

reasons:

a) If a canoe or boat carries too many passengers.

b) If a ship develops a fault, and it is not repaired early.

c) If the sailors on a ship are careless.

4 Rail accidents: An accident occurs if a train derails, that is, it is off the rail

track. This may be caused by faulty engine. Sometimes trains collide (hit each

other) due to over speeding or carelessness.

Other forms of accidents and their causes

There are other forms of accidents apart from transport ones. The accidents at

home are called domestic accidents while other accidents may occur in school,

at work or in other places. Such accidents are listed below, with their causes.

1 Burns

If someone is hurt by fire, we say he/she has suffered burns. Burns can be

caused through the following: fire for cooking, a bush fire, a hot iron, a

burning house, a burning car, a kerosene lamp or stove.

Ignorance and carelessness are the main causes of accidents through

such fire.

2 Scalds

Scalds are injuries or wounds sustained by heat from boiling water, hot oil, or

any hot liquid or steam. The skin may peel or become black when one is

scalded.

3 Bruises

Bruises can occur if one suffers a fall or a blow on any part of the body, or

when the surface of the body rubs against a hard or rough object. For

instance, children often suffer bruises on their knees or hands when they fall.

4 Bites

Bites are cuts on the body which can be caused by animals, such as dogs,

snakes or insects such as mosquitoes.

It is important to give immediate help to anyone who has had burns, bruises

or bites or who has suffered scalding before taking him or her to the hospital for

treatment.

First aid for accident victims

The first aid for burns, scalds, bruises and bites is as follows:

Burns and scalds

1 Hold the victim by the unhurt parts of his body.

2 Use a clean cloth to cover the affected part.

3 Then take the victim to the hospital to see a doctor for further treatment

 

Bruises

1 Make the victim sit or lie down in a comfortable position.

2 Soak a clean piece of cloth in cold water and place it on the affected part of

his body; or if possible, put some ice cubes in a towel and place the towel on

the affected part to reduce pain and swelling.

3 Then take the person to the hospital for further treatment.

Bites

1 Use a piece of cloth or bandage or any other material immediately available,

to tie the affected part of the body, just above the affected area. This is to

prevent the poison from the bite from flowing to the heart. This kind of

treatment is very good for snake bite.

2 Wash off the poison around the wound with soap and water.

3 Then take the person to see a doctor.

Prevention of such accident

Each accident can be prevented if we do the following:

Transport

1 Only mature, qualified people should drive vehicles (i.e., motors, boats, trains

and planes).

2 Vehicles should be in good order before driving them.

3 Drivers should obey transport rules.

4 The government should repair our roads and rail tracks.

Burns

1 Avoid filling your lanterns and stoves with kerosene when they are already

burning.

2 Avoid putting fuel in your car tank when the car engine is still working.

3 Avoid playing with candlelight or fire.

Scalds

1 Be careful with hot water, hot oil and other hot liquids or steam.

2 Do not go near them if you have nothing to do with them.

Bruises

1 Avoid sharp objects like sticks which may hurt you.

2 Avoid playing in places where there are broken bottles, nails or stones.

3 Wear your sandals or shoes always.

4 You must be careful when moving around or playing, in order not to fall down

or brush your skin against a rough surface.

Bites

1 Avoid playing with dogs.

2 Avoid staying in dark places and corners.

3 Keep your home and surroundings tidy to ward off snakes and scorpions.

A sign shows or tells us something. Road signs show road users the kinds of roads on

which they are travelling, what is happening on the road, what should happen on

the road, and how road users should behave on the road.

Strategies& Activities:

Step :Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2:Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step 3:Teacher explains the new topic.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 define accident.

2 mention different types of accident and their causes.

3 mention different types of first aid treatment to be given to various accident

victims.

4 explain the meaning of burns, scalds and bruises.

5 mention at least three ways of preventing burns, scalds, bruises and bites

Exercise

A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 A situation in which people are injured and property damaged without

anyone planning it is called ________.

A accident B incident C situation

2 A type of accident that occurs when drivers and motorcyclists or pedestrians

are careless is ____________________.

A air crash B road accident C rail accident

3 Accident that occurs at home are called _____________.

A rail accident B domestic accidents C air crash

4 If a train derails and goes off the train track, it is called ____________________.

A road accident B rail accident C accident

5 When someone is hurt by fire, he will suffer ____________.

A burns B scald C heat

6 Injuries sustained by heat from boiling water or hot oil is called _____________.

A burns B scald C heat

7 If someone rubs his body against a hard or rough object, he will have _______.

A burns B bruises C bites

8 Cuts on the body caused by animals such as dogs, snakes or mosquitoes are

_______________.

A bites B bruises C heat

9 The help given to anyone who has burns, bruises or scald before being taken

to the hospital is ____________.

A second aid B first aid C medical treatment

10 After first aid, a victim who suffers burn, scald or bruises should be taken to the

_______________ for further treatment

A home B hospital C school

11 Snake bite on the body will cause poison to the body.

A Yes B No C Sometimes

12 Snake bites can lead to death of the person if the victim does not get quick

medical attention.

A Yes B No C Never

13 Filling your lantern or stove with kerosene when it is already burning is

dangerous and may lead to _______.

A burns B scalds C bruise

[mediator_tech]

1. An accident is a sudden or unplanned situation in which people are injured and property is __________.
a) bought
b) damaged
c) repaired
d) sold

2. Road transport accidents can occur due to the carelessness of __________.
a) drivers, motorcyclists, or pedestrians
b) road signs and signals
c) road conditions and weather
d) traffic police and authorities

3. An air crash can happen if the __________ is faulty or if the pilot is careless.
a) weather
b) passengers
c) airport
d) aeroplane

4. Marine accidents can occur when a canoe, boat, or ship __________ or sinks.
a) travels too fast
b) runs out of fuel
c) capsizes
d) changes direction

5. Rail accidents can happen if a train __________ or if trains collide.
a) accelerates
b) slows down
c) derails
d) changes tracks

6. Burns can be caused by __________.
a) playing with fire
b) extreme cold weather
c) falling from a height
d) loud noises

7. Scalds are injuries caused by heat from __________.
a) boiling water or hot liquid
b) sharp objects or tools
c) electrical wires or outlets
d) poisonous substances or chemicals

8. Bruises can occur due to a fall or a blow on the body or when the body rubs against __________.
a) smooth surfaces
b) soft materials
c) sharp objects
d) rough surfaces

9. Bites can be caused by __________.
a) domestic accidents
b) insects and animals
c) exposure to extreme heat
d) water-related incidents

10. The first aid for burns and scalds involves using a clean cloth to cover the affected part and __________.
a) taking the victim to the hospital
b) applying ice cubes to the area
c) applying ointment and bandages
d) keeping the person hydrated

11. For bruises, a clean piece of cloth soaked in cold water or ice cubes wrapped in a towel can be applied to __________.
a) reduce pain and swelling
b) prevent infection
c) stop bleeding
d) immobilize the affected area

12. In the case of bites, tying the affected area with a cloth or bandage and washing off the poison with soap and water are part of the __________.
a) first aid treatment
b) preventive measures
c) rehabilitation process
d) medical diagnosis

13. To prevent transport accidents, drivers should obey __________.
a) traffic rules
b) road signs and signals
c) vehicle speed limits
d) weather forecasts

14. Preventing burns can be achieved by avoiding __________.
a) flammable substances
b) sharp objects and tools
c) contact with extreme cold
d) open flames and hot surfaces

15. To prevent bites, it is important to keep __________ and surroundings tidy to ward off animals such as snakes and scorpions.
a) schools
b) homes
c) workplaces
d) public places

WEEK 5

Topic :Meaning of drugs

Subtitle : Effect of drug abuse

Instructional Materials:

Resources & Materials

 

Learning Objectives: A t the end of the lesson,pupils should be able to:

1 define drug abuse.

2 list the commonly abused drugs.

3 identify the commonly abused drugs by their street names.

4 mention some characteristics of drug abusers.

Content

Meaning of drug abuse

Drugs are define as substances that are taken into the body to

cure illnesses.

Drugs are also chemical substances used in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment

and cure of diseases.

Reasons for taking drugs

We take drugs for the following reasons:

1 To prevent diseases.

2 To diagnose diseases.

3 To cure diseases.

4 To enhance physical or mental well-being.

Apart from these reasons, some people use drugs for reasons that are not normal.

This is an aspect of drug abuse. For this reason, any of the following could be called

drug abuse:

– Taking drugs without doctor’s advice.

– Taking drugs when you are not ill.

– Taking more or less than what the doctor prescribes.

– Habitual taking of illegal drugs.

Ways of getting in contact with drugs

These drugs are classified into:

1 Common drugs – These are easily available at the medicine stores and can

be taken without doctor’s prescription. Examples include paracetamol and

pain-relieving balms.

2 Legal drugs – These are drugs that are not easily available but can be taken

with doctor’s prescription. An example is valium 5.

3 Illegal drugs – These are drugs that are not legally allowed to be taken. They

are called hard drugs. Examples include heroine, cocaine and Indian hemp.

There are two main ways of getting in contact with drugs. These ways are:

1 Proper ways

2 Improper ways

1 Proper ways

If we are given:

– by a doctor in the hospital,

– by a nurse,

– by a pharmacist,

– by our parents and

– by our teachers.

All these are proper ways of getting in contact with drugs.

The doctor, the nurse and the pharmacist are professional medical practitioners.

They know much about drugs and drug regulations. Our parents and our teachers

too can give us drugs in a proper way.

2 Improper ways

Some people when they are ill, do not go to the hospital. They collect drugs

from:

– their friends,

– their brother or sister,

– a visitor to their house, or

– a drug peddler or hawker (on the street)

All these ways are improper.

Some may even buy drugs just because it was advertised on the media. This

way is also improper. If we take drugs through all these means, it is called drug

abuse. Taking drugs on our own without doctor’s prescription is also known as self

medication.

Going by the definition of drug abuse, any drug can be abused. Both the common

and legal drugs can be abused if proper dosages and usage are not followed.

Commonly abused drugs and their street names

1 Pain relievers: Pain relievers are drugs that are taken by someone who suffers

from pain with the hope of getting relief from such pain. Examples include

Paracetamol, Panadol and Novalgin. People take these drugs at any time

without prescription. Some people even take an overdose. If we take drugs

without prescription or take more than what is prescribed, it is a form of drug

abuse. The street name for pain relievers is Karaole.

2 Stimulants: These are drugs or substances that make someone feel more

awake and thought to give more energy to work. Examples include kolanut,

cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, heroine and alcohol. Some people take these

drugs to enhance their performance. For example, the footballers, musicians

and artisans do take stimulants to enhance their performance at work. Some

people who read overnight also take stimulants to keep themselves awake.

There are different street names given to different stimulants. Some of the

common street names are:

General name Street name

a) cocaine coke

b) heroine coke

c) alcohol ogogoro, kaikai, burukutu

d) marijuana sepe, igbo, wewe, ganja, weed, Indian hemp.

e) kola nut obi, gworo

Alcohol

Cigarette

Kolanut

3 Depressants: These are drugs or substances that reduce the level of activities

in someone. Some people may take such drugs to enable them sleep well. An

example of such drugs is Valium 5.

When drugs are wrongly taken by a person, they are said to have been abused,

and can become harmful. Drugs must only be taken under proper guidance and

advice. Otherwise, they can be abused.

Reasons why people abuse drugs

Some of the several factors than can make someone to engage in drug abuse

are discussed below.

1 Ignorance or illiteracy on the part of the users can affect their attitudes

towards drugs. When people are not educated, they may do things wrongly.

2 Curiosity – Curiosity is the desire to want to learn or know about something.

Most young people are naturally curious and would like to experiment with

different experiences.

3 Environment factor – Some people live in communities where there are no

basic amenities and where there is high level of unemployment. In such

communities, drug supply and use are always very common. This makes them

to have easy access to hard drugs.

4 People think drugs will help relieve stress

5 Peer influence –

Effects of drug abuse

Abusing drugs has the following social, economic and health effects:

1 Loss of control: Drug abusers always lose control and balance. They walk,

talk, sleep and eat carelessly.

2 Inability to cope with school activities: If a school child abuses drugs, he

would not be able to concentrate in class. This may lead to repetition or

dropping out of school. He may also be involved in various school offences

which may lead to his being sent out of school.

3 Health problems: Stimulants affect the nervous system of human beings, and

can cause some health problems. Some of the problems are inability to sleep,

or to rest, loss of appetite, convulsion, withdrawal syndrome, and mental

disorder.

4 Financial problem: People who abuse drugs may incur unnecessary debt in

order to keep up with the drug habit. In the long run, they may get involved in

such crimes as stealing and armed robbery.

5 Addiction: People who formed the habit of using drugs before they can sleep

or do some other things will always depend on such drugs. They would not be

able to do things normally without using drugs. They become drug addicts.

6 Death: Drug abuse can lead to death. There is a popular warning that

smokers will die young. Drugs like depressants can make someone dull in

reasoning. If such people drive, they may have accidents, which may lead to

death.

Strategies& Activities:

Step :Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2:Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step 3 :Teacher explains the new topic.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 define drug abuse.

2 list the commonly abused drugs.

3 identify the commonly abused drugs by their street names.

4 mention some characteristics of drug abusers.

Exercise

A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 We must abstain from drug abuse because of _____________ substances

contained in most of the drugs.

A harmful B sweet C bitter

2 One strategy of preventing drug abuse is engaging in behaviours that our

mental well-being ______________.

A promote B disturb C flatter

3 A good or satisfactory condition of life that is full of health, happiness and

prosperity is called ____________.

A physical well-being B spiritual well-being

C social well-being

4 When an individual realizes his own abilities and can contribute to his

community, it is called ______________.

A mental well-being B spiritual well-being C social well-being

5 When an individual is able to get along with other people in the society it is

called ______________.

A mental well-being B social well-being C physical well-being

[mediator_tech]

1. Drugs are defined as substances used in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure of __________.
a) addictions
b) illnesses
c) injuries
d) mental disorders

2. People take drugs to prevent, diagnose, cure diseases, and enhance __________ well-being.
a) emotional
b) physical
c) social
d) spiritual

3. Drug abuse includes taking drugs without __________ advice or when not ill.
a) doctor’s
b) pharmacist’s
c) friend’s
d) parent’s

4. Common drugs can be obtained at medicine stores without __________ prescription.
a) doctor’s
b) nurse’s
c) friend’s
d) parent’s

5. Illegal drugs, also known as hard drugs, include __________, cocaine, and Indian hemp.
a) paracetamol
b) valium 5
c) heroine
d) pain relievers

6. Proper ways of getting in contact with drugs include receiving them from __________.
a) friends and siblings
b) doctors and nurses
c) drug peddlers or hawkers
d) advertisements on the media

7. Pain relievers, such as paracetamol, can be abused if taken without prescription or in __________.
a) excessive amounts
b) combination with other drugs
c) liquid form
d) tablet form

8. Stimulants, such as caffeine and alcohol, can be taken to enhance __________.
a) sleep
b) appetite
c) performance
d) relaxation

9. Depressants, like Valium 5, reduce the level of activities in someone and may be taken to __________.
a) improve memory
b) enhance concentration
c) relieve stress
d) increase energy levels

10. Ignorance and __________ can affect people’s attitudes towards drugs.
a) curiosity
b) environment
c) peer influence
d) illiteracy

11. Drug abuse can lead to a loss of control and an inability to cope with __________ activities.
a) work-related
b) social
c) school
d) family

12. Abusing drugs can cause health problems such as __________, loss of appetite, and mental disorders.
a) convulsions
b) allergies
c) muscle pain
d) dental problems

13. People who abuse drugs may face financial problems and may resort to __________ and armed robbery.
a) begging
b) borrowing
c) stealing
d) gambling

14. Addiction is a common consequence of drug abuse, where individuals become __________ on drugs.
a) dependent
b) resistant
c) immune
d) tolerant

15. Drug abuse can have severe consequences, including __________, financial problems, and death.
a) loss of control
b) addiction
c) social isolation
d) impaired judgment

Week 8

Topic: Characteristics of drug abusers, their treatment and

Rehabilitation.

Instructional Materials:

Resources & Materials

 

Lesson objective: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

1.State the characteristics of drug abusers, their treatment and Rehabilitation.

2. list commonly abused drugs and identify them by

their street names

3. list some characteristics of abusers of alcohol,

tobacco and cannabis

Content

Characteristics of drug abusers, their treatment and

Rehabilitation.

1 Alcohol –

a) Aggressiveness – An aggressive person is someone who is easily provoked.

He gets angry easily and does not listen to people’s explanation. He sticks

to his own argument and he is ready to fight if his point is not taken.

b) Slow speech – A drunk person will not be fluent in speech. He would turn to

an artificial stammered.

c) Hallucination – This is when someone talks to himself with an imagination

that something is real without it being so. If you see somebody who talks to

himself on the street or road, it may be as a result of over-indulgence in

alcohol.

d) Loss of balance – People who abuse alcohol will always stagger on the

road. Their hands and body will be shaking. They will not be able to

maintain their balance.

e) Disobedience – People who abuse alcohol will always be disobedient. A

disobedient person is someone who does not listen to instruction. He will

always be rude to people including those who are older than him.

2 Tobacco –

An example of tobacco is cigarette.

People who abuse tobacco can be identified with the following:

a) Bad smell – They smell badly of tobacco, to the discomfort of those who

stay near them. People always run away from them due to such smell.

b) Discoloration of lips – The lips of abusers of tobacco are usually dark.

c) Burnt/dark finger – Tobacco smokers oftentimes get their fingers burnt.

d) Incessant coughing – The lungs of abusers of tobacco are usually dirty due

to constant inhaling of smoke. This usually leads to blockage in their air

pipes and then incessant coughing.

e) Lack of appetite – This is lack of feeling for hunger. The person will not like

to eat even when he is hungry.

3 Cannabis – This is commonly known as marijuana. The street names are

‘igbo’, stone, weed, ‘ganja’, and Indian hemp.

People who abuse cannabis can be recognised through the following

behaviours:

a) Undue excitement – They feel unnecessarily happy even where they are

supposed to show signs of sadness.

b) False source of confidence – They feel ‘high’ and above everyone. They

talk with pride. They usually demonstrate high level of arrogance.

c) Bad odour – Just like tobacco abusers, cannabis abusers also smell badly.

d) Dirty teeth – Their teeth are always dirty and sometimes black.

4 Cocaine

a) People who take cocaine usually find it difficult to sleep even though they

feel sleepy.

b) They also find it difficult to eat and stay calm.

c) They may also have tremors and convulsion. Tremors are unintended

movement or shaking of one or more parts of the body while convulsion is

when a person’s body shakes rapidly or uncontrollably.

Strategies& Activities:

Step :Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2:Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3:Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

State the characteristics of drug abusers, their treatment and Rehabilitation.

2. list commonly abused drugs and identify them by

their street names

3. list some characteristics of abusers of alcohol,

tobacco and cannabis

Exercise

A Choose from the best answers for the following questions.

1 Apart from curing sickness, drugs are also taken to ________________________.

A prevent sickness B bring sickness into the body

C contact sickness from others

2 Taking too much of a drug than is required is called __________________.

A drug insult B drug abuse C drug trafficking

3 Drugs which we take from a doctor’s prescription is _________________ way of

taking drug.

A proper B improper C immoral

4 When we take drugs carelessly it is called ______________ way of taking drugs.

A improper B proper C immodest

5 Examples of professional medical practitioners are nurses, doctors and ______.

A carpenters B pharmacists C accountants

6 Improper ways of collecting and using drugs are those from friends, visitors

and ____________.

A doctors B nurses C drug hawkers

7 Paracetamol and Panadol are examples of __________.

A pain relievers B stimulants C pain inducers

8 The street name for pain reliever drugs is ____________.

A kaikai B karaole C ganja

9 Examples of stimulant drugs are kolanut, cocaine and _________________.

A paracetamol B caffeine C tom tom

10 Drugs that give more energy and make people more awake are called

________________.

A stimulants B pain relievers C antibiotics

[mediator_tech]

1. Alcohol abuse can make a person easily provoked and ____________. (a) aggressive (b) talkative (c) happy (d) sleepy

2. One of the characteristics of a drunk person is ____________ speech. (a) slow (b) fast (c) fluent (d) loud

3. Hallucination is a behavior observed in individuals who ____________. (a) abuse alcohol (b) smoke tobacco (c) use cannabis (d) take cocaine

4. People who abuse alcohol often have difficulty maintaining ____________. (a) balance (b) appetite (c) sleep (d) confidence

5. Tobacco abusers may have ____________ lips. (a) discolored (b) dry (c) cracked (d) swollen

6. Incessant coughing is a common symptom among individuals who ____________. (a) abuse tobacco (b) abuse alcohol (c) use cannabis (d) take cocaine

7. Cannabis abusers may exhibit an ____________ sense of happiness. (a) undue (b) calm (c) sad (d) angry

8. People who abuse cannabis often have ____________ teeth. (a) dirty (b) white (c) strong (d) straight

9. Cocaine users may find it difficult to ____________ even when they feel sleepy. (a) sleep (b) eat (c) talk (d) walk

10. Tremors and convulsions are common among individuals who ____________. (a) abuse alcohol (b) smoke tobacco (c) use cannabis (d) take cocaine

11. Aggressiveness is a characteristic often associated with ____________ abuse. (a) alcohol (b) tobacco (c) cannabis (d) cocaine

12. Tobacco abusers may experience a lack of ____________. (a) appetite (b) sleep (c) energy (d) happiness

13. Cannabis abusers may exhibit a false sense of ____________. (a) confidence (b) sadness (c) fear (d) anger

14. One of the physical effects of cocaine abuse is ____________. (a) difficulty eating (b) increased appetite (c) calmness (d) clean teeth

15. Convulsions are rapid and uncontrollable ____________ movements. (a) body (b) hand (c) leg (d) head

[mediator_tech]

WEEK 9

Topic: Prevention of drug abuse

Subtitle:

Instructional Materials:

Resources & Materials

 

Lesson objective: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

1 list behaviours that promote physical, mental and social well-being in people.

2 mention some life skills that are needed for maintaining positive healthy

behaviours.

CONTENT

Prevention of drug abuse

Drug abuse as the act of handling or using drugs wrongly

There are many ways of preventing drug abuse. One of the ways is by engaging

in behaviours that promote our physical, mental and social well-being.

A state of physical well-being is a good or satisfactory condition of life that is full

of good health, happiness and prosperity. It also means that someone is healthy,

physically strong and free from feeling weak. Mental well-being on the other hand

is a state in which an individual realises that his or her own abilities can cope with

normal stresses of life, can work productively and are able to contribute to the

development of his or her community.

Mental well-being involves being happy, being content with what you have,

having self-esteem, self-confidence and having good relationship with people

around you.

Social well-being is the ability to easily get along with other people. This involves

how a person communicates, interacts and socialises with other people.

Behaviours that promote physical, mental and social well-being

1 Stress reduction – One of the reasons why people engage in drug abuse is

stress. Some drug abusers believe that when they are under tension, they can

use drugs to ‘cool down’. For example, to those who smoke, smoking is the

best way to cool down tension. However, this is not true because smoking will

add more to their problem.

The importance of exercise to the body are:

a) It combats unhealthy conditions, and diseases.

b) It improves people’s mood and makes them feel better.

c) It boosts one’s energy.

d) It promotes better sleep.

e) It can be fun and a way of engaging in activities that can make someone

feel happy.

2 Positive and good relationship with peers

3 Eat a balanced diet . A balanced diet is a diet that contains all the classes of

food in appropriate proportions. Balanced diet makes us healthy. It also helps

our body to prevent any diseases that may attack us. The food we eat can be

divided into three groups.

– Energy-giving food

– Body-building food

– Body-protecting food

If we eat enough energy-giving food, we may not need any drug to give

us energy. If we also eat enough body-building and body-protecting foods,

we may not need any drugs for building our body. In the long run, we would

be free from drug abuse.

4 Accept discipline from your parents and teachers

5 Young people should live honest lives, work hard and be content with what

they have

.6 Young people should join religious organisations, where they would be taught

how to pray and behave well.

7 Those who have the time can learn new skills.

Life coping skills that are needed for positive, healthy

behaviours

The following are some of the skills and how to maintain them:

1 Choosing good friends: People say show me your friends and I will tell you the

kind of person you are. The kinds of friends we keep determine the type of

behavior we exhibit. It is good to avoid bad friends. Bad friends will influence

us into doing what is bad including indulging in hard drugs. For us to keep

good friends, we also need to be honest and faithful in our dealings. This will

make people to trust and rely on us.

2 Establish acceptable measures of discipline: Parents and guardians should

make the acceptable forms of behaviors in the community known to their

children. They should also tell them the punishment for various offences and

how to avoid them.

3 Contentment: This is a state of being satisfied with whatever one has. Children

should be content with whatever they have for them not be lured into drug

abuse.

4 Be courageous: Parents should teach their children how to show courage in

defending their beliefs. They should be taught how to resist peer pressure.

5 Learn how to work hard: With hard work, it is very easy for a person to succeed.

It is good to work hard. It is not good to look for crooked means to success.

6 Self-reliance: This is the ability to work alone, without anybody’s help, and

achieve results. Being self-reliant improves self-confidence and the ability to

take decisions of your own. With this, we can easily say NO! to drug abuse or

peer pressure

Strategies& Activities:

Step :Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2:Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3:Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 list behaviours that promote physical, mental and social well-being in people.

2 mention some life skills that are needed for maintaining positive healthy

behaviours.

Exercise

A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 We must abstain from drug abuse because of _____________ substances

contained in most of the drugs.

A harmful B sweet C bitter

2 One strategy of preventing drug abuse is engaging in behaviours that our

mental well-being ______________.

A promote B disturb C flatter

3 A good or satisfactory condition of life that is full of health, happiness and

prosperity is called ____________.

A physical well-being B spiritual well-being

C social well-being

4 When an individual realises his own abilities and can contribute to his

community, it is called ______________.

A mental well-being B spiritual well-being C social well-being

5 When an individual is able to get along with other people in the society it is

called ______________.

A mental well-being B social well-being C physical well-being

6 Engaging in body exercise reduces ______________.

A hunger B stress C play

7 We should listen to our parents’ advice because they ______________ more

than we do.

Characteristics of drug abusers:

1. Alcohol: Aggressiveness, slow speech, hallucination, loss of balance, disobedience.
2. Tobacco: Bad smell, discoloration of lips, burnt/dark finger, incessant coughing, lack of appetite.
3. Cannabis: Undue excitement, false source of confidence, bad odor, dirty teeth.
4. Cocaine: Difficulty sleeping, difficulty eating, difficulty staying calm, tremors, convulsion.

Treatment and Rehabilitation:

1. Detoxification: The first step in treating drug abuse is often detoxification, which involves removing the drug from the body and managing withdrawal symptoms under medical supervision.

2. Counseling and Therapy: Individual and group counseling sessions can help individuals address the underlying causes of their drug abuse and develop healthier coping mechanisms. Behavioral therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can be effective in modifying negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with drug abuse.

3. Medications: In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage withdrawal symptoms, reduce cravings, or treat underlying mental health conditions that contribute to drug abuse.

4. Support Groups: Participating in support groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) or Narcotics Anonymous (NA), can provide individuals with a supportive network of peers who understand their experiences and provide encouragement during recovery.

5. Lifestyle Changes: Making positive lifestyle changes, such as adopting a healthy diet, engaging in regular exercise, and finding alternative ways to manage stress, can support long-term recovery and help individuals maintain sobriety.

6. Rehabilitation Programs: Inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation programs offer structured treatment and support services to individuals seeking recovery from drug abuse. These programs provide a safe and supportive environment for individuals to focus on their recovery journey.

7. Aftercare Support: Continued support and aftercare services are essential to help individuals maintain their sobriety and prevent relapse. This may include ongoing counseling, regular check-ins with healthcare professionals, and participation in support groups.

It is important to note that treatment and rehabilitation approaches may vary depending on the specific drug of abuse and individual needs. It is recommended to seek professional help and guidance for the most appropriate treatment plan.

Week 10

Topic : Pollution

Subtitle: Meaning and types of pollution

Instructional Materials:

Resources & Materials

 

Lesson objective: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

1 define pollution.

2 mention at least three types of pollution that are common in your locality.

3 mention at least one effect of each of the types.

4 write at least five ways of controlling pollution and its effects.

Content

Meaning of pollution

Pollution is anything that makes our water, land, air and environment dirty and

unsafe for human use.

For example, a heap of rubbish is a type of pollution. A dead animal lying on

the road causes pollution.

Polythene bags, orange peels and remnants of food items pollute the

surroundings.

Types of pollution common in our locality

1 Water pollution

Water pollution takes place when dirty materials are dumped into streams,

ponds, lakes, rivers and other bodies of water. Some people urinate and

excrete into streams. This makes water from the streams unfit for drinking. Wells

which are not covered can have various germs getting into them, thus making

them dangerous.

Some people spray chemicals into water while fishing. This pollutes the

water and kills the fish. Fish caught by this method are unfit for eating.

By-products or waste from factories sometimes flow into streams and rivers

and cause water pollution.

2 Air pollution

Air pollution takes place when coal, kerosene, petrol and engine oil burn.

When they are burning, they produce smoke. The smoke makes the air dirty

and dangerous. Smoke from factories also pollutes the air.

3 Noise

Noise (perhaps in the form of constant loud music or rowdiness) is a kind of

pollution. It disturbs the mind and prevents people from sleeping, resting or

reasoning properly.

Effects of pollution

Water pollution has the following effects:

1 It makes the water dirty and unfit for drinking.

2 It causes diseases like dysentery, typhoid fever and cholera.

Air pollution has the following effects:

1 It makes the air dirty and bad for breathing into the body.

2 It causes sneezing, blood poisoning, cough, lung diseases and cold.

Noise, as pollution, has the following effects:

1 Noise disturbs people’s minds and prevents them from reasoning properly and

thinking creatively.

2 Noise can also cause headaches and sleeplessness.

Control of pollution

1 Factories should dump their waste at the proper places.

2 Factories and industries should be built or located far away from where

people live.

3 Landlords should provide modern toilet facilities in their houses.

4 Everyone should ensure that the environment is clean always. We can do this

through regular sweeping, cleaning of gutters and cutting of grasses in our

area.

5 Those living in towns and cities should dump their refuse only at refuse dumps

approved by the local government.

6 The government should ensure that refuse at dump sites is removed regularly.

This will prevent the refuse from becoming so much as to cause pollution.

7 The government should discourage owners of smoky cars from plying the

roads.

8 People should live in quiet areas. Again people in the neighbourhood could

take action against anyone who is in the habit of producing noise in the

environment.

Strategies& Activities:

Step :Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2:Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3:Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 define pollution.

2 mention at least three types of pollution that are common in your locality.

3 mention at least one effect of each of the types.

4 write at least five ways of controlling pollution and its effects.

Exercise

A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 Anything that makes our environment dirty and unsafe for human use is known

as _____________.

A contamination B pollination C pollution

2 A heap of rubbish in our environment is _____________.

A a sign of healthy environment B a form of pollution

C a way of life

3 Pollution occurs _____________.

A on land only B in the air only C everywhere

4 The dumping of dirty materials into streams, ponds, lakes and other bodies of

water is called _____________.

A pond pollution B water pollution C stream pollution

ssssss5 We can pollute rivers by _____________.

A using chemicals to kill fish B fetching water with bucket

C putting dam into it

6 One way of causing air pollution is _____________.

A urinating into streams B closing all the windows in our rooms

C burning firewood

7 Smoke from factories can cause __________________ pollution.

A air B water C noise

8 Sound of generators in our compound can cause _____________ pollution.

A air B water C noise

9 The type of pollution caused by people who play loud music is _____________

pollution.

A air B water C noise

Week 11

Topic: Agricultural technology

 

Subtitle: Meaning of technology

– This is cultivation of land and rearing of animals

And birds. While technology is a science applied

To practical.

We have two ways of land cultivation. Traditional ways

And modern ways

– Traditional ways of land cultivation, fish farming

And keeping of animals and birds.

In this way of farming most people use very

Simple farming implements like matchet, hoes,

Also people fish in rivers with nets and hooks.

– Traditional people keep fowls and goats in their

Houses. The Fulani move about with their cattles.

Modern methods of land cultivation fish farming

And keeping of animals and birds.

– Machines like tractors, harvesters are used.

– Farmers now apply fertilizer. Birds and other

Animals are kept in population and feed with

Feeds

– Fishing is done with trawlers; fish ponds are also

Used.

[mediator_tech]

 

1. Anything that makes our environment dirty and unsafe for human use is known as _____________. (a) contamination (b) pollination (c) pollution (d) conservation

2. A heap of rubbish in our environment is a _____________. (a) sign of healthy environment (b) form of pollution (c) way of life (d) source of beauty

3. Pollution occurs _____________. (a) on land only (b) in the air only (c) everywhere (d) in water bodies only

4. The dumping of dirty materials into streams, ponds, lakes, and other bodies of water is called _____________. (a) pond pollution (b) water pollution (c) stream pollution (d) air pollution

5. We can pollute rivers by _____________. (a) using chemicals to kill fish (b) fetching water with a bucket (c) putting a dam into it (d) planting trees along the riverbank

6. One way of causing air pollution is _____________. (a) urinating into streams (b) closing all the windows in our rooms (c) burning firewood (d) planting trees

7. Smoke from factories can cause _____________ pollution. (a) air (b) water (c) noise (d) light

8. The sound of generators in our compound can cause _____________. (a) air pollution (b) water pollution (c) noise pollution (d) visual pollution

9. The type of pollution caused by people who play loud music is _____________ pollution. (a) air (b) water (c) noise (d) land

10. Technology in agriculture refers to the _____________. (a) use of computers (b) science applied to practical farming (c) study of plants and animals (d) breeding of hybrid crops

11. Traditional methods of farming use _____________ farming implements. (a) modern (b) advanced (c) simple (d) complex

12. Farmers now use machines like tractors and harvesters for _____________. (a) traditional farming (b) modern farming (c) organic farming (d) sustainable farming

13. Fertilizers are used in modern farming to _____________. (a) protect crops from pests (b) increase crop yield (c) reduce water pollution (d) promote organic farming

14. Fish ponds and trawlers are used in modern farming for _____________. (a) traditional fishing (b) sustainable fishing (c) commercial fishing (d) recreational fishing

15. The Fulani people move about with their _____________. (a) crops (b) tractors (c) animals (d) fish

[mediator_tech]