# DATA AND INFORMATION

Subject :

### Computer Studies / Information Communication Technology ICTÂ

Class :

SS 1

Term :

FIRST TERM

Week :

Week 10

Reference Materials :Â  .

• ONLINE MATERIALS
• SCHEME OF WORK
• TEXTBOOKS

Instructional Materials :..

• Computer Studies
• Online Resources

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Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of

### ICT APPLICATION IN EVERYDAY LIFE

that was taught as a topic in their previous lesson

Behavioural Objectives :Â  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

• Define data.
• Explain the two types of data.
• Mention any five sources of data.

CONTENT :

WEEK TEN

TOPIC:Â  DATA AND INFORMATION

DEFINITION OF DATA

Data are raw, unorganized or unprocessed facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized.

What is data visualization?

Data visualization is the process of representing data using visual elements like charts, graphs, and maps. It enables decision makers to see patterns, trends, and insights in data that would be otherwise difficult to discern.

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TYPES OF DATA

1. Qualitative dataÂ  i.e descriptive information
2. Quantitative dataÂ  i.eÂ  numeric information

WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF DATA?

There are four main types of data:

1. Nominal data is used to name or label a group of items, usually for identification purposes only. Examples of nominal data include gender, nationality, religious affiliation, and zip code.

2. Ordinal data is similar to nominal data, but the items can be placed in a specific order. Examples of ordinal data include ranks or ratings (e.g., 1st, 2nd, 3rd) and satisfaction surveys (e.g., very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not at all satisfied).

3. Interval data is numerical data that represents a quantity along a continuum. Unlike ordinal data, interval data has equal intervals between values. Examples of interval data include temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius) and dates (in years, months, days).

4. Ratio data is similar to interval data, but with a true zero point. This means that the distance between two values is meaningful. examples of ratio data include height, weight, length, and time.

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SUBDIVISION OF QUANTITATIVE DATA

1. Continuous data: this can take any value. It is also known as measured data. It can take value within a range e.gÂ  0-99, 10-20 etc.
2. Discrete data: this type of data is whole in nature. It is not continuous. It takes a whole numbers and also called Counted data.

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FORMS OF DATA

1. NumericÂ  i. eÂ  0-9
2. LettersÂ  i.eÂ  a-z or A-Z
3. SymbolsÂ  e.g Â  + , _ , * , % , = , <, >, etc

EXAMPLES OF DATA

Numbers, name of thing, place or animal, words, measurements, observations, descriptions of things etc.

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SOURCES OF DATA

Data can come from different sources depending on the importance of the data. The following are sources of data: television, internet, articles, government documents and public records, newspaper, textbooks, biographies.

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EVALUATION

1. Define data.
2. Explain the two types of data.
3. Mention any five sources of data.

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INFORMATION

This refers to data that have been converted into a more meaningful and useful form.

It refers to a processed data that is meaningful to the user.

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EXAMPLES OF INFORMATION

1. Student ID card
2. Weather reports
3. Studentâ€™s report card
4. International passport
5. Utility bills e.g PHCN bills, Water bills

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SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Internet, Database, Magazine/ Newspaper, Census board, Documents, Observation etc

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CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD INFORMATION

1. Relevance:Â  it must be relevant and good enough for its purpose.
2. Reliability: it must come from a reliable source.
3. Accuracy:Â  it must be an end product of processed data. That is, it must be error-free.
4. Availability:Â  it must be available and communicated to the user as at when it is needed.
5. Suitability: it must be expressed in the form the user of the information can understand it and of suitable for its purpose.

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DATA HANDLING

This the process of ensuring that research data is stored, archived or disposed off in a safe and secure manner during and after the conclusion of a research project.

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WAYS OF HANDLING DATA

1. Electronic methods: Data can be handled electronically ensures data integrity. It includes personal digital assistants (PDA), storage media, CD/DVD, MEMORY CARDS etc.
2. Non-Electronic methods:Â  This method includes paper files, journals and laboratory notebooks. It is basically called manual method in which human energy and effort are used to process data.

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GENERAL EVALUATION

1. Mention any five sources of information.
2. Differentiate between data and information.
3. State any three forms of data.
4. Mention the two types of data
5. What is the difference between continuous data and discrete data?

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WEEKEND ASSIGNMENTÂ

1. â€¦â€¦..are raw facts which have not undergone processing.
1. InformationÂ  B. Data Â  C.Â  Record D. None
1. One of the characteristics of good information has to do with the correctness of information.Â  A. reliabilityÂ  B.Â  availabilityÂ  Â  C.Â  accuracy D. none
2. â€¦â€¦..refers to the information that has been processed.
1. Â  DataÂ  B.Â  InformationÂ  C. Database D. None
1. There are â€¦â€¦â€¦Â  types of data.Â  A. Â  2 Â  B. Â  3 Â  C.Â  4 D. 8
2. The process of surfing the NET to get information for further research is â€¦â€¦.
1. primary source Â  B.Â  on-line Â  C.Â  secondary source D. None

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THEORY

1. Mention and explain the two ways of handling data.
2. Explain at least four characteristics of good information.

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Presentation

The topic is presented step by step

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Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics

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Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

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Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

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Write out five multiple questions with one correct answer and one wrong answer that are related to the topic

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Highlight 5 differences between data and information.

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1. Data is unprocessed while information is processed.

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2. Data is collected while information is derived.

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3. Data can be qualitative or quantitative while information is only quantitative.

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4. Data represents raw facts while information represents meaning from data.

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5. Data can be highly variable while information is more consistent.

Conclusion :

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The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.

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