SS 3 SECOND TERM LESSON NOTE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTE
SUBJECT: English Language Class: SS 3
SCHEME OF WORK
- Revision of last term’s work and exams
Summary: Death & the King’s Horseman, page 130
- Structure: Clauses
Writing: Speech writing
Comprehension: The Lion and the Jewel, page 123.
Vocabulary Development: Latin expressions, page 127
- Structure: Direct and Indirect speech
Speech Work: Contrastive stress
Comprehension: Meteors, page 151
Vocabulary Development: Astronomy , page 153
- Comprehension: A Railway journey, page 139
Writing: Formal and Informal letters
Structure: Nominalization of infinitives
- Comprehension: The Dynasty of Ketu, page 164
Summary: Transport in Nigeria, page 143
Structure: Restrictive and Non-restrictive clauses,
Writing: Hints on writing essays in the examination
- Speech Work: Learning the requirement of the examination on orals.
Structure: Hints on Lexis and structure
Comprehension:Hint on answering comprehension questions.
7 Speech Work: Reviewing the vowels and the consonants
Structure:Review of tenses
Comprehension: Further hints on how to answer comprehension questions.
1 Effective English for Senior Secondary Schools, Book 3
- Countdown to English
- Oral English for Schools and Colleges
- WAEC Past Question.
WEEK 1 DATE:_________
Topic: Revision of last term’s work and examination.
Topic: Summary: Death and the King’s Horsemen
The passage is an extract from the play ‘Death and the king’s Horseman’. In this passage, Elesin had just been prevented from committing suicide as the tradition demands. Elesin was supposed to take his life in order to join the king in the world of the ancestors. Simon Pilkings, the District Officer, intervened to stop the suicide and save Elesin’s life.
Evaluation: Questions page 131
Reading Assignment: Clauses
Weekend Assignment: Revision and tests, part 1, page 136
WEEK 2 Date:_________________
A clause is a group of words with finite verb. A clause should have a subject and a predicate.
e.g. Idowu bought a piece of land.
Predicate – bought a piece of land
Types of Clause
There are two types of clauses.
- Independent clauses: These are also called main or principal clauses. An independent calsuse expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence.
e.g. My English master is a kind man.
- Dependent Clause: These are also called subordinate clauses. A dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentence. It depends on an independent clause for its meaning E.g. which he recommended.
There are three types of subordinate clauses.
- Noun Clauses
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that has a noun as the head word. A noun clause performs the functions of a noun. A noun clause is usuallyintroduced by ‘what’ and ‘that’, but ‘that’ is sometimes omitted before the noun clause. A noun clause answers the question ‘what or who?’
Examples of noun clauses
- That he was insulted painted him a great deal.
- The important thing is that he has arrived.
- Honesty is what we want.
Functions of Noun Clause
A noun clause performs the functions of a noun
- Subject of a sentence
What he said is bitter.
That he was insulted pained him a great deal.
- Object of a sentence
The cook us what we should eat
He told us that he would come.
- Complement of subject
Honestly is what we want.
The important thing is that he has arrived
- Complement of object
We call him what he likes.
Complement of a preposition
The prize will go to whoever wins.
- Adjectival Clauses
An adjectival clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of an adjective. The following conjunctions are usually used to introduce adjectival clause; who, whom, whose, that, which, etc.
Examples of adjectival clauses
- The man who came here is a teacher, (‘who came here’ modifies the noun ‘man’)
- That is the goat that ate our yam. (‘that ate our yam’ modifies the noun’goat’)
- It was he who slapped me. (‘who slapped me’ modifies the pronoun’he’)
- The lady whose car was stolen is crying. (‘whose car was stolen’ modifies the noun ‘lady)
- She has visited the place where he was born. (‘where he was born’ modifies the noun ‘place’)
- Here is the man about whom I was talking to you. (‘about I was talking to you’ modifies the noun ‘man’)
- Adverbial clause
An adverbial clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of an adverb. Such as telling us how, when, where, why, to what extent, or under what conditions, the action of the verb is performed. In other words, the adverbial clause modifies the verb in the main clause.
Examples of adverbial clauses
- She sings as if she were happy. (Manner; ‘as if she were happy’ modifies the verb ‘sings’)
- Ada saw him when she came to his office (Time; ‘when she came to his office’ modifies the verb ‘saw’)
- She can be found where the man lives. (Place; ‘where the ‘man lives’ modifies the verb ‘can be found’)
- The man worked so hard that he soon feel sick. (Result: ‘that he soon fell sick’ modifies the verb ‘worked’, together with its modifier ‘so hard’)
- We shall go out if it does not rain. (Condition: ‘if it does not rain’ modifies the verb ‘shall go’, together with its modifier ‘out’)
Types of Adverbial Clauses
The different types of adverbial clause correspond with the nature of information which the clause gives about the verb in the main clause.
- Of time
Emeka did not bring gifts when he visited you last. Before you start writing, study the question carefully.
- Of Place
He left the letter where it could be easily seen.Send us wherever you want to
- Of manner
The Lady is treating is as if we were her servant. The boy danced as though he had been dancing all his life.
- Of reason
Because he was wrong, he apologized.
He had to fight back since he had no other option.
- Of purpose
The athelete trained very hard so that he might win the race.
In order that he might secure a seat, he arrived early at the stadium.
- Of result
Sule ate so much food at the party that he started vomiting.
The official worked so hard that he had a breakdown.
vii. Of comparison
Amadi drank more wine than I did.
My brother works as hard as I do.
viii. Of condition
We shall attend his party if he invites us.
Unless he invites us. We shall not attend the party.
- Of concession
Although Okorie is poor, he is well respected.
He is intelligent even if he is naïve
Evaluation: Exercise 1, Question a –e page 225, Countdown to English.
Topic: Speech Writing
Characteristic of a written speech
- Formal Salutation (vocatives); There is always an audience to be addressed. In formal situations, people are usually appointed to perform one function or the other. Social ethics demand that you recognize and accord due respect to those at the high table and other dignitaries present at the occasion.
- The use of personal pronouns; The speaker often personalizes his speech by the use of personal pronouns such A I, you, we, he, etc. Which reflects actual speech.
- Use of short forms; Speeches are often characterized by the use of short forms of words and sentences E.g. Sam (for Samuel), I’m ( I am) can’t (cannot) don’t (do not)
- Introducing the Topic: After the salutation, the next logical thing to do is to introduce your topic. Whatever, your topic is, try to introduce it in an interesting manner, showing in one way other that you hold your audience in high esteem, and that you are competent to handle the topic.
- Developing the Topic: Logical sequencing of ideas and coherent presentation are value highly in speech
- Concluding your Speech: The concluding paragraph of your written speech should be rounded off in a neat way so as to reflect your entire speech.
Sample Question: As the new senior prefect of your school, write a farewell speech meant to be delivered at the graduation ceremony of the outgoing SS 3 students.
A FAREWELL SPEECH BY JOHNSON OJO DURING THE GRADUATION CEREMONY OF THE SS 3 STUDENT IN THE SCHOOL HALL ON 30TH JULY, 2010.
The Honourable Commissioner of Education,
Our Dear Parents,
Worthy Graduating Students,
Paragraph 1 – Appreciate the privilege of being permitted to speak, explain the importance of the ceremony, state your purpose.
Paragraph 2 – Commend the graduating students for going through the rigours of years in SSS.
Paragraph 3 – Remind them of the lessons of hard work, determination, uprightness, etc
Paragraph 4 – Inform them of the world outside school and future hurdles like JAMB exams, Campus life, dangers of new found liberty.
Paragraph 5 – Counsel them on the need to choose the path of being academic, social and moral high achievers.
Paragraph 6 – Conclude by thanking the audience for listening, thank the parents for their faith and support, Wish the graduating students success in life and hope for a safe journey back home for everyone.
Evaluation: As the head boy or head girl of your school, write out your address to be presented to the guests of your school during the inter-house sports competition.
Topic: Comprehension: Drama
The passage is an extract from the play by Wole Soyinka titled. ‘The Lion and the Jewl’. In this extract, teacher Lakunle mets with Sidi on her way from the stream. She had a pot of water on her head and this led to the discussion between herself and Lakunle. The teacher strongly opposes the idea of a young girl carry a pot of water on her head and goes ahead to air his view to Sidi.
Evaluation: Questions, page 126.
Topic: Vocabulary: Latin Expression used in English.
Lating was the language of the ancient Romans. Nowadays, few people in Europe elsewhere learn Latin, but until the past 70 years or so, it was a language learn I virtually every educated person.
Here are some Latin expressions that are part of the English language ad hoc: Intended for a particular purpose ad infinitum: for ever
ad nauseam: to the point of making one sick
bona fide: genuine
Curriculum vitae: a summary of a person’s qualifications and career, used to support an application for a job.
De facto: in practice
De jure: by right
Et cetera: and the rest
Exempli gratia: for the sake of an example, generally abbreviated to e.g ex officio: by the virtue of one’s position
Id est: that is, often abbreviated to i.e
in extremis: in extreme conditions
persona non grata: an unwelcome person
ultra vires: beyond one’s powers, said when a person in authority does something which he is not allowed to do.
Evaluation: Practice 1 page 129
Reading Assignment: Direct and Indirect speeches
Weekend Assignment: Revision and test part 2, page 137, Effective English.
Exercise 1 Question 2, page 225, Count down to English.
Week 3 Date Date:_____________
Topic: Direct and Indirect Speech
Direct Speech: This refers to the quoting by a speaker or writer, of the actual utterance of another speaker or writer. This is usually indicated by the use of quotation marks, opening and closing.
- Obioma said, ‘I will return next month, by the grace of God.’
- In the word of Shakespeare ‘Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.’
- Their pastor always says,’we owe nothing to ourselves but owe everything to God.’
- According to Acheb,’Proverbs are the palm oil with which the Igbo eat their words.,
- ‘We have neither been fed nor accommodated since we arrived yesterday, ’the visitors complained bitterly.
Features of Direct Speech
- The direct speech is enclosed with inverted commas, opening an closing.
- It is usually followed by a reporting verb, which may be in the past or present; for example; ‘she said’.
- Sometimes, the direct speech is introduced by such expressions as; ‘According to…’
- The direct speech is preceded by a comma or a colon, as we find in the following example; The lady always says, ‘My restaurant offers you some of the best dishes in town.’
- The direct speech begins with a capital letter.
Indirect Speech: This reports what a speaker or writer has said without using his exact words
- Obioma said that he would return the following month by the grace of God.
- Shakespeare says that the head that wears the crown lies uneasy.
- Their pastor always says that they owe nothing to themselves but owe everything to God.
- Achebe said that proverbs are the palm oil with which the Igbo eat their words.
- The visitors complained bitterly that they had neither been fed nor accommodated since they arrived the previous day.
Features of Indirect Speech
- Quotation marks are not used in the reported speech because it is not a direct quotation.
- Usually, the reporting verb found in the direct speech is used but sometimes it could be changed, if the reporter feels like doing so
- If the reporting verb is in the past, the verb in the reported speech would change to the past tense.
If the reporting verb is in the present or future, the verb in the reported speech does not change.
If what is expressed in the direct speech is a universal truth, no changes take place in the reported speech, no matter the nature of the reporting verb
Evaluation: Exercise iv, question 1a – 4, page 230, countdown to English
Topic: Contrasting stress
The stressing of a particular word more than other words in a sentence is referred to as emphatic or contrastive stress. Such as a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence.
- JAMES borrowed the novel (i.e James not anybody else borrowed it)
- James BORROWED the novel. (i.e. James didn’t, for example, steal or buy the novel, he borrowed it.)
- We MUST honour the invitation. (wether we like it or not)
- I BOUGHT the book. (I didn’t steal it)
- This is THE Mr. Obi. (of special fame)
Evaluation: Test on Emphatic stress, page 255, countdown to English
Topic: Comprehension: Meteors
The passage is adopted from the New Atlas of the Universe by Patrick More. It centre on Meteors, the junior member of th solar system. They are small and very plentiful in the solar system. There are two types of Meteors; showers and sporadic meteor.
Evaluation: Questions, Page 152
Topic: Vocabulary: Astronomy
The lexis and structures on the vocabulary of astronomy.
Some of the words used include universe, orbits, planets, eclipse, cosmonaut, satellite, galaxies, etc.
Astronomy: the Scientifics study of the universe, especially of the motions, positions, sizes, composition, and behaviour of astronomical objects.
Universe: the totality of all matter and energy that exists in the vastness of space, whether known to human beings or not.
Planet: an astronomical object that orbits a star and does not shine with its own light, especially one of those orbiting the sun in the solar system.
Stars: an astronomical object usually visible as a small bright point of light in the sky.
Orbit: a single revolution an astronomical object around a larger astronomical object.
Cosmonaut: an astronaut in the space programmes of Russia and the formal Soviet Union.
Galaxies: a group of billions of stars and their planets, gas and dust that extends over many thousands of light-years and forms a unit within the universe.
Eclipse: the partial or complete hiding from view of an astronomical object, e.g. the Sun or Moon, when another astronomical object comes between it and the observer.
Astronaut: someone trained to travel and perform tasks in space.
Gravity: the attraction due to gravitation that the Earth or another astronomical object exerts on an object on or near its surface.
Evaluation: vocabulary, page 153
Reading Assignment: Nominalization of infinitives.
Weekend Assignment: Revision and tests part 1, page 161, Effective English. Exercise 11, question b, page 101, Oral English for Schools and Colleges.
Week 4 Date:_____________
Topic: Comprehension: A railway Journey
The passage centres on transportation by rail. Transport by rail is best approach in a spirit of adventure and with an uncluttered schedule. This is because the Nigerian railway Corporation is not renowned for getting there on time. The train is usually overcrowded and some passengers even travel on top of the carriages.
Evaluation: Questions, page 141
Topic: Formal Letters
These are letters we write to people in their official positions.
Features of a formal letter
- Writer’s Address and Date: This is written at the top right hand corner. The date is written beneath the address.
- Receiver’s Address: This is written at the left hand corner beneath the writer’s address.
- Salutation: The acceptable salutation is Dear Sir or Dear Madam.
- Heading or Topic or Title: This is written below the salutation
- Introduction: This should be straight forward and precise
- Body of the letter: This should consist of at least three well developed paragraph.
- Conclusion: this should be done in a paragraph.
- Subscript (Complimentary close): The acceptable closing is ‘Yours faithfully’ followed by a comma.The signature is appended beneath the closing with the full name written below the signature.
Sample Question: Write a letter to the Commissioner of Education, informing him about the plan of your council to engage in the expansion of the only secondary school in your town and howthe council intends to implement its programme of aid to the school.
P.O. Box 30,
14th October, 2019
Ministry of Education,
Expansion Programme for Baptist College
Body of the Letter
Informal Letters: These are the letters we write to people who are very familiar to us.
Features of an informal letter.
- Writer’s Address and Date
- Body of the letter
Evaluation: Write a letter to your friend who is in another school about your annual inter-house sports which you celebrated recently.
Topic: Nominalization of Infinitives
Nominalization is the changing of a part of speech into a noun by the addition of a suffix
- Non-Restrictive Clause: In the non-restrictive, th clause provides additional information to the subject and is marked with commas.
- The young lawer, who is 25, gave the closing remark.
- The house, which has been renovated, looks very new.
- The book, about which so much has been said, is not interesting.
- The principal, who I told you about, is a sadist.
- My brother, who lives in Abuja, visited me last week.
Evaluation: Make five sentences each on restrictive and non-restrictive clauses.
Topic: Hints on writing essays in the examination
Every type of writing demands distinctive style and approach. Candidates are expected to be able to write the following kinds of essays; narrative, descriptive expository argumentative.
Hints on Essay Writing
- Treat as many ideas in relations to the topics as can be discussed within the time allowed.
- Even though the ideas may be old, they should be presented in a new perspective in view of human development, and in an orderly manner.
- The language used in writing should be appropriate and clear to the reader.
- Due emphasis should be placed on correctness of language.
- There should be neither bias nor overzealousness in the writing.
- Keep within the time allocated for the essay.
Evaluation: Write an essay on ‘The day I will never forget
Reading Assignment: Vowels
Weekend Assignment: Revision and tests part 2, page 149, Effective English.
Week 6 Date:____________
Topic: Requirement of the Examination on Orals
The aspects of oral English tested in the examination include the following: vowels, consonants, rhymes, word-stress, emphatic stress and phonetic symbols.
Vowels: There are twenty vowels in the English language. They include twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs.
Consonants: There are twenty four consonants in the English language. They are classified into three groups, place of articulation, manner of articulation and state of the glottis.
Word-stress: This refers to the amount of pressure exerted when pronouncing a particular syllable of a word. The syllable with the stress is marked with a slash at the top in the dictionary.
Emphatic Stress: This is the stressing of particular word more than other words in a sentence. Such a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence.
Rhymes: When two or more words have a similar sound at the end, they are said to rhyme.
Evaluation: Exercise 1, Question A, nos 1 – 10, page 91, Oral English for Schools and Colleges.
Topic: Hints on Lexis and Structure.
Lexis refers to the vocabulary or the entire stock of words in a language. The English language examination seeks to test the scope of the candidate’s vocabulary and his skills to use appropriate words in a given context. It covers such aspects as the use of items in various areas of human endeavour.
In the study of English grammatical structure, we learn how words combine with other words of form larger units. A list of words, expressions or terms that are regularly used in relation to a particular subject-matter or associated with a particular area of human activity and development is referred to as a register.
Evaluation: Building, exercise, page 124, countdown to English.
Topic: Hints on answering Comprehension Questions.
Comprehension means understanding.
Useful hints on answering comprehension questions.
- Read the passage carefully and quickly to get what it is all about.
- Read the questions that follow it.
- Read the passage all over again, this time jotting down points that will help you to answer the questions.
- Write out your answers in clear, correct English
- Read over your answers to ensure that there are no mistakes.
Note: In the process of answering comprehension questions, you are advised to obey the instructions to the letter.
No information which is not required should be given.
Never give two answers where one is demanded.
When replacing a word in the passage, test your equivalent in the passage to see if the original meaning of the passage or sentence has been retained.
Evaluation: Exercise II, Page 77, countdown to English.
Reading Assignment: Vowels and Consonants
Weekend Assignment: Practice Exercise three, passage A, page 283, countdown to English.
Week 7 Date:_______________
Topic Reviewing the Vowel and the Consonants
Vowels: There are twenty vowels in the English Language. They include twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs.
- /i:/ Seat, Cheap, Sheep
- /i/ sit, chip, ship
- /e/ set, bread, friend
- /ᴂ/ Sat, Chat, match
- /a:/ Far, pass, father
- /ɔ/ Dog, hot, what
- /ɔ/ port, Lord, ward
- /u/ full, pull, would
- /u:/ fool, pool, coup
- /Λ/ fun, cut, tongue
- /ᴈ:/ first, nurse, word
- /ə/ again, away, forget
- /ei/ eight, gate, stable
- /əv/ go, boat, toe
- /ai/ bite, fight, die
- /au/ how, south, doubt
- /ɔi/ boy, oil, toy
- /iə/ fear, hear, cheer
- /eə/ fare, hair, bare
- /əu/ sure, poor, tour
Evaluation: Exercise 1, Question C, nos 11 – 20, page 30, Oral English for School and Colleges.
Consonants: There are twenty-four consonants in the English Language. They are
- /p/ People, deep, stipend
- /b/ ball, debate, mob
- /t/ take, mistake, boat
- /d/ do, admit,mad
- /k/ can, kettle, suck
- /g/ gun, bag, again
- /ts/ church, watch, butcher
- /d ɜ/ judge, joy, bridge
- /f/ fever, safe, father
- /v/ voice, revise, involve
- /θ/ thank, both, thorough
- / / that, mother, breathe
- /s/ sun, miss, messenger
- /z/ zoo, wise, bags
- /j/ shirt, wish, mission
- / dɜ/ measure, pleasure, vision
- /h/ house, hurry, rehearse
- /m/ man, remember, warm
- /n/ name, renew, tan
- /ɳ/ going, doing, tongue
- /l/ late, little, tibe
- /r/ write, rat, worry
- /w/ worry, reward, worship
- /j/ yam, yes, duty
Evaluation: Exercise 1, question A nos 1 -10, page 67, Oral English for Schools and Colleges
Topic: Review of Tenses
Tenses occurs only in verbs. Tense refers to the changes that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate time. Only two tenses, namely the present and the past, can be identified.
- The Present Tense: The only change that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate the present tense occurs when the verb agrees with a third person singular subject.
Singular I sleep, wake and eat
You sleep, wake and eat
He sleeps, wake and eat
Plural We sleep, wake and eat
You sleep, wake and eat
They sleep, wake and eat
- The Past Tense: Regular verbs form their past by adding. ‘ed’ to the simple form of the verb, while irregular verbs from their past tense in different ways.
Ume worked in the farm yesterday. (regular)
Ada spoke to me on the telephone (irregular)
Evaluation: Exercise 1, Question 1, page 205, countdown to English.
Topic: Further Hints on how to answer comprehension questions.
As has been discussed previously, candidates are advised to obey the instructions to the letter. Other hints are:
- If you are told to give a one-word answer, do not give more than one word. Or if a question demands that you write sentences, do not write phrases or clauses.
- Be very conscious of time so that you do not use more than the time allotted to this section. You should also be careful not to rush over the exercise.
- No information which is not required should be given. Keep your personal opinion to yourself.
- Never give two answers where one is demanded. This would suggest guesswork, and if one of the answers is wrong, no credit will be earned even for the correct one.
- Lastly, make sure that you understand what precisely the passage is about and what you are required to do.
Evaluation: Exercise III, page 78, countdown to English.
Weekend Assignment: Revision and test, part 1 page 161, Effective English.