Basic Science and Technology
JSS 2 / Basic 8
LIVING THINGS (II)
- Uniqueness of human
- Measurement of growth and developmental changes
- Growth changes in height, weight and size
features of different developmental features.
- Classification of
growth and developmental changes
Instructional Materials :
- Samples of living things
- Pictures of types of habitats
- Examples of organisms living in the given habitat
- Online Materials
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
Previous Knowledge :
The pupils have been taught
Living things Relationship between organisms living in the same habitat
in their previous lesson
Behavioural Objectives : At the end of the lesson, the learners will be able to
- Say the Uniqueness of human
- Explain the Measurement of growth and developmental changes
- Narrate the Growth changes in height, weight and size
- Describe the Characteristics or
features of different developmental features in man
- Say Classification of
growth and developmental changes
Learners are familiar with different types of habitats
TOPIC: UNIQUENESS OF MAN
Contents: I. Human Beings as Animals
II. Man as Primate
III. Man as a Higher Animal
Say the Uniqueness of human
Sub-Topic I: Human beings as Animals
Human beings are a special kind of animal. They belong to a special group of animals called mammals. As mammals, they are different from other animals because they possess the following characteristics:
a. They give birth to young ones alive
b. They possess hair or fur on every part of their body or certain part of the body
c. They breast-feed their young ones with milk from the mammary glands e.g cow, sheep, cat, man etc.
d. The anatomy and shape of human is quite different from any other man or primate. Human is the only animal that can stand erect.
e. The fingers and thumbs or humans are well developed and this made it for them to grab or hold things or tools firmly.
f. Man is different from other primate because of his well developed and large brain. Human beings brains are made up of billions of cells which makes the brain to enable humans to multi task and complete complex task
1. Human being belongs to a special group of animals called….
2. State two features of mammals
Sub-Topic II: Man as a Primate
Human beings belong to a sub-group of mammals called primates. Primate is a member of an order of mammals with a large brain and complex hands and feet. All primates are mammals but not all mammals are primates. Among the primates are man, gorilla, chimpanzee and monkeys.
They have the following characteristics as primates:
a. They grasp things with their hands
b. They can stand and walk upright
c. They possess nails on their hands and feet
d. They have no claws
e. They have eyes in front of their heads and not at the sides
f. They have opposable thumb, which they use together with the fore finger to pick things up.
1. What do you understand by primate?
2. State three examples of primates
3. Mention four characteristics of primate
Sub-Topic III: Man as a Higher Animal
Man is different from other primates by possessing the following characteristics:
a. Man possess 5-curve shaped backbone, this helps him to balance in an upright position
b. He moves about in an upright position and walk on two legs always making the hands free to do some other work
c. He possesses the largest skull which contains the brain. Human brain is made of fore-brain, midbrain and hindbrain.
d. Man possesses the largest brain among animals which enables him to think, plan and solve problems better than any other animals.
e. The brain is highly develops and controls human thinking and speech.
f. Man can use his hands to handle tools
NB: The human brain and human body both make man a special primate
1. Mention two features of man that make him different from other primate
2. Which part of human brain is the centre of (a) intelligence, memory, speed, voluntary actions and smell (ii) control of eye, muscle and posture (iii) muscular activities and body functions?
Measurement of growth and developmental changes
Growth is the irreversible increase in the body, size, height of living things. When we eat well, sleep and take enough rest, then we grow. Growth and development is a life long thing. Developmental changes begin from conception of the child to adulthood: the changes include measurement of growth and development changes in height, weight or head circumference. Growth is brought about by cell division.
Development is a series of orderly changes by which a living thing comes
into maturity. It is series of changes that occur during growth. It is gradual
process leading to maturation of organ and behaviour of individual like
social, emotional as well as skill acquisition.
FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH
INTERNAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT GROWTH : These are factors that cannot be seen with our naked eyes. These factors are inside our bodies. Examples of internal factors that affect growth and development are
- Sleep and rest
- diseases, e. t. c.
EXTERNAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT GROWTH : These factors are outside the body of an organism which
can affect the organism positively or negatively: Examples of external factors that affect growth are
- disease and
- other environmental factors
STAGES IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
- INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD: Who is an infant. An infant is a newly birthed child whose age is less that two. Infancy is period of dramatic growth which last from birth to around two years. It is also a time when children form emotional attachments to their care givers (mother). Children of this age bracket are carried in hands from one place to another. Childhood is the stage from birth to puberty. After infancy, children can walk, run and speak in simple sentences. Childhood is characterized by light body weight, small size, very rapid growth particularly in the first two years of life very active body and restlessness.
- PUBERTY / JUVENILE: This is the transition stage from childhood to adolescence. As children approach the ages of 9 and 10 years, they become more independent and might start noticing the physical changes of puberty. A major growth spurt can occur at this time as the body begins sexual development. This also can be a time of stress for children as peer pressure takes its toll. Body image along with emotional changes often causes children to feel less confident. Juveniles also start preparing for middle school by taking on more academic responsibilities and focusing on goal-setting and accomplishment.
- ADOLESCENCE: This is the stage between adulthood from ages 12 to 18 years, children experience distinct mental and physical changes. According to the National Institutes of Health (NM), the beginning of a girl’s menstrual cycle typically occurs 2 years after the onset of puberty. The NIH reports that boys do not begin puberty with a distinct marker and tend to mature with adult genitalia about age 16 or 17 years. During this time of physical change, adolescents may become more self-centered. In middle to late adolescence, teen-agers are often characterized as becoming more comfortable with their body sexually and ready to have romantic friendships. Adolescent behavior often includes the teen-agers’ need to pull away from parents and authority figures to establish their own self-identity and make decisions on their own.
- ADULTHOOD: This is the stage of full maturity. It is often noted when a person is considered chronologically, legally and behaviourally ready to hold responsibilities such as operating a motor vehicle, voting, taking the vows of marriage, entering into a contract and serving in the armed forces. The process of becoming mature does not end with adolescence but continues throughout adulthood as psychological, safety and self-actualization needs are met. Adulthood is often divided into three categories: young adulthood, middle age and old age.
The topic is presented step by step
The class teacher revises the previous topics
He introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
- Say four Uniqueness of human
- Explain four Measurement of growth and developmental changes
- Narrate three Growth changes in height, weight and size
- State briefly the difference between man and other primate
- List three major characteristics of mammals.
- Mention four stages in growth and development
The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the learners.
He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.