Discuss the positions taken by Existentialism on man and nature.
Existentialism ordinarily implies a theory, which emphasizes that human beings are free and responsible for their actions in a world without meaning. In other words, the world has no order, no meaning and no purpose.
The only essence to him is his existence. Therefore, what the individual thinks or does should be decided by himself. This determination involves the individual himself in thinking e..g in reflecting, calculating, and all other activities in the individual’s endeavour.
It submits that an individual exists in concrete form. This being, has freedom to choose or not to. This freedom entails commitment and responsibility. Thus, if an individual makes a choice he is responsible for this choice, if he fails to make a choice, he will of necessity take the risk and responsibility following his inaction. The existentialists believe that reality is what the human being experiences and that through human beings; the fundamental truths of existence can be discovered.
Thus, the human being must make a deliberate and serious examination of his existence on earth. He should also recognize that life has its beauty, its joy and sorrow, happiness and sadness, success and failure, growth and decay etc and that man must make the best out of any situation
Discuss the differences between philosophy and science
Existentialism is a philosophical theory that places a unique emphasis on individual freedom, responsibility, and the absence of inherent meaning in a seemingly chaotic world. Let’s explore this concept further with some examples.
In simple terms, Existentialism suggests that we humans are not bound by any predetermined meaning or purpose in life. This philosophy asserts that the world lacks a fixed order or meaning, leaving each individual to grapple with their own existence. In this perspective, an individual’s essence is tied solely to their existence. This means that human beings are faced with the challenge of determining their own paths and choices.
For instance, consider a person who is deciding on a career path. According to Existentialism, this individual is not governed by any preordained destiny. They possess the freedom to choose any career that resonates with them, without being confined to societal expectations or norms. This freedom to choose is a hallmark of Existentialism, but it comes with a significant aspect: responsibility.
Existentialism emphasizes that with freedom comes responsibility. This is where the concept of commitment and responsibility comes into play. When an individual makes a choice, they must also accept the responsibility that comes with it. If they opt not to make a choice, they still bear the responsibility for the consequences of their inaction. Let’s take the example of relationships. An individual can choose to commit to a romantic relationship or remain unattached. In either case, they are accountable for their decisions and the outcomes that follow.
Existentialists assert that our reality is shaped by our personal experiences, and through these experiences, we can discover fundamental truths about existence. This philosophy encourages us to thoughtfully examine our lives, recognizing the complexities and nuances that come with being human. It reminds us that life is a mixture of joys and sorrows, successes and failures, and we have the agency to make the most out of every situation.
In conclusion, Existentialism challenges us to navigate life’s uncertainties by embracing our freedom and taking responsibility for our choices. It urges us to recognize that while life may lack inherent meaning, it offers opportunities to find significance through our actions and experiences. This philosophy encourages us to engage in introspection, make deliberate choices, and ultimately shape our existence in a world that we have the power to influence.
1. Existentialism emphasizes that human beings are __________ for their actions in a world devoid of meaning.
2. According to Existentialism, the world lacks __________, making each individual responsible for their own decisions.
A) meaning and order
B) chaos and confusion
C) logic and reason
3. Existentialism asserts that the essence of an individual lies solely in their __________.
C) material possessions
4. In the realm of Existentialism, the freedom to decide what to think or do is vested in __________.
A) societal norms
B) external influences
C) the individual
5. Existentialism involves various mental activities such as reflecting, calculating, and other endeavors that require __________.
A) group collaboration
B) individual thinking
C) philosophical analysis
6. The concept of commitment and responsibility accompanies the __________ that comes with human freedom.
7. If an individual makes a choice, Existentialism asserts that they bear the __________ for that choice.
8. The existentialist perspective emphasizes that reality is shaped by __________.
A) external forces
B) personal experiences
C) preconceived notions
9. Existentialists believe that through human experiences, __________ can be uncovered.
A) logical deductions
B) fundamental truths of existence
C) utopian ideals
10. According to Existentialism, an individual should conduct a deliberate and serious __________ of their existence on earth.
11. The Existentialist view prompts individuals to recognize the duality of life, encompassing __________.
A) only happiness
B) only sorrow
C) both joy and sorrow
12. Existentialism underscores the idea that man must derive the best possible outcomes from __________.
A) any situation
B) only fortunate situations
C) only predetermined situations
13. Existentialism contends that human beings have the freedom to __________ their actions.
14. If an individual fails to make a choice, Existentialism suggests that they assume the __________ following their inaction.
B) risk and responsibility
15. The Existentialist perspective urges individuals to make a __________ examination of their own existence on earth.
1. How does Existentialism emphasize the concept of human freedom and responsibility in a world devoid of inherent meaning? Explain the implications of this perspective on individual decision-making and actions.
2. Analyze the core assertion of Existentialism that the world lacks order, meaning, and purpose. Discuss how this philosophical stance influences an individual’s perception of their existence and the choices they make.
3. Explain the role of individual determination in the Existentialist philosophy. How does this determination involve activities such as reflecting, calculating, and thinking, and how does it contribute to an individual’s sense of agency?
4. According to Existentialism, individuals possess the freedom to choose or not to choose. Discuss the concept of commitment and responsibility that accompanies this freedom, and provide examples of how this plays out in decision-making.
5. Discuss the Existentialist belief that reality is shaped by human experiences. Explain how this perspective encourages individuals to engage in a deliberate examination of their existence and recognize the diverse aspects of life, such as joy, sorrow, happiness, sadness, success, and failure.