Kitchen equipment and utensil
(a) Identification of different equipment for various tasks.
(i) large equipment e.g. mechanical equipment
(ii) small equipment
(b). uses and care for kitchen equipment
(c) storage of kitchen equipment
SUBJECT: FOOD AND NUTRITION
TOPIC: Kitchen equipment and utensil
CONTENT: Identification of different equipment for various tasks:
- large equipment e.g. mechanical equipment
- small equipment
SUBTOPIC 1: LARGE EQUIPMENT
Kitchen Equipment refers to all machinery, tools, utensils, cookery, cutlery and furniture which may be used for preparation, service and storage of food with the activities carried out in a particular area of work in the kitchen. The equipment can be large, mechanical and small equipment or utensils.
Large equipment as the name implies are made of large and heavy metal that can withstand hard use and occupy space. These are generally fixed on a platform but may be free standing. Large equipment includes:
- Gas and electric ranges
- Range tops
- Hot cupboards
- Stoves – different types of stoves are available while some are operated with gas, others are operated with electricity.
- Washing machine
- Working surface
- Shelves etc.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT: the equipment help to reduce the energy and time spent on some basic kitchen operations. They include:
- Dish washer
- Food processors
- Mashers: they can either be hand or electrically operated
- Food slices and choppers
These type of equipment as the name implies are smaller in size and can be easily handled or moved around or places anywhere for use when required. Small equipment includes:
- Drying pans
- Whisks and beaters
- Baking sheet or tins
- Those that are used daily for food preparation, cooking and service. Example includes plates, drinking cups, serving spoons and desert spoons etc.
- Earthen ware: glass, Pyrex articles, plates, drinking glass, pudding basin and pie dishes.
- Tin wares: baking pans and trays, sandwich tins, cakes tins,
- Graters: tin opener, pastry cutters, wire whisks, rotary whisks
- Wooden articles: wooden spoon, mortar and pestle, chopping board, cookeries also kitchen utensils examples are: forks, pallet knifes, potato peeler, kitchen scissors, fish slicer or turner etc.
SUBTOPIC 2: USES AND CARE OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
All kitchen equipment large or small, mechanical or light, require care in handling in order to extend its shelf life, money time and effort spent on care helps to maintain equipment in continuous working order. The following uses and care practices can be adopted.
- Stoves: Some are operated with gas others are operated with electricity, local or kerosene and some are even operated by solid fuel e.g. firewood.
Uses: they are used for cooking while the oven section is used for roasting and boiling operations.
Care: the solid tops should be washed clean or wiped clean with a pad, when cool. The stove tops can be thoroughly cleansed by washing and using an abrasive
- Grills and salamander can be heated by either gas or electricity
Uses: they are used for grilling tender cuts of meat, chicken and either food items.
Care: the salamander bars and draining trays should be replaced and the heat turned on for a few minutes to dry the bars
- Sink: could be of porcelain product or stainless steel.
Uses: All washing up operations is carried out in the sink
- Fix at the elbow height of the user
- Prevent blockage of the sink by using sink basket
- Avoid scratching the surface of the sink
- Disinfect the outlet occasionally
- Wash with hot soapy water and rinse thoroughly
- Boiling pans: they must be heated by gas or electricity
Uses: they are used for boiling or stewing large quantities of food.
Care: the boiling pan and lid should be thoroughly washed with mild detergent solution and then rinsed.
- Refrigerators: it could be absorption system or compressor type
Uses: They are used for preserving raw or cooked food items and other materials that are easily perishable. Oat food should not be kept inside the refrigerator.
- Wipe off splashes and grease from inside and outside daily.
- Occasionally defrost and clean thoroughly following manufacturer’s instructions
- Use bicarbonate of soda with warm water to rinse
- Never remove materials from the freezer compartment with sharp object
- Mashers: they can either be hand or electrically operated
Uses: they are used for mashing fish, yam or potatoes.
Care: this should be washed thoroughly immediately after use and dried.
- Food slicers:
Uses: are used for any kind of slicing operation e.g. slicing of meat, onions, fish, potatoes etc. While the chopper is used for chopping or dicing items of food like onions, spinach etc.
- The blades should be sharpened regularly
- Clean each section that comes in contact with food and dry carefully after use.
- The rotating joints should be lubricated
- Pots and pans: they are used for cooking e.g. boiling during food preparation
- Use them on suitable stoves
- Soak immediately after each use
- Use steel or nylon scourers or abrasives to remove stains.
- Avoid scratching with a knife or sharp object
- Tin wares
Use: for baking, cooking and roasting
Care: wipe while hot, wash in warm soapy water.
Dry well and store upside down in a dry place
Note: The general process of cleaning small pieces of equipment and utensils e.g. colander, knives, spoons, plates etc include: scraping, soaking, washing and drying
STORAGE OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
Storage involves arranging goods in specified areas within spaces ear-marked for particular materials till they are required for use. It also involves storage of spare kitchen equipment, service equipment and miscellaneous like cutlery, crockery etc. A well planned storage of equipment will help to prevent spoilage, spillage and breakage. Storage of equipment depends on two basic factors:
- Nature of equipment to be stored
- Length of time for which they will be stored
Nature of equipment to be stored:
Equipment storage can be classified according to their durability i.e.
- Less durable
Durable: any equipment is considered durable if it can be utilized for five years and above.
Less durable: equipment will be considered semi-durable if it will not be utilized up to five years but can be utilized up to one year to about three years.
Fragile: equipment will be considered fragile if it is delicate in nature and so extra care should be taken when handling such equipment
Length of time for which they will be stored:
Storage of kitchen equipment can also depend on the length of time they can be stored before use. They can be classified according to the degree of use as:
- Daily use kitchen equipment
- Often used kitchen equipment
- Less often used kitchen equipment
Daily use kitchen equipment:
These are equipment that are so important in the kitchen and are used daily. Examples include: pots, spoons, knives, cups etc. The storage of these items needs to be handy. They are usually stored in the cupboards, kitchen, hangers and kitchen table so that they can be easily reached.
Often use kitchen equipment:
This class of equipment are the types that are used always but not every day or for every food preparation. They include microwave, blender, mixer etc.
Less often use kitchen equipment:
This class of equipment is not often used. They can be used weekly, monthly or bimonthly. This group of equipment are not normally stored in the kitchen. They can be kept in a store, so that it will not occupy space and prevent convenience in the kitchen e.g. food warmer.
SUBTOPIC 3: practical on the identification of kitchen equipment.
- Mention 2 types of equipment that are not in use every day in your home.
- Storage of equipment depends on two basic factors, mention one.
- Mention 2 uses of grills.
- How will you care for your cooking stoves
- Mention five types of large equipments
- Name five examples of mechanical equipment found in the kitchen
- What is small equipment?
- Give 3 examples of each of the following
- Tin wares
- Name utensils or small equipment used on daily basis in the kitchen
- Mention 2 types of wooden utensils or small equipment in the kitchen
- Differentiate between kitchen equipment and kitchen utensil or small equipment
- Which of the following is large kitchen equipment should be placed near each other? (a) cooker and cupboard (b) freezer and refrigerator (c) sink and cabinet (d) cooker and sink
- The following utensils or small equipment are grouped under earthen ware except.(a) drinking glass (b)pie dishes (c) desert spoon (d) pudding basin
- Which of the following is not among the group of mechanical equipment? (a) food mixer (b) mashers (c) boiling pans (d) dish washer
- Which of these cleaning agents is recommended to prevent the blockage of a sink outlet? (a) steel wool (b) iron sponge (c) sink basket (d) nylon sponge
- The most appropriate small pieces of equipment to use, when beating is an egg……………. (a) beater (b) fork (c) nag (d) whisk
- In the absence of an electric mixer the small pieces of equipment used to mix cake ingredient is a…………………. (a) kitchen fork (b) scraper (c) spatula (d) wooden spoon
- The small equipment on which kebabs are pierced is called (a) sticks (b) skewers (c) needles (d) rods
- Which of the following piece of equipment is required for decorating cake? (a) paring knife (b) palette knife (c) kitchen (d) bread knife
Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary schools book1 by F.A. Bakare et al; Evans Brothers Nigeria Limited.