SCHEME OF WORK WITH LESSON NOTES
JSS 2 (BASIC 8)
The pupils have previous knowledge of
Material and Their Common Uses (cont’d)
that was treated as a topic during the last lesson
By the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
- Meaning of rescue operation
- Different aspects of rescue operations
- Steps involved in rescue operation
- Wall charts
- Related Online Video
- Flash Cards
Methods of Teaching:
- Class Discussion
- Group Discussion
- Asking Questions
- Role Modelling
- Role Delegation
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
- Meaning of rescue operation
- Different aspects of rescue operation
- Steps involved in rescue operation
This is the operations or organized procedures of a person or group of people to bring people or a person out of danger, attack, harm etc. Rescue comprises responsive operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury during an incident or dangerous situation.
Tools used might include search and rescue dogs, mounted search and rescue horses, helicopters, the “jaws of life”, and other hydraulic cutting and spreading tools used to extricate individuals from wrecked vehicles. Rescue operations are sometimes supported by special vehicles such as fire department’s or EMS heavy rescue vehicle. Rescue operations are carried out mostly by trained firemen, police, military, first aid or ambulance attendants.
DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF RESCUE OPERATION
- Air-Sea Rescue (ASR)is the coordinated search and rescue of emergency water landings as well as people who have survived shipwreck or boat mishap
- Combat search and rescue (CSAR)is the search and rescue operations that are carried out during war that are within or near combat zone.
- Mine rescueis the specialized job of rescuing miners and others who are trapped or injured in underground mines after mine accidents.
- Cave rescueis the operation involved in rescuing people trapped, lost or injured in wilderness or cave.
- Surface-water rescueis the rescue of a person who is afloat on the surface of a body of water.
- Vehicle extrication is the process of removing vehicle from around a person who has been involved in a motor accident.
- Confined space rescueinvolves the rescue and recovery of victims trapped in a confined space like tanks, sewers and underground vaults.
- Urban search and rescueinvolves the location extrication and initial medical stabilization of victims trapped in collapsed buildings or trenches.
STEPS INVOLVED IN RESCUE OPERATION
This acronym – REPORT – developed is useful when trying to plan for and execute technical rescue. The acronym assists in breaking down the differing phases of the technical rescue process to assist with resources, timelines and direction.
It stands for:
Every technical rescue operation goes through these six phases. Your department may utilize a different acronym, but essentially you will go through each to accomplish the completion of your specialized rescue event.
R — Response
The response phase of the call is broken down into two separate areas — the pre-dispatch and the responding phase. The pre-dispatch phase is that time when district familiarization, pre-planning and resource identification is paramount. You must know what hazards exist in your area, what options you will have to address those operational impacts and where you will get resources from to meet those impacts. The second phase, responding, is the time from when your crew is dispatched to a call to arrival. The company officer must be trained to know when to ask for additional resources and ask for it early. In addition, they should be aware of any special information that is known — such as ingress details, next-in unit instructions and staging areas — and communicate those details to incoming units.
E — Evaluation
Once on scene, your primary task will be to gather information. The first-in unit should conduct an initial approach assessment to determine hazards, type of emergency and additional resource requirements. After the approach assessment, the first arriving Company Officer should transmit a size-up report, implement the appropriate portions of the Incident Command System, establish staging locations, request appropriate resources, gather available information and conduct a risk/benefit analysis.
It is critical to know if the incident involves actually rescuing viable patients or if this is a body recovery. This knowledge determines the pace and urgency of the operation, and more importantly determines the acceptable level of risk in the risk/benefit analysis. Members should provide input into this ongoing analysis. Recovery operations undertaken by responders to recover the remains of victims or property should only be implemented when the risk to responders has been reduced to the lowest level possible.
P — Pre-entry
This step of the process of making the scene and surrounding area as safe as possible. The proper management of this phase of a technical consists of the following steps:
Isolate — Initial company operations should include taking steps to secure the scene from unauthorized access or actions, as well as attempting to identify and secure a witness or responsible party. With each incident, isolation zones will need to be established to appropriately secure the scene — hot, warm and cold.
Evacuate — Following the process of isolating the incident will often include evacuating people from the area of the rescue. These people will include Good Samaritan types, fellow workers, EMS, the press and onlookers.
Lock Out/Tag Out — Lock out/Tag out is a system used to secure and isolate equipment from its source of energy while personnel are working on or near that equipment. While the rescue/extrication is taking place, a firefighter should be posted as a guard with a radio at the energy source.
O — Operations
This phase consists of the actual application of personnel and equipment to perform a rescue or recovery based on the risk/benefit assessment performed in the evaluation phase. Personnel who are certified at the operations level for the specific rescue being performed — rope, confined space, etc. — generally carry out this operation. While it is not essential that all personnel in an operational area be certified as operational, they do need to be directly supervised by an individual who is operations or technician certified. In addition, only those personnel who are integral in the operations and are actually working or delivering logistical needs should be inside the hot zone.
R — Removal
This phase of the technical rescue operation is the safe and effective removal of victims from the hot zone. This may require the collaboration of multiple disciplines to include rope rescue, EMS and extrication personnel. Remember also that specialized medical knowledge may be required to treat patients who may suffer from crush injuries and/or compartment syndrome secondary to structural or trench collapse.
T — Termination
The termination of a specialized rescue event is that time when rescue or recovery of a victim has occurred. The command team should take a short break to allow for members to rehab. It should also take this time to perform another risk/benefit analysis. Is the equipment in the hot zone worth the dangers required to remove them? This is especially critical when comparing the utilization of trench or structural collapse equipment. It may be better to detail the equipment left in the hot zone and bill the owners or contractor for their costs, rather than risk the loss of personnel. If the decision is made to remove equipment from a hot zone, remember to take your time! A large number of injuries and fatalities occur when in the termination phase of an event.
All of these directions will assist in remembering the steps necessary to complete a specialized rescue event. The REPORT acronym is nothing but a memory tool to assist with recalling the resources and requirements for managing a technical rescue call. The key is to practice utilizing this or other systems to ensure that should a specialized rescue event occur in your area, your members are practiced and capable in delivering those skills necessary in a safe effective fashion.
- Define the term ‘rescue’.
- What are rescue operations?
- What is the full meaning of CSAR?
- Describe ASR.
- When miners are trapped how are they rescued?
Presentation: The topic is presented step by step
The class teacher revises the previous topics
He introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise.
The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.
He or she makes the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.