HYDROGENATION AND SAPONIFICATION

 

WEEK 3

TOPIC: FATS AND OILS

CONTENTS:

1. SOURCES

2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES I.E.


REACTIONS OF FATS AND OILS:

HYDROGENATION AND SAPONIFICATION

3. .USES

PERIOD 1: SOURCES

Fat and oils happen naturally in dwelling issues. There are two foremost sources.

1. Tissues of Animals. Marine (water) animals, like fish, present fish oil and cod-liver oil, whereas terrestrial (land) animals present butter, land and fallow.

2. Fruits and seeds of vegetation: they comprise edible fats and oil akin to cocoa butter, fats, palm oil, coconut oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil, corn oil, floor nut oil, sunflower seed oil, olive oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. They’re known as vegetable oils.

Bodily and chemical properties

  1. Bodily properties

(i). Pure fat and oils are colored or white and nearly odourless.

(ii). Fat and oils do not need sharp boiling or melting factors as a result of they’re complicated mixtures of two or extra totally different triglycerides (esters).

(iii). They’re insoluble in water however soluble in natural solvents e.g. alcohols

(iv). When heated to temperatures above 3000C, fat and oils decompose to offer irritating fumes

EVALUATION

  1. Identify the 2 sources of fat and oils

Write 4 examples from every supply

PERIOD 2AND 3 : CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FATS AND OIL (REACTIONS OF FATS AND OILS – SAPONIFICATION AND HYDROGENATION)

  1. HYDROGENATION OF OILS

Pure oils are largely triglycerides i.e. esters of unsaturated fatty acids. They exist as liquids, which aren’t edible. To be able to make them edible, the unsaturated oils are often hydrogenated in order to make them onerous and acquire saturated edible fat.

Margarine is obtained from a refine combination of animal fat and vegetable oils which have been handled with activated charcoal with a view to take away the color and odour and thoroughly neutralize the free acid. The combination is partially hydrogenated by effervescent hydrogen fuel by means of it at about 2000C and inside 2-5 atmospheres utilizing finely divided nickel because the catalyst, till the product is pretty onerous.

Fat/oils + H2(g) Margarine

The hardened oils are then blended with salt, nutritional vitamins skimmed milk and varied fat to kind margarine

  1. SAPONIFICATION: that is the method wherein fat or oils are boiled with alkali to provide, as the primary product, the salt of the fatty acids known as cleaning soap and a by-product 1,2,3-triol-used in making paints. (This course of will also be known as alkaline hydrolysis of esters or an alkanoate).

When a pure fats or oil is boiled with an answer of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, the product are propane-1,2,3- triol and the corresponding sodium or potassium salts of the fatty acids.[mediator_tech]

 

  1. ACID HYDROLYSIS OF FATS AND OILS

When pure fat or oils are boiled with water within the presence of concentrated H2SO4, the merchandise obtained are propane-1,2,3-triol (a trihydric alkanol, glycerol) and a combination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids which will be separated by fractional distillation

EVALAUTION:

  1. Outline the time period saponification
  2. Point out one industrial utility of catalytic hydrogenation
  3. How can vegetable oil be transformed into margarine

PERIOD 4: USES OF FATS AND OILS

  1. Fat and oils are broadly distributed in meals. When eaten, they supply vitamins for physique constructing and are oxidized within the physique to offer power for metabolic processes, that are accompanied by a launch of CO2.
  2. Commercially used within the manufacturing of soaps, propanetriol (glycerol) and margarine
  3. As solvents for paints and manufacture of candle vanishes and so on.

EVALUATION

Clarify the chemical properties of fat and oils

GENERAL EVALUATION

OBJECTIVE TEST:

  1. The next can function a uncooked materials for the manufacture of margarine besides (a) Paraffin oil (b) palm kernel oil (C) sunflower (d) coconut oil
  2. Oil will be turned into fats within the presence of nickel at 1800C by means of a course of known as (a)Alkylation (b) polymerization (c) hydrogenation (d) substitution
  3. Which of those solvents just isn’t appropriate for fat? (a) Ethoxyethane (b) tetrachloromethane (c) benzene (d) water
  4. The next can function a uncooked materials for the manufacture of margarine besides (a) Paraffin oil (b) palm kernel oil (c) solar flower oil (d) coconut oil
  5. The alkanol obtained from the manufacturing of cleaning soap is (a) Dihydric alkanol (b) monohydric alkanol (c)trihydricalkanol (d) tertiary alkanol

ESSAY QUESTIONS

1. Checklist two:

  1. Bodily properties of f[mediator_tech]ats and oils
  2. Variations between fat and oils
  1. The compound whose components is written under is a serious part of soppy fatty substance

 

  1. State the modifications that can be noticed within the bodily state of the fatty substance with sizzling concentrated NaOH resolution
  1. (a) Point out one industrial utility of catalytic hydrogenation
  1. How can vegetable oil be transformed into margarine?
  1. What identify is given to every of the next processes:
  1. Conversion of fats to grease
  2. ii. Alkaline hydrolysis of fat and oils.
  1. A vegetable oil X was handled with activated charcoal after which with a fuel Y within the presence of a catalyst with a view to manufacture margarine
  1. Establish Y
  2. State the operate of the activated charcoal.
  3. What’s the catalyst used?
  4. If a pattern of X is heated with concentrated NaOH resolution, checklist the merchandise that can be obtained.

 

 

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