Impact of Educational Philosophies on Curriculum Development

Explain the ways the following Philosophical thoughts influence curriculum development.

Each of these philosophical thoughts has a distinct influence on curriculum development:

1. Idealism: Idealism places a strong emphasis on values and the inherent goodness of children. In curriculum development, this philosophy would prioritize moral and ethical education. The curriculum would aim to nurture students’ inherent goodness and guide them toward a good and satisfying life based on values. Subjects like ethics, character education, and the study of classical literature and philosophy may be included. The organization of the curriculum would focus on character development and the exploration of universal truths.

2. Pragmatism: Pragmatism emphasizes experiential learning and adapting to the changing environment. In curriculum development, this philosophy would lead to a more flexible and dynamic approach. The curriculum would focus on real-world experiences, problem-solving, and critical thinking. It may prioritize subjects and activities that are relevant to the current societal context and encourage students to engage actively with their surroundings. Adaptability and lifelong learning would be key educational goals.

3. Realism: Realism views children as rational beings who need guidance to acquire knowledge. In curriculum development, realism would advocate for a structured and content-focused approach. The curriculum would prioritize core subjects such as mathematics, science, literature, and history. Direct teaching methods would be favored, emphasizing the transmission of essential knowledge and skills. The curriculum may reflect traditional values and aim to prepare students for the challenges of the real world.

4. Essentialism: Essentialism focuses on preparing students for the demands of society. In curriculum development, this philosophy would emphasize a structured and rigorous education. The curriculum would include a core set of subjects that are considered essential for all students, such as mathematics, language arts, and science. Standards and benchmarks would be set to ensure that students acquire the necessary knowledge and skills. Practical subjects and vocational education might also be included to prepare students for adulthood and the workforce.

These philosophical thoughts provide different lenses through which educators and curriculum developers can approach the design of educational programs. The choice of which philosophy to embrace can significantly impact what is taught, how it is taught, and the overarching goals of education within a particular institution or system.






1. Idealism in education focuses on nurturing children’s _____ goodness.
a) inherent
b) external
c) physical
d) acquired

2. Pragmatism emphasizes learning through _____ experiences.
a) theoretical
b) isolated
c) experiential
d) historical

3. Realism believes that students need _____ to acquire worthwhile knowledge.
a) independence
b) guidance
c) distractions
d) solitude

4. Essentialism suggests that education should prepare students for _____.
a) fantasy worlds
b) present societal demands
c) artistic careers
d) isolation from society

5. Idealism places importance on education’s role in guiding students toward a _____ life.
a) challenging
b) moral and satisfying
c) isolated
d) chaotic

6. Pragmatism encourages a curriculum that adapts to _____.
a) traditional values
b) changing environments
c) memorization
d) uniformity

7. Realism advocates for a curriculum that prioritizes _____ subjects.
a) creative
b) core
c) abstract
d) obscure

8. Essentialism believes that education should include a core set of _____ subjects.
a) elective
b) extracurricular
c) optional
d) essential

9. In idealism, the purpose of education is to nurture children’s _____.
a) inherent goodness
b) skepticism
c) indifference
d) complexity

10. Pragmatism values _____ learning and problem-solving.
a) theoretical
b) experiential
c) isolated
d) passive

11. Realism suggests that teachers should use _____ methods for effective teaching.
a) indirect
b) experiential
c) direct
d) theoretical

12. Essentialism aims to prepare students for _____.
a) a life of leisure
b) future societal needs
c) isolation
d) artistic careers

13. Idealism emphasizes the importance of living according to _____.
a) traditional values
b) societal trends
c) personal interests
d) individualism

14. Pragmatism promotes _____ as a valuable educational outcome.
a) memorization
b) adaptability
c) isolation
d) uniformity

15. Realism suggests that education should reflect _____ values inherited from history.
a) changing
b) permanent and enduring
c) unconventional
d) irrelevant



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